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Encyclopedia > Plame affair
Plame affair / CIA leak investigation
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(edit this box) Patrick Fitzgerald, U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois CIA leak grand jury investigation (rel. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Contempt of court is a court ruling which, in the context of a court trial or hearing, deems an individual as holding contempt for the court, its process, and its invested powers. ... Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... The Intelligence Identities Protection Act of 1982 (PL97-200, 50 U.S. Code Secs. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Nonofficial cover is a term used in espionage (particularly by the CIA) for an agent or operative who assumes a covert role in an organization without ties to the government he or she is working for. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... The White House Iraq Group (aka, White House Information Group or WHIG) was the marketing arm of the Republican Party whose purpose was to sell the 2003 invasion of Iraq to the public. ... The term Yellowcake Forgery refers to falsified classified documents initially uncovered by Italian intelligence which possibly depicted an attempt by Iraqs Saddam Hussein regime to purchase yellowcake uranium from the country of Niger, in defiance of United Nations sanctions. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American politician who was the 79th United States Attorney General. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... A conflict of interest is a situation in which someone in a position of trust, such as a lawyer, a politician, or an executive or director of a corporation, has competing professional or personal interests. ... Brewster Jennings & Associates is a front company set up in the mid-1990s by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as a cover for its agents, including Valerie Plame, a covert employee of the CIA whose employment status was classified and whose classified covert identity was published in a syndicated newspaper... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941), widely known as Dick Cheney, is an American politician and businessman affiliated with the U.S. Republican Party. ... Matthew Cooper is a reporter with TIME magazine, who, along with New York Times reporter Judith Miller was held in contempt of court and threatened with imprisonment for refusing to testify before the Grand Jury regarding the Valerie Plame CIA leak investigation. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960) is an American attorney and the current United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ... Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) was the press secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush from January, 2001 to July, 2003. ... Robert Grenier, a longtime CIA officer who served as the CIAs top counter-terrorism official for about a year, was fired from that position on 6 February 2006 by CIA director Porter Goss. ... Stephen J. Hadley Stephen John Hadley (born February 13, 1947 in Toledo, Ohio) is the current U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (commonly referred as National Security Advisor) for President George W. Bush. ... 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Scott McClellan in the press room of the White House Puffy McMoonface (born February 14, 1968) was the White House Press Secretary (2003-2006) for President George W. Bush. ... Judith Miller Judith P. Miller (born January 2, 1948), is an American journalist. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... Viveca Novak is an American journalist. ... Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (born Valerie Elise Plame 19 April 1963, in Anchorage, Alaska), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former United States CIA officer who worked as a classified covert intelligence agent for over twenty years and the wife of former Ambassador... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... This page is for the diplomat. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ... George Tenet George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University and was previously the Director of Central Intelligence for the United States Central Intelligence Agency. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... This page is for the diplomat. ... Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (born Valerie Elise Plame 19 April 1963, in Anchorage, Alaska), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former United States CIA officer who worked as a classified covert intelligence agent for over twenty years and the wife of former Ambassador... Department of State redirects here. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... Special Counsel refers to at least two distinct individuals within the government of the United States. ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is dedicated to overseeing the United States Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ... This page is about the official residence of the President of the USA. For other White Houses see White House (disambiguation). ...

The Plame affair (also known as the CIA leak scandal or the CIA leak case) is a political controversy in the United States, involving high-level officials of the George W. Bush administration and members of the media, and resulting in a federal grand jury investigation, a criminal trial, and a civil suit. Beginning in mid-June 2003, according to federal court records, Bush administration officials, including Richard Armitage and Scooter Libby, discussed with various reporters the employment of a classified, covert, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officer, Valerie E. Wilson (also known as Valerie Plame).[1][2] The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in order to recover a right, obtain damages for an injury, obtain an injunction to prevent an injury, or obtain a declaratory judgment to prevent future legal disputes. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... I. Lewis Libby I. Lewis Scooter Libby Jr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (born Valerie Elise Plame 19 April 1963, in Anchorage, Alaska), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former United States CIA officer who worked as a classified covert intelligence agent for over twenty years and the wife of former Ambassador...


On July 14, 2003, a newspaper column entitled "Mission to Niger" by Robert Novak disclosed Plame's name and status as an "operative" who worked in a CIA division on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Mrs. Wilson's husband, Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, stated in various interviews and subsequent writings (as listed in his 2004 memoir The Politics of Truth) that his wife's identity was covert and that members of the administration knowingly revealed it as retribution for his op-ed entitled "What I Didn't Find in Africa", published in The New York Times on July 6, 2003.[3] These articles made a few errors in terminology: They called Plame an agent or an operative; in fact, she was a case officer, one of whose tasks is to recruit agents and operatives from the countries she is gathering intelligence on. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... This page is for the diplomat. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 16, 2003 the CIA sent a letter to the US Department of Justice, asserting that Plame's status as a CIA undercover operative was classified information and requesting a federal investigation.[4] Attorney General John Ashcroft referred the matter to the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Special Counsel, directed by Patrick Fitzgerald, who convened a grand jury. The CIA leak grand jury investigation resulted in the indictment and conviction of I. Lewis Libby, Chief of Staff of Vice President Dick Cheney. The indictment was on five counts of obstruction of justice, perjury, and false statements to the grand jury and federal investigators on October 28, 2005; Libby resigned hours after the indictment. The federal trial United States v. Libby began on January 16, 2007. On March 6, 2007, Libby was convicted on four counts of perjury, obstruction of justice, and making false statements, and was acquitted of one count of making false statements.[5][6][7] Libby was sentenced to 30 months in prison, a fine of US$250,000, and two years of supervised release after his prison term.[8][9] After the verdict, Special Counsel Fitzgerald stated that he does not expect anyone else to be charged in the case: "We're all going back to our day jobs."[7] On July 2, 2007, President Bush commuted Libby's sentence, effectively erasing the 30 months he was supposed to spend in jail. The probation and fines still remain. The Wilsons also brought a civil law suit against Libby, Richard Cheney, Karl Rove, and Richard Armitage.[10][11] On July 19, 2007, the civil suit was dismissed in United States District Court for the District of Columbia.[12] On behalf of the Wilsons, Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington filed an appeal of the U.S. District Court's decision the following day.[13] is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American politician who was the 79th United States Attorney General. ... The Office of Special Counsel in the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) replaces the former Office of the Independent Counsel. ... Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960) is an American attorney and the current United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ... Patrick Fitzgerald, U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois CIA leak grand jury investigation (rel. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See main article: Lewis Libby See main article: Plame affair United States of America v. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... The United States District Court for the District of Columbia is the United States District Court that hears cases originating in the District of Columbia under Federal law. ... Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW) is a Washington, DC-based advocacy organization which professes to fight corruption by U.S. government officials. ...

Contents

Background

Further information: CIA leak scandal timeline

Prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, in his January 28, 2003, State of the Union Address, President George W. Bush stated the following controversial "16 words": "The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa."[14] The CIA leak scandal (sometimes known as the Plame affair) (cf. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions, they represent an intermediate step in the processing of uranium ores. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

See main article: September Dossier#Uranium from Niger

In late February 2002, responding to inquiries from the Vice President's office and the Departments of State and Defense about the allegation that Iraq had a sales agreement to buy uranium in the form of yellowcake from Niger, the CIA had authorized a trip by Joseph C. Wilson to Niger to investigate the possibility. The former Prime Minister of Niger Ibrahim Hassane Mayaki reported to Wilson that he was unaware of any contracts for uranium sales to rogue states, though he was approached by a businessman on behalf of an Iraqi delegation about "expanding commercial relations" with Iraq, which Mayaki interpreted to mean uranium sales. Wilson ultimately concluded that there "was nothing to the story," and presented his report in March 2002.[15] Iraqs Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Assessment of the British Government, also known as the September Dossier, was a document published by the United Kingdom Labour government on 24 September 2002 on the same day of a recall of Parliament to discuss the contents of the document. ... Powdered yellowcake in a drum Yellowcakes (also known as urania) are uranium concentrates obtained from leach solutions. ... This page is for the diplomat. ... Ibrahim Hassane Mayaki (b. ...


After the March 2003 invasion of Iraq, Wilson wrote a series of op-eds (opinion-editorials) questioning the war's factual basis (See "Bibliography" in The Politics of Truth). In one of these op-eds published in the New York Times on July 6, 2003, Wilson argues that, in the State of the Union Address, President George W. Bush misrepresented intelligence leading up to the invasion and thus misleadingly suggested that the Iraqi regime sought uranium to manufacture nuclear weapons.[3] This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... An Op-Ed is a piece of writing expressing an opinion. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majid al-Tikrītī (Often spelt Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبدالمجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


The Butler Report, the Iraq Intelligence Commission and the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence at various times concluded that Wilson's claims were incorrect. The Senate report stated that Wilson's report actually bolstered, rather than debunked, intelligence about purported uranium sales to Iraq.[16][15] Wilson later took strong exception to these conclusions in his 2004 memoir The Politics of Truth. The State Department also remained highly skeptical about the Niger claim.[16] On February 3, 2004 the British Government announced an inquiry into the intelligence relating to Iraqs weapons of mass destruction which played a key part in the Governments decision to invade Iraq (as part of the U.S.-led coalition) in 2003. ... The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction was a panel created by Executive Order 13328 signed by U.S. President George W. Bush in February of 2004. ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is dedicated to overseeing the American Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ...


Former CIA Director George Tenet said "[while President Bush] had every reason to believe that the text presented to him was sound," because "[f]rom what we know now, Agency officials in the end concurred that the text in the speech was factually correct — i.e. that the British government report said that Iraq sought uranium from Africa," nevertheless "[t]hese 16 words should never have been included in the text written for the President."[17] With regard to Wilson's findings, Tenet stated: "Because this report, in our view, did not resolve whether Iraq was or was not seeking uranium from abroad, it was given a normal and wide distribution, but we did not brief it to the President, Vice-President or other senior Administration officials." [17] The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... George Tenet George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University and was previously the Director of Central Intelligence for the United States Central Intelligence Agency. ...


Eight days after Wilson's July 6 op-ed in The New York Times, columnist Robert Novak wrote about Wilson's 2002 trip to Niger and subsequent findings and described Wilson's wife as an "agency operative." The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... A columnist is a journalist who produces a specific form of writing for publication called a column. Columns appear in newspapers, magazines and the Internet. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ...


Subsequent press accounts reported that "White House officials wanted to know how much of a role she had in selecting him for the assignment."[18]


Joe Wilson has said: This page is for the diplomat. ...

I felt that... however abominable the decision might be, it was rational that if you were an administration and did not want people talking about the intelligence or talking about what underpinned the decision to go to war, you would discourage them by destroying the credibility of the messenger who brought you the message. And this administration apparently decided the way to do that was to leak the name of my wife.[19]

Stanley M. Moskowitz, CIA Director of Congressional Affairs, in his January 30, 2004 letter to Rep. John Conyers, Jr., who had queried the Director of Central Intelligence in an earlier letter of September 29, 2003, "regarding any contacts the... Agency (CIA) has had with the Department of Justice (DoJ) to request an investigation into the disclosure earlier that year of the identity of an employee operating under cover [Valerie E. Wilson, aka Valerie Plame]," writes that, after an internal inquiry into the matter, the CIA made a referral to the Department of Justice (DOJ) for investigation of "possible violation of criminal law concerning the unauthorized disclosure of classified information."[4] Stanley M. Moskowitz (c. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Conyers, Jr. ... The Office of Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was established on January 23rd 1946 with Adm. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ...


According to a letter of December 16, 2003 from Bruce C. Swartz, then Deputy Assistant Attorney General, to David Addington, then Counsel to Vice President Dick Cheney,[20] the Department of Justice's investigation concerned "the possible unauthorized disclosure of classified information in the July 14, 2003 edition of the Chicago Sun-Times and the July 22, 2003, edition of Newsday."[21][22] In his book, At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA, Tenet writes "About two weeks after Novak's column appeared, CIA lawyers sent to the Justice Department a formal notification that classified information may have been inappropriately leaked to the media. CIA lawyers had to make that kind of notification about once a week on average. I was informed after the fact that a 'crimes report' had been submitted. I supported the action but had nothing to do with the decision".[23] is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Addington (b. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A Special counsel, Patrick Fitzgerald, was appointed to lead the investigation. In a February 6, 2004, letter from the Justice Department to Fitzgerald, the Justice Department clarified to Fitzgerald that he had the authority to "prosecute violations of any federal criminal laws related to the underlying alleged unauthorized disclosure, as well as federal crimes committed in the course of, and with intent to interfere with, your investigation, such as perjury, obstruction of justice."[24] The Office of Special Counsel in the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) replaces the former Office of the Independent Counsel. ... Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960) is an American attorney and the current United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ... Patrick Fitzgerald, U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois CIA leak grand jury investigation (rel. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 30, 2003, President Bush said that if there had been "a leak" from his administration about Plame, "I want to know who it is... and if the person has violated law, the person will be taken care of."[25] Initially, the White House denied that Karl Rove and Lewis "Scooter" Libby were involved in the leak.[26] In various legal filings, however, Fitzgerald alleged that both Rove and Libby had told several reporters about Plame's employment at the CIA. Libby was indicted on charges of obstruction of justice, perjury, and making false statements to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and grand jury.[27] On June 13, 2006, Rove's lawyer, Robert Luskin, released a statement saying that Fitzgerald had informed him Rove would not be charged with any wrong-doing.[28][29] On July 13, 2006, Joseph and Valerie Wilson filed a civil suit against Vice President Dick Cheney, his former Chief of Staff I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby, top Presidential advisor Karl Rove and other unnamed senior White House officials, for their alleged roles in the public disclosure of her classified CIA employment.[30] is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... In the American common law legal system, a grand jury is a type of jury which determines if there is enough evidence for a trial. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Luskin Robert D. Luskin (born January 21, 1950) is an attorney and partner in the law firm of Patton Boggs LLP, specializing in White-collar crime and federal and state government investigations. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A lawsuit is a civil action brought before a court in order to recover a right, obtain damages for an injury, obtain an injunction to prevent an injury, or obtain a declaratory judgment to prevent future legal disputes. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ...


The civil suit was dismissed on July 19, 2007. In dimissing the suit, United States District Judge John D. Bates wrote

"The merits of plaintiffs' claims pose important questions relating to the propriety of actions undertaken by our highest government officials. Defendants' motions, however, raise issues that the Court is obliged to address before it can consider the merits of plaintiffs' claims. As it turns out, the Court will not reach, and therefore expresses no views on, the merits of the constitutional and other tort claims asserted by plaintiffs based on defendants' alleged disclosures because the motions to dismiss will be granted...The alleged means by which defendants chose to rebut Mr. Wilson's comments and attack his credibility may have been highly unsavory. But there can be no serious dispute that the act of rebutting public criticism, such as that levied by Mr. Wilson against the Bush Administration's handling of prewar foreign intelligence, by speaking with members of the press is within the scope of defendants' duties as high-level Executive Branch officials. Thus, the alleged tortious conduct, namely the disclosure of Mrs. Wilson's status as a covert operative, was incidental to the kind of conduct that defendants were employed to perform."[31]

Wilson said that his African diplomatic experience led to his selection for the mission to Niger. Ambassador Wilson, a retired diplomat and fluent in French, had served as a U.S. State Department general services officer in Niger, as an ambassador to Gabon and São Tomé and Príncipe, as Deputy Chief of Mission (DCM) in both Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo, and Iraq (taking over as Chief of Mission during the 1990–91 Gulf War), in other diplomatic postings, and in subsequent national security and military advisory roles concerning U.S.-African affairs under Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton. This page is for the diplomat. ... Department of State redirects here. ... This article is about the city named Brazzaville. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...

Further information: Joseph C. Wilson#Diplomatic_career

After being consulted by her superiors at the CIA about whom to send on the mission, Valerie E. Wilson, according to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, suggested Ambassador Wilson, her husband, whom she had married in 1998.[15] This page is for the diplomat. ... Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (born Valerie Elise Plame 19 April 1963, in Anchorage, Alaska), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former United States CIA officer who worked as a classified covert intelligence agent for over twenty years and the wife of former Ambassador... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is dedicated to overseeing the American Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ...


In the book Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War by Michael Isikoff and David Corn, as Corn observes (before its release on September 8, 2006), they consider the issue of "whether Valerie Wilson had sent her husband to Niger to check out an intelligence report that Iraq had sought uranium there," presenting "new information undermining the charge that she arranged this trip. In an interview with the authors, Douglas Rohn, a State Department officer who wrote a crucial memo related to the trip, acknowledges he may have inadvertently created a misimpression that her involvement was more significant than it had been."[32] In the first week of Libby's trial, a CIA witness testified that Plame conceived the idea for the trip in response to questions from the Vice President's office and the State and Defense Departments regarding alleged attempts by Iraq to acquire uranium from Niger.[33] In his testimony to the grand jury, Libby testified that both he and Vice President Cheney believed that Joseph Wilson was qualified for the mission, though wondered if he would have been selected had his wife not worked at the CIA.[34][35] On March 16, 2007, Valerie Plame addressed this question in sworn testimony to Congress: "I did not recommend him. I did not suggest him. There was no nepotism involved. I did not have the authority.... It's been borne out in the testimony during the Libby trial, and I can tell you that it just doesn't square with the facts."[36][37][38] In his book, Tenet writes "Mid-level officials in CPD decided on their own initiative to [ask Joe Wilson to look into the Niger issue because] he'd helped them on a project once before, and he'd be easy to contact because his wife worked in CPD."[39] In response to Plame's testimony, Republican Senators Kit Bond, Orinn Hatch, Richard Burr submitted additional views to the Senate report that stated "Mrs. Wilson told the CIA Inspector General that she suggested her husband for the trip, she told our committee staff that she could not remember whether she did or her boss did, and told the House Committee, emphatically, that she did not suggest him."[40] Also in the additional views is the full text of an e-mail message sent by Plame on Feb. 12, 2002 to the Directorate of Operations at CPD, in which she writes that Joe Wilson "may be in a position to assist" the CIA's inquiries into the Niger reports.[41] In a review of Plame's memoir, Fair Game: My Life as a Spy, My Betrayal by the White House, Alan Cooperman writes for the Washington Post that "by her own account, Valerie Wilson neither came up with the idea [of sending Joe Wilson to Niger] nor approved it. But she did participate in the process and flogged her husband's credentials." Plame writes in her book that Joe Wilson was "too upset to listen" to her explanations after learning years later about the February 12, 2002 email she had sent to outlining his credentials.[42] Michael Isikoff (born 1952) is an investigative journalist for the United States-based magazine Newsweek. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Christopher Samuel Kit Bond (born March 6, 1939 in St. ... Richard Mauze Burr (born November 30, 1955) is a United States Senator from Winston-Salem, North Carolina. ...


After his identification by Corn and Isikoff in advance word of their book, Richard Armitage, a former deputy secretary of state, acknowledged that he was the initial and primary source for Novak's column of July 14, 2003, that disclosed the identity of Wilson's wife Valerie Plame as a CIA "operative".[18] Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (born Valerie Elise Plame 19 April 1963, in Anchorage, Alaska), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former United States CIA officer who worked as a classified covert intelligence agent for over twenty years and the wife of former Ambassador... “CIA” redirects here. ...


On March 6, 2007, Libby was found guilty on four of the five counts against him. At a press conference after the verdict was read, Fitzgerald told the press "I do not expect to file any further charges. Basically, the investigation was inactive prior to the trial.... I would not expect to see any further charges filed, we are all going back to our day jobs. If new information comes to light, if new information comes to us that would warrant us taking some action, we look forward to doing that. But I would not create the expectation that any of us will be doing further investigation at this point, we see the investigation as inactive."[43] is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Robert Novak's column "Mission to Niger"

In his column of July 14, 2003, entitled "Mission to Niger," Robert Novak states that the choice to use Wilson "was made routinely at a low level without [CIA] Director George Tenet's knowledge." Novak goes on to identify Plame as Wilson's wife: is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... George Tenet George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University and was previously the Director of Central Intelligence for the United States Central Intelligence Agency. ...

Wilson never worked for the CIA, but his wife, Valerie Plame, is an agency operative on weapons of mass destruction. Two senior administration officials told me that Wilson's wife suggested sending him to Niger to investigate the Italian report. The CIA says its counterproliferation officials selected Wilson and asked his wife to contact him. "I will not answer any question about my wife," Wilson told me.[21]

Response to Novak's column "Mission to Niger"

The suggestion that naming Plame as an agent is a serious crime first appeared in an article by David Corn published by The Nation on July 16, 2003, two days after Novak's column.[44] Corn quotes Joe Wilson: David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

'Naming her this way would have compromised every operation, every relationship, every network with which she had been associated in her entire career. This is the stuff of Kim Philby and Aldrich Ames.' Kim Philby Harold Adrian Russell Kim Philby or H.A.R. Philby (OBE: 1946-1965), (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence, a communist, and spy for the Soviet Unions NKVD and KGB. In 1963, Philby was revealed as a member of... Aldrich Ames Aldrich Hazen Ames (born May 26, 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency counterintelligence officer and analyst, who, in 1994, was convicted of spying for the Soviet Union. ...

In October 2007, Corn wrote the following regarding his column "A White House Smear":

"That piece was the first to identify the leak as a possible White House crime and the first to characterize the leak as evidence that within the Bush administration political expedience trumped national security.
"The column drew about 100,000 visitors to this website in a day or so. And--fairly or not--it's been cited by some as the event that triggered the Plame hullabaloo. I doubt that the column prompted the investigation eventually conducted by special counsel Patrick Fitzgerald, for I assume that had my column not appeared the CIA still would have asked the Justice Department to investigate the leak as a possible crime."[45]

Robert Novak's column "The CIA Leak"

In "The CIA Leak," published on October 1, 2003, Novak describes how he had obtained the information for his July 14, 2003, column "Mission to Niger": is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

During a long conversation with a senior administration official, I asked why Wilson was assigned the mission to Niger. He said Wilson had been sent by the CIA's counter-proliferation section at the suggestion of one of its employees, his wife. It was an offhand revelation from this official, who is no partisan gunslinger. When I called another official for confirmation, he said: "Oh, you know about it." The published report that somebody in the White House failed to plant this story with six reporters and finally found me as a willing pawn is simply untrue.

At the CIA, the official designated to talk to me denied that Wilson's wife had inspired his selection but said she was delegated to request his help. He asked me not to use her name, saying she probably never again will be given a foreign assignment but that exposure of her name might cause "difficulties" if she travels abroad. He never suggested to me that Wilson's wife or anybody else would be endangered. If he had, I would not have used her name. I used it in the sixth paragraph of my column because it looked like the missing explanation of an otherwise incredible choice by the CIA for its mission.[46]

Novak defends his column "Mission to Niger"

In his column of October 1, 2003, 'The CIA Leak," Novak states that he included the paragraph about Wilson's wife "because it looked like the missing explanation of an otherwise incredible choice by the CIA for its mission." He writes: is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

I was curious why a high-ranking official in President Bill Clinton's National Security Council (NSC) was given this assignment. Wilson had become a vocal opponent of President Bush's policies in Iraq after contributing to Al Gore in the last election cycle and John Kerry in this one... During a long conversation with a senior administration official, I asked why Wilson was assigned the mission to Niger. He said Wilson had been sent by the CIA's counter-proliferation section at the suggestion of one of its employees, his wife.[47][46]

In that column Novak also claims to have learned Mrs. Wilson's maiden name "Valerie Plame" from Joe Wilson's entry in Who's Who In America,[48] though it was her CIA status rather than her maiden name which was a secret. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Marquis Whos Who is a US publisher of a number of books containing short biographical sketches of celebrated persons. ...


A day after the publication of the October 1 column, Novak announced on his TV program Crossfire on CNN that although "Ms. Valerie E. Wilson" had donated $1,000 to the Gore campaign in 1999, according to the website Newsmeat, listing Brewster Jennings & Associates as her employer, he was "convinced" that "[t]here is no such firm."[49][50] Novak argued further that "CIA people are not supposed to list themselves with fictitious firms if they're under a deep cover — they're supposed to be real firms, or so I'm told. Sort of adds to the little mystery."[49] Novak wrote in his column "It was well known around Washington that Wilson's wife worked for the CIA,"[47] though this assertion has been disputed. December 6, 2004 edition of Crossfire. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Brewster Jennings & Associates is a front company set up in the mid-1990s by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as a cover for its agents, including Valerie Plame, a covert employee of the CIA whose employment status was classified and whose classified covert identity was published in a syndicated newspaper...


According to Murray S. Waas in the American Prospect of February 12, 2004, the CIA source warned Novak several times against the publication: two "administration officials" spoke to the FBI and challenged Novak's account about not receiving warnings not to publish Plame's name; according to one of the officials, "At best, he is parsing words ... At worst, he is lying to his readers and the public. Journalists should not lie, I would think."[51][52] Novak's critics argue that after decades as a Washington reporter, Novak was well aware of Plame's CIA status due to the wording he used in his column. A search of the LexisNexis database for the terms "CIA operative" and "agency operative" showed Novak had accurately used the terms to describe covert CIA employees, every time they appear in his articles.[53] Murray S. Waas is an American freelance investigative reporter who has been noted for his coverage of the White House planning for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The American Prospect is a monthly magazine which focuses on US politics and public policy. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... Nexis redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


On March 17, 2007, Plame testified before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. She was asked how she learned of Novak's reference to her in his column. Plame told the committee "I found out very early in the morning when my husband came in and dropped the newspaper on the bed and said, 'He did it'.... We had indications in the week prior that Mr. Novak knew my identity and my true employer. And I of course alerted my superiors at the agency, and I was told, don't worry; we'll take care of it. And it was much to our surprise that we read about this July 14th.... I believe, and this is what I've read, that the then-spokesman, Mr. Harlow, spoke directly with Mr. Novak and said something along the lines of, don't go with this; don't do this. I don't know exactly what he said, but he clearly communicated the message that Mr. Novak should not publish my name."[36] is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Novak has written that "the CIA never warned me that the disclosure of Wilson's wife working at the agency would endanger her or anybody else."[46] According to the Washington Post, Harlow conveyed in an interview that "he warned Novak, in the strongest terms he was permitted to use without revealing classified information, that Wilson's wife had not authorized the mission and that if he did write about it, her name should not be revealed."[52] Novak published a column refuting Harlow's claim.[54] In his book, George Tenet wrote "Bill [Harlow] struggled to convince Novak that he had been misinformed [about Wilson's wife being responsible for sending her husband to Niger]-and that it would be unwise to report Mrs. Wilson's name. He couldn't tell Novak that Valerie Wilson was undercover. Saying so over an open phone line itself would have been a security breach. Bill danced around the subject and asked Novak not to include her in the story. Several years and many court dates later, we know that the message apparently didn't get through, but Novak never told Bill that he was going to ignore his advice to leave Valerie's name out of his article."[23] In response, although Phelps stands by the report, Novak has argued that he was "badly misquoted."[55] In September 2003, on CNN's Crossfire, Novak asserted: "Nobody in the Bush administration called me to leak this. There is no great crime here," adding that while he learned from two administration officials that Plame was a CIA employee, "They asked me not to use her name, but never indicated it would endanger her or anybody else. According to a confidential source at the CIA, Mrs. Wilson was an analyst, not a spy, not a covert operative and not in charge of undercover operators."[56] In July 2005, it was revealed that Rove was Novak's second Bush administration source. Novak told Rove about Plame, using her maiden name, and Rove responded by saying "I heard that, too", or "Oh, you know about it."[57] Through his personal attorney, Robert Luskin, Rove has stated that other media sources told him about Plame, although he's not sure which journalist first told him. The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... December 6, 2004 edition of Crossfire. ... Robert Luskin Robert D. Luskin (born January 21, 1950) is an attorney and partner in the law firm of Patton Boggs LLP, specializing in White-collar crime and federal and state government investigations. ...


Novak's "primary source": Richard Armitage

After the indictment of Lewis Libby and the expiration of the term of the initial Grand Jury, Michael Isikoff revealed portions of his new book entitled Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War, co-authored with David Corn, in the August 28, 2006, issue of Newsweek. Isikoff reports that then Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage had a central role in the Plame affair.[58] I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... Michael Isikoff (born 1952) is an investigative journalist for the United States-based magazine Newsweek. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... The Deputy Secretary of State of the United States is the chief assistant to the Secretary of State who is responsible for foreign affairs. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ...


In their book Hubris Isikoff and Corn reveal — as both Armitage and syndicated columnist Robert Novak acknowledged publicly later — that Armitage was Novak's "initial" and "primary source" for Novak's July 2003 column that revealed Plame's identity as a CIA operative and that after Novak revealed his "primary source" (Novak's phrase) was a "senior administration official" who was "not a partisan gunslinger," Armitage phoned Colin Powell that morning and was "in deep distress." Reportedly, Armitage told Powell: "I'm sure [Novak is] talking about me." In his Newsweek article, Isikoff states: The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...

The next day, a team of FBI agents and Justice prosecutors investigating the leak questioned the deputy secretary. Armitage acknowledged that he had passed along to Novak information contained in a classified State Department memo: that Wilson's wife worked on weapons-of-mass-destruction issues at the CIA... [William Howard Taft IV, the State Department's legal adviser] felt obligated to inform White House counsel Alberto Gonzales. But Powell and his aides feared the White House would then leak that Armitage had been Novak's source — possibly to embarrass State Department officials who had been unenthusiastic about Bush's Iraq policy. So Taft told Gonzales the bare minimum: that the State Department had passed some information about the case to Justice. He didn't mention Armitage. Taft asked if Gonzales wanted to know the details. The president's lawyer, playing the case by the book, said no, and Taft told him nothing more. Armitage's role thus remained that rarest of Washington phenomena: a hot secret that never leaked.[58]

According to Isikoff, as based on his sources, Armitage told Bob Woodward Plame's identity three weeks before talking to Novak, and Armitage himself was aggressively investigated by special counsel Patrick Fitzgerald, but was never charged because Fitzgerald found no evidence that Armitage knew of Plame's covert CIA status when he talked to Novak and Woodward.[58] Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ...


In an August 27, 2006, appearance on Meet the Press, Novak is asked if indeed Armitage was his source of Mrs. Wilson's identity as a CIA operative. Novak responds: "I told Mr. Isikoff... that I do not identify my sources on any subject if they’re on a confidential basis until they identify themselves... I’m going to say one thing, though, I haven’t said before. And that is that I believe that the time has way passed for my source to identify himself."[59] is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Meet the Press (MTP) is a weekly television news show produced by NBC. It started as a radio show in 1945 as American Mercury Presents: Meet the Press, originating from WRC-AM in Washington. ...


On August 30, 2006, the New York Times reports that the lawyer and other associates of Mr. Armitage confirmed he was Novak's "initial and primary source" for Plame's identity.[18] The New York Times also reports "Mr. Armitage cooperated voluntarily in the case, never hired a lawyer and testified several times to the grand jury, according to people who are familiar with his role and actions in the case. He turned over his calendars, datebooks and even his wife’s computer in the course of the inquiry, those associates said. But Mr. Armitage kept his actions secret, not even telling President Bush because the prosecutor asked him not to divulge it, the people said... Mr. Armitage had prepared a resignation letter, his associates said. But he stayed on the job because State Department officials advised that his sudden departure could lead to the disclosure of his role in the leak, the people aware of his actions said.... He resigned in November 2004, but remained a subject of the inquiry until [February 2006] when the prosecutor advised him in a letter that he would not be charged."[60] is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


In an interview with CBS News first broadcast on September 7, 2006, Armitage admits that he was Novak's "initial" and "primary source" (Novak's words). In the interview he describes his conversation with Novak: CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

At the end of a wide-ranging interview he asked me, "Why did the CIA send Ambassador (Wilson) to Africa?" I said I didn't know, but that she worked out at the agency, adding it was "just an offhand question.... I didn't put any big import on it and I just answered and it was the last question we had."

After acknowledging that he was indeed Robert Novak's initial and primary source for the column outing Plame, Richard Armitage refers to what has been termed "a classified State Department memorandum" which purportedly refers to Valerie Wilson.

Further information: Alternate theories regarding the CIA leak scandal#Speculating_about_the_"Air_Force_One_ Memorandum"

While the document is "classified," Armitage states, "it doesn't mean that every sentence in the document is classified.... I had never seen a covered agent's name in any memo in, I think, 28 years of government.... I didn't know the woman's name was Plame. I didn't know she was an operative.... I didn't try to out anybody."[61] In a phone interview with The Washington Post, Armitage reiterates his claim, stating that in 40 years of reading classified materials "I have never seen in a memo... a covert agent's name."[62] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...


According to The Washington Post, Armitage attributes his not being charged in the investigation to his candor in speaking with investigators about his action; he says that he turned over his computers and never hired an attorney: "'I did not need an attorney to tell me to tell the truth.'"[62]</ref> The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...


Novak disputes Armitage's claim that the disclosure was "inadvertent." In a column titled The real story behind the Armitage story, Novak states: "First, Armitage did not, as he now indicates, merely pass on something he had heard and that he 'thought' might be so. Rather, he identified to me the CIA division where Mrs. Wilson worked, and said flatly that she recommended the mission to Niger by her husband, former Ambassador Joseph Wilson. Second, Armitage did not slip me this information as idle chitchat, as he now suggests. He made clear he considered it especially suited for my column... he noted that the story of Mrs. Wilson's role fit the style of the old Evans-Novak column — implying to me it continued reporting Washington inside information." Novak also disputes Armitage's claim that he learned he was Novak's "primary source" (Novak's phrase) only after reading Novak's October 1 column: "I believed [Washington lobbyist Kenneth Duberstein, Armitage's close friend and political adviser] contacted me Oct. 1 because of news the weekend of Sept. 27–28 that the Justice Department was investigating the leak."[63]


In a review of Corn's and Isikoff's book, Hubris, Novak writes: "I don't know precisely how Isikoff flushed out Armitage [as Novak's "primary source"], but Hubris clearly points to two sources: Washington lobbyist Kenneth Duberstein, Armitage's political adviser, and William Taft IV, who was the State Department legal adviser when Armitage was deputy secretary."[64] Kenneth M. Duberstein (born April 21, 1944) served as U.S. President Ronald Reagans White House Chief of Staff from 1988 to 1989. ... William Howard Taft IV William Howard Taft IV (born on September 13, 1945 in Washington, D.C.) is the son of William Howard Taft III and the great-grandson of U.S. President William Howard Taft (see also Taft family). ...


Armitage also acknowledges that he was Woodward's source. At the end of a lengthy interview conducted in the first week of September 2006, he describes his June 2003 conversation with Woodward as an afterthought: "He said, 'Hey, what's the deal with Wilson?' and I said, 'I think his wife works out there.'"[65]


On February 12, 2007, Novak testified in Libby's trial. As Michael J. Sniffen of the Associated Press reports: is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...

Novak described trying to get an interview with Armitage in 2001 and being told the deputy secretary was "not too busy. He just didn't want to talk to me." Novak said he was rebuffed again after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Then in the last week of June 2003, Armitage's office called to set up an interview. "I had not pressed my request for one in two years," Novak said. Once he asked about the Wilson trip, Armitage said "it was suggested by his wife, Valerie, who is employed in the counterproliferation division at CIA," Novak testified."[66] is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

In his memoir, titled "The Prince of Darkness: 50 Years of Reporting In Washington," Novak writes that after Armitage revealed to him that Joe Wilson's wife worked at the CIA, "Armitage smiled and said: 'That's real Evans and Novak, isn't it?.' I believe he meant that was the kind of inside information that my late partner, Rowland Evans, and I had featured in our column for so long. I interpreted that as meaning Armitage expected to see the item published in my column."[67] Rowland Evans (?? - 2001) is an American journalist. ...


Justice Department investigation pertaining to Novak's column

The matter of the leak of Valerie Wilson's classified CIA covert identity as Valerie Plame was investigated by the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Special Counsel. Patrick Fitzgerald, U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois CIA leak grand jury investigation (rel. ... The Office of Special Counsel in the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) replaces the former Office of the Independent Counsel. ...


The redactions in a March 1, 2006, affidavit by Special Counsel Patrick Fitzgerald suggest that he was aware then of the identity of Novak's original source. According to the affidavit, Redaction generally refers to the editing of text to turn it into a form suitable for publication, or to the result of such an effort. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960) is an American attorney and the current United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ...

Mr. Novak has published a brief description of how he learned the information, albeit declining to name his sources (REDACTED). Mr. Libby indisputably knows at least one of Mr. Novak’s sources:(REDACTED). Mr. Libby testified in the grand jury that Rove told Libby that Novak was publishing a column about Wilson’s wife before it was ever published.... The one significant piece of information that Libby is not being told is the identity of (REDACTED) as a source for (REDACTED). Moreover, Libby has been given a redacted transcript of the conversation between Woodward and (REDACTED) and Novak has published an account briefly describing the conversation with his first confidential source (REDACTED).[68]

In May 2006, it was reported that on September 29, 2003, the same day on which Novak made a statement on the Crossfire television program about the investigation, and three days after it became known that the CIA had asked the Justice Department to launch an investigation, Novak and Rove had a telephone converstation in which Novak told Rove he would protect him from being harmed by the investigation. According to the National Journal, "Rove testified to the grand jury that during his telephone call with Novak, the columnist said words to the effect: 'You are not going to get burned' and 'I don't give up my sources.'" When "asked during his grand jury appearance his reaction to the telephone call," the National Journal continues, "Rove characterized it as a 'curious conversation' and didn't know what to make of it."[69] is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 6, 2004 edition of Crossfire. ... National Journal is a weekly magazine that provides Insight for Insiders through nonpartisan reporting on the current political environment as well as emerging political and policy trends. ... National Journal is a weekly magazine that provides Insight for Insiders through nonpartisan reporting on the current political environment as well as emerging political and policy trends. ...


On July 11, 2006, Robert Novak posted a column entitled "My Role in the Valerie Plame Leak Story": is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Special Prosecutor Patrick Fitzgerald has informed my attorneys that, after two and one-half years, his investigation of the CIA leak case concerning matters directly relating to me has been concluded. That frees me to reveal my role in the federal inquiry that, at the request of Fitzgerald, I have kept secret.

Novak dispells rumors that he asserted his Fifth Amendment right and made a plea bargain, stating:

I have cooperated in the investigation.

Novak continues:

For nearly the entire time of his investigation, Fitzgerald knew — independent of me — the identity of the sources I used in my column of July 14, 2003. That Fitzgerald did not indict any of these sources may indicate his conclusion that none of them violated the Intelligence Identities Protection Act.... In my sworn testimony, I said what I have contended in my columns and on television: Joe Wilson's wife's role in instituting her husband's mission was revealed to me in the middle of a long interview with an official who I have previously said was not a political gunslinger. After the federal investigation was announced, he told me through a third party that the disclosure was inadvertent on his part. Following my interview with the primary source, I sought out the second administration official and the CIA spokesman for confirmation. I learned Valerie Plame's name from Joe Wilson's entry in "Who's Who in America." (Italics added.) is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Novak says that he did not reveal his "primary source" in the column because

My primary source has not come forward to identify himself.

Novak also states that Rove's and Bill Harlow's recollections of their conversations with Novak about Plame differed from his. Harlow is the person whom Novak refers to as his "CIA source" for his column "Mission to Niger".[70]

Bush administration officials subpoenaed to testify in Fitzgerald's Grand Jury Investigation

I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby

See main article: United States v. Libby

On October 28, 2005, Special Counsel Patrick Fitzgerald issued a five-count indictment of "Scooter" Libby, Vice President Cheney's former Chief of Staff, leading Libby to resign his post hours later, to his trial United States v. Libby, and to his conviction in that trial on four counts of perjury and obstruction of justice for lying during the leak investigation on March 6, 2007,.[5] It is the only indictment brought by the grand jury, and Fitzgerald has stated that he does not expect to be indicting anyone else, citing repeatedly Libby's obstruction of justice as a main impediment to finding out what happened in investigating the leak of Valerie Wilson's classified, covert CIA identity. See main article: Lewis Libby See main article: Plame affair United States of America v. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960) is an American attorney and the current United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ... In the common law legal system, an indictment (IPA: ) is a formal accusation of having committed a criminal offense. ... I. Lewis Scooter Libby Irve Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... See main article: Lewis Libby See main article: Plame affair United States of America v. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The Grand Jury Investigation indictment of Libby states:

Beginning in or about January 2004, and continuing until the date of this indictment, Grand Jury 03-3 sitting in the District of Columbia conducted an investigation ("the Grand Jury Investigation") into possible violations of federal criminal laws, including: Title 50, United States Code, Section 421 (disclosure of the identity of covert intelligence personnel); and Title 18, United States Code, Sections 793 (improper disclosure of national defense information), 1001 (false statements), 1503 (obstruction of justice), and 1623 (perjury).

A major focus of the Grand Jury Investigation was to determine which government officials had disclosed to the media prior to July 14, 2003, information concerning the affiliation of Valerie Wilson with the CIA, and the nature, timing, extent, and purpose of such disclosures, as well as whether any official making such a disclosure did so knowing that the employment of Valerie Wilson by the CIA was classified information.[27] is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

According to Special Counsel Patrick Fitzgerald, Libby first learned of Valerie Wilson's employment at the CIA in early June 2003 from Vice President Dick Cheney and proceeded to discuss her with six other government officials in the following days and months before disclosing her name to reporters Judith Miller and Matthew Cooper in early July 2003. Fitzgerald asserts that Vice President Cheney told Libby about Mrs. Wilson's CIA employment as the two crafted a response to an inquiry about Wilson's trip from reporter Walter Pincus. While her name was not disclosed to Pincus, Fitzgerald asserts that Pincus's inquiry "further motivated [Libby] to counter Mr. Wilson’s assertions, making it more likely that [Libby's] disclosures to the press concerning Mr. Wilson's wife were not casual disclosures that he had forgotten by the time he was asked about them by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and before the grand jury."[71] Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960) is an American attorney and the current United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ... Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (born Valerie Elise Plame 19 April 1963, in Anchorage, Alaska), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former United States CIA officer who worked as a classified covert intelligence agent for over twenty years and the wife of former Ambassador... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Judith Miller Judith P. Miller (born January 2, 1948), is an American journalist. ... Matthew Cooper is a reporter with TIME magazine, who, along with New York Times reporter Judith Miller was held in contempt of court and threatened with imprisonment for refusing to testify before the Grand Jury regarding the Valerie Plame CIA leak investigation. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...


Libby does not dispute that he initially heard about Mrs. Wilson from Cheney, but he claims that he had no recollection of that fact when he told the FBI in October 2003 and the grand jury in March 2004 that he remembered first learning about Mrs. Wilson in a conversation with NBC’s Tim Russert on July 10, 2003. Libby told the grand jury that only after he was shown his calendar and notes by investigators did he remember that he actually learned the information about Mrs. Wilson from Cheney in June 2003. During Libby's trial, Libby's lawyers argued that Libby’s testimony to the grand jury and his interviews with the Federal Bureau of Investigation may have contained inaccuracies but that they were the result of innocent memory lapses explained by his pressing schedule of national security issues. Libby's defense lawyers also challenged the memory and recollections of each prosecution witness. Timothy John Russert, Jr. ...


According to press accounts Cheney told investigators that he had learned of Mrs. Wilson's employment by the CIA and her potential role in her husband being sent to Niger by then-CIA director George Tenet, though it's unclear whether Cheney was made aware of her classified status. Tenet has told investigators that he had no specific recollection of discussing Plame or her role in her husband's trip with Cheney. Tenet did recall, however, that he made inquiries regarding the veracity of the Niger intelligence information as a result of inquires from both Cheney and Libby. According to press accounts, Libby told investigators that on July 12, 2003, while aboard Air Force Two, he and Cheney may have discussed leaking information about Plame to reporters. Libby told investigators he believed at the time that the information about Plame had come from Russert. After arriving back in Washington, according to Cooper's and Miller's testimony at Libby's trial, Libby spoke to both of them by telephone and confirmed to them that Plame worked for the CIA and may have played a role in sending her husband to Niger. FBI agent Deborah Bond testified at Libby's trial that during Libby's second FBI interview in his office on November 23, 2003, Libby was asked about the July 12 flight. Bond testified Libby told the FBI "there was a discussion whether to report to the press that Wilson's wife worked for the CIA." She added that Mr. Libby expressed some doubt, however, adding "Mr. Libby told us he believed they may have talked about it, but he wasn't sure." She testified that Libby did say he had discussed Wilson's wife with Cheney sometime after allegedly discussing her with Russert. Libby reportedly told investigators that neither the president nor the vice president specifically directed him or other administration officials to disclose Plame's CIA employment to the press.[72][73][74][75][76] The Boeing C-32, a variant of the 757, is the usual transportation for the Vice President of the United States. ...


According to court documents, by December 2004 Fitzgerald lacked evidence to prove Libby had violated the Intelligence Identities Protection Act and was pursuing charges related to "perjury, false statements and the improper disclosure of national defense information."[77]


During Libby's trial, the prosecution focused the jury on a sequence of events occurring between May and July 2003. According to prosecutors, given the level of interest coming from the Vice President's office regarding Joe Wilson, it was impossible for Libby to have forgotten during his FBI interviews and grand jury testimony that he already knew that Wilson's wife worked for the CIA.[78][79][80][81][82][83][84]


On March 6, 2007, Libby was found guilty on four of the five counts against him.[5] After the verdict was read to the court, Denis Collins, a member of the jury and a journalist who has written for The Washington Post and other newspapers, spoke to the press. According to Collins, some in the jury felt sympathy for Libby and believed he was only the "fall guy." Collins said that "a number of times" the jurors asked themselves, "what is [Libby] doing here? Where is Rove and all these other guys. I’m not saying we didn’t think Mr. Libby was guilty of the things we found him guilty of. It seemed like he was, as Mr. Wells [Ted Wells, Libby’s attorney] put it, he was the fall guy." is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Denis Collins, an American journalist who has written for the Washington Post, the San Jose Mercury News, and the Miami Herald, served as juror #9 in the trial of I. Lewis Scooter Libby, Jr. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...


According to Collins, "What we’re in court deciding seems to be a level or two down from what, before we went into the jury, we supposed the trial was about, or had been initially about, which was who leaked [Plame’s identity]. Some jurors commented at some point: ‘I wish we weren’t judging Libby. You know, this sucks. We don’t like being here.’ But that wasn’t our choice." Collins described how after 10 days of deliberations, "What we came up with from that was that Libby was told about Mrs. Wilson nine times...We believed he did have a bad memory, but it seemed very unlikely he would not remember about being told about Mrs. Wilson so many times....Hard to believe he would remember on Tuesday and forget on Thursday."[85][86] Collins told the press "Well, as I said before, I felt like it was a long, you know, haul to get this jury done. And if Mr. Libby is pardoned, I would have no problem with that."[87]


Another member of the jury, Ann Redington, who broke down and cried as the verdict was being read, also told Chris Matthews, in a March 7, 2007, appearance on Hardball, that she hoped Libby would eventually be pardoned by President Bush; she told Matthews that she believed Libby "got caught in a difficult situation where he got caught in the initial lie, and it just snowballed" and added: "It kind of bothers me that there was this whole big crime being investigated and he got caught up in the investigation as opposed to in the actual crime that was supposedly committed."[88][87] Hardball with Chris Matthews is a talk show on MSNBC broadcast weekdays at 5 and 7 PM hosted by Chris Matthews. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ...


On May 25, 2007, in a court filing, Fitzgerald asked Judge Reggie B. Walton to sentence Libby to 30 to 37 months in jail, because Libby had "expressed no remorse, no acceptance of responsibility and no recognition that there is anything he should have done differently." Fitzgerald stated "Mr. Libby was a high-ranking government official whose falsehoods were central to issues in a significant criminal investigation, it is important that this court impose a sentence that accurately reflects the value the judicial system places on truth-telling in criminal investigations."[89] The defense sought leniency based on Libby's record of public service.[90] is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Judge Reggie B. Walton U.S. District Judge for the District of Columbia Reggie B. Walton, JD (born Donora, Pennsylvania, February 8, 1949), is a United States District Judge for the District of Columbia. ...


The Probation Office's recommended sentence to Judge Walton was cited in court documents to be no more than 15 to 21 months of incarceration. According to court documents, the Probation Office opined that the more serious sentencing standards should not apply to Libby since "the criminal offense would have to be established by a preponderance of the evidence,...[and] the defendant was neither charged nor convicted of any crime involving the leaking of Ms. Plame’s ‘covert’ status."[91][92]


On June 5, 2007, Libby was sentenced to 30 months in prison, a fine of US$250,000, and two years of probation (supervised release) after the expiration of his prison term.[93][8][9] According to The Washington Post, Judge Walton expressed his belief that the trial did not prove Libby knew that Plame worked in an undercover capacity when he disclosed her identity to several reporters. He added, however, that "anybody at that high-level position had a unique and special obligation before they said anything about anything associated with a national security agency [to] . . . make every conceivable effort" to verify their status before releasing information about them. Walton stated "While there is no evidence that Mr. Libby knew what the situation was, he surely did not take any efforts to find out,...I think public officials need to know if they are going to step over the line, there are going to be consequences. . . . [What Libby did] causes people to think our government does not work for them."[94] The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...

See main article: United States v. Libby#Sentencing of Libby

On July 2, 2007, President Bush commuted the sentence. No pardon was given, and the fine and probation, as well as the felony conviction remain. The statement said: "Mr. Libby was sentenced to thirty months of prison, two years of probation, and a $250,000 fine. In making the sentencing decision, the district court rejected the advice of the probation office, which recommended a lesser sentence and the consideration of factors that could have led to a sentence of home confinement or probation. I respect the jury’s verdict. But I have concluded that the prison sentence given to Mr. Libby is excessive. Therefore, I am commuting the portion of Mr. Libby’s sentence that required him to spend thirty months in prison. My decision to commute his prison sentence leaves in place a harsh punishment for Mr. Libby."[95] See main article: Lewis Libby See main article: Plame affair United States of America v. ...

See main article: Lewis Libby clemency controversy

On July 5, 2007, it was reported that Libby had sent a cashier’s check dated July 2 in the amount of $250,400 to the court clerk of the District of Columbia. NBC News reported that Libby paid the fine through his personal funds and not through a defense fund set up in his name.[96][97] The Lewis Libby clemency controversy arose when U.S. President George W. Bush commuted the prison sentence of I. Lewis Scooter Libby, a high-ranking official in his administration. ... A court clerk or clerk of the court is an occupation whose responsibilities include maintaining the records of a court. ... ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ...


On July 12, 2007, President Bush held a press conference and was asked about his commutation of Libby's prison sentence. Bush told reporters:

"First of all, the Scooter Libby decision was, I thought, a fair and balanced decision. Secondly, I haven't spent a lot of time talking about the testimony that people throughout my administration were forced to give as a result of the special prosecutor. I didn't ask them during the time and I haven't asked them since.
"I'm aware of the fact that perhaps somebody in the administration did disclose the name of that person, and I've often thought about what would have happened had that person come forth and said, I did it. Would we have had this, you know, endless hours of investigation and a lot of money being spent on this matter? But it's been a tough issue for a lot of people in the White House, and it's run its course and now we're going to move on."[98]

Karl Rove

In his grand jury testimony, Karl Rove testified he learned of Plame's CIA affiliation from journalists and not from government officials. Rove testified that Novak called him in July 2003 to discuss a story unrelated to Plame or Wilson. Eventually, according to Rove, Novak told him he planned to report in an upcoming column that Plame worked for the CIA. Rove told the grand jury that by the time Novak had called him, he had already learned of Plame from other reporters, but that he could not recall which reporters had told him. When Novak inquired about Wilson's wife working for the CIA, Rove indicated he had heard something like that, according to the source's recounting of the grand jury testimony for the Associated Press. Rove told the grand jury that three days later, he had a phone conversation with Time magazine reporter Matt Cooper and, in an effort to discredit some of Wilson's allegations, informally told Cooper that he believed Wilson's wife worked for the CIA, though he never used her name. Rove also testified to the grand jury that he had heard from Libby that Plame worked for the CIA. Rove testified that Libby told him that he heard the information from journalists.[99][100] Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ...


The indictment of Libby states: "On or about July 10 or July 11, 2003, LIBBY spoke to a senior official in the White House ("Official A") who advised LIBBY of a conversation Official A had earlier that week with columnist Robert Novak in which Wilson’s wife was discussed as a CIA employee involved in Wilson’s trip. LIBBY was advised by Official A that Novak would be writing a story about Wilson’s wife." Though never confirmed by Fitzgerald, it has been reported that Rove was "Official A."[101][27] is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On July 2, 2005, Karl Rove's lawyer, Robert Luskin, confirmed that Rove spoke to Time reporter Matt Cooper "three or four days" before Plame's identity was first revealed in print by commentator Robert Novak. Cooper's article in Time, citing unnamed and anonymous "government officials," confirmed Plame to be a "CIA official who monitors the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction." Cooper's article appeared three days after Novak's column was published. Rove's lawyer asserted that Rove "never knowingly disclosed classified information" and that "he did not tell any reporter that Valerie Plame worked for the CIA."[102][103][104] Luskin also has said that his client did not initiate conversations with reporters about Plame and did not encourage reporters to write about her.[105] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ... Robert Luskin Robert D. Luskin (born January 21, 1950) is an attorney and partner in the law firm of Patton Boggs LLP, specializing in White-collar crime and federal and state government investigations. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Matthew Cooper is a reporter with TIME magazine, who, along with New York Times reporter Judith Miller was held in contempt of court and threatened with imprisonment for refusing to testify before the Grand Jury regarding the Valerie Plame CIA leak investigation. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ...


Initially, Rove failed to tell the grand jury about his conversations with Cooper. According to Rove, he only remembered he had spoken to Cooper after discovering a July 11, 2003, White House e-mail that Rove had written to then-deputy National Security advisor Stephen J. Hadley in which Rove said he had spoken to Cooper about the Niger controversy. Luskin also testified before the grand jury. He told prosecutors that Time reporter Viveca Novak had told him prior to Rove's first grand jury appearance that she had heard from colleagues at Time that Rove was one of the sources for Cooper's story about Plame. Luskin in turn said that he told Rove about this, though Rove still did not disclose to the grand jury that he had ever spoken to Cooper about Plame. Viveca Novak testified she couldn't recall when she spoke to Luskin. Rove testified a total of five times before the federal grand jury investigating the leak. After Rove's last appearance, Luskin released a statement that read in part: "In connection with this appearance, the special counsel has advised Mr. Rove that he is not a target of the investigation. Mr. Fitzgerald has affirmed that he has made no decision concerning charges."[106][100] is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Viveca Novak is an American journalist. ...


On July 11, 2006, Robert Novak confirmed that Rove was his second source for his article that revealed the identity of Valerie Plame as a CIA agent, the source who confirmed what Armitage had told him.[107] is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (born Valerie Elise Plame 19 April 1963, in Anchorage, Alaska), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former United States CIA officer who worked as a classified covert intelligence agent for over twenty years and the wife of former Ambassador...


On February 12, 2007, Novak testified in Libby's trial. As Michael J. Sniffen of the Associated Press reports: is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...

Novak testified he got confirmation from White House political adviser Karl Rove, who replied to him: "Oh, you've heard that, too."[66]

Shortly after the publication of Novak's article, Rove also reportedly called Chris Matthews and told him off the record that "Wilson's wife is fair game."[31][108] On August 19, 2007, Rove was asked by David Gregory on Meet the Press about whether Rove considered Plame to be "fair game." Rove replied "No. And you know what? Fair game, that wasn’t my phrase. That’s a phrase of a journalist. In fact, a colleague of yours."[109] Rove hasn't denied he had a conversation with Matthews. Newsweek reported in October 2003 that a source familiar with Rove's side of the conversation told Newsweek that Rove told Matthews it was "reasonable to discuss who sent [Joe] Wilson to Niger."[110] This article is about the journalist. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


Court documents reveal that in December 2004, Fitzgerald was pursuing perjury charges against Rove.[77] Like Armitage, who was Novak's first source of the leak, Rove was not indicted as a result of Fitzgerald's Grand Jury Investigation.[111]


On July 8, 2007, Rove spoke publicly about the investigation at the Aspen Ideas Festival question-and-answer session. Rove told the audience "My contribution to this was to say to a reporter, which is a lesson about talking to reporters, the words 'I heard that too,'...Remember, the underlying offense of Armitage talking to Novak was no violation. There was no indictment."[112][113] View south along Galena Street in downtown Aspen. ...


After announcing his resignation from the Bush Administration, Rove appeared on Fox News Sunday and Meet the Press, and discussed his role in the Plame affair. According to Rove, he didn't believe he was a confirming source for Robert Novak and Matt Cooper with regard to Plame. Rove also reiterated that he first learned of Plame from another reporter, though would not disclose which reporter. Rove told Gregory "I acted in an appropriate manner, made all the appropriate individuals aware of, of, of my contact. I met with the FBI right at the beginning of this, told them everything. You’re right, the special prosecutor declined to take any action at all. I was never a target." Rove told Chris Wallace on Fox News Sunday "I didn't know her name, didn't know her status at the CIA."[109][114] FOX News Sunday is public affairs magazine on Fox, airing on Sunday mornings. ... Meet the Press (MTP) is a weekly television news show produced by NBC. It started as a radio show in 1945 as American Mercury Presents: Meet the Press, originating from WRC-AM in Washington. ...

Further information: Karl Rove#Plame affair

Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ...

Ari Fleischer

In January 2007, during the first week of Scooter Libby's trial, it was revealed in court proceedings that former White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer was granted immunity from prosecution by Patrick Fitzgerald in February 2004.[115] Fleischer reportedly acknowledged discussing Valerie Plame with reporters, but promised to cooperate with Fitzgerald's investigation only if granted immunity. Once the deal was struck, Fleischer told Fitzgerald that he had discussed Plame with David Gregory of NBC News and John Dickerson of Time in July 2003, days before leaving his job at the White House. Fleischer testified that he first learned about Plame and her CIA affiliation during a July 7, 2003, lunch with Libby. Fleischer also testified that four days later, while aboard Air Force One and during a five-day trip to several African nations, he overheard Dan Bartlett reference Plame. According to Fleischer, Bartlett stated to no one in particular "His wife sent him...She works at the CIA." Shortly after overhearing Bartlett, Fleischer proceeded to discuss Plame with Gregory and Dickerson. According to Fleischer, neither Gregory nor Dickerson showed much interest in the information. Dickerson has denied Fleischer's account.[116] Gregory has declined to comment on the matter.[117] With regards to the immunity deal, Fitzgerald told the court "I didn't want to give [Fleischer] immunity. I did so reluctantly." Libby's attorney, William Jeffress, sought to learn more about the deal, telling the court "I'm not sure we're getting the full story here." According to Matt Apuzzo of the Associated Press, "Prosecutors normally insist on an informal account of what a witness will say before agreeing to such a deal. It's known in legal circles as a proffer, and Fitzgerald said [in court] he never got one from Fleischer."[118][119][120] The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official with a rank one step below Presidential Cabinet level. ... Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) was the press secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush from January, 2001 to July, 2003. ... Immunity, also known as transactional immunity, confers a status on a person or body that places them beyond the law and makes that person or body free from otherwise legal obligations such as, for example, liability for torts or damages or prosecution under criminal law for criminal acts. ... David Gregory (born August 24, 1970) is currently the NBC News Chief White House Correspondent, a job he has held since February, 2001. ... John Dickerson is chief political correspondent for Slate magazine. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the current aircraft, see Boeing VC-25. ... Daniel Joseph Bartlett (born January 6, 1971), is the Counselor to the President in the U.S. presidential administration of George W. Bush. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


Journalists subpoenaed to testify in Fitzgerald's Grand Jury Investigation

In a January 23, 2006, letter to Scooter Libby's defense team, Patrick Fitzgerald states: is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

. . . [W]e advised you during the January 18 conference call that we were not aware of any reporters who knew prior to July 14, 2003, that Valerie Plame, Ambassador Wilson's wife, worked at the CIA, other than: Bob Woodward, Judith Miller, Bob Novak, Walter Pincus and Matthew Cooper.[121] is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ... Judith Miller is the name of several people, including: an American journalist a French philosopher This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... Walter Haskell Pincus (born December 24, 1932) is a national security journalist for The Washington Post. ... Matthew Cooper is a reporter with TIME magazine, who, along with New York Times reporter Judith Miller was held in contempt of court and threatened with imprisonment for refusing to testify before the Grand Jury regarding the Valerie Plame CIA leak investigation. ...

Bob Woodward

On November 16, 2005, in an article entitled "Woodward Was Told of Plame More Than Two Years Ago," published in The Washington Post, Jim VandeHei and Carol D. Leonnig revealed that Bob Woodward was told of Valerie Wilson's CIA affiliation a month before it was reported in Robert Novak's column and before Wilson's July 6, 2003 editorial in the New York Times.[122] At an on-the-record dinner at a Harvard University Institute of Politics forum in December 2005, according to the Harvard Crimson, Woodward discussed the matter with fellow Watergate reporter Carl Bernstein, responding to Bernstein’s claim that the release of Plame’s identity was a "calculated leak" by the Bush administration with "I know a lot about this, and you’re wrong." The Crimson also states that "when asked at the dinner whether his readers should worry that he has been 'manipulated' by the Bush administration, Woodward replied, 'I think you should worry. I mean, I worry.'"[123] is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Carol D. Leonnig is an American investigative journalist and a prominent Washington Post Staff Writer. ... Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... The Harvard Crimson, of Harvard University, is the United States oldest continuously published daily college newspaper. ... The Watergate building. ... Carl Bernstein (left) and Bob Woodward (right)This image is pending deletion. ...


Although it had been reported in mid-November 2005 that Novak's source was National Security Advisor Stephen Hadley,[124][125] almost a year later media reports revealed that the source of this information was Richard Armitage,which Armitage himself also confirmed.[58] Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Stephen J. Hadley Stephen John Hadley (born February 13, 1947 in Toledo, Ohio) is the current U.S. Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (commonly referred as National Security Advisor) for President George W. Bush. ... Richard L. Armitage Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) was the 13th United States Deputy Secretary of State, the second-in-command at the State Department, serving from 2001 to 2005, Previously, he was a high-ranking troubleshooter and negotiator in the Departments of State and Defense. ...


On February 12, 2007, Woodward testified in "Scooter" Libby's trial as a defense witness. While on the witness stand, an audiotape was played for the jury that contained the interview between Armitage and Woodward in which Plame was discussed. The following exchange is heard on the tape: is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

WOODWARD: But it was Joe Wilson who was sent by the agency. I mean that's just —
ARMITAGE: His wife works in the agency.
WOODWARD: Why doesn't that come out? Why does —
ARMITAGE: Everyone knows it.
WOODWARD: — that have to be a big secret? Everyone knows.
ARMITAGE: Yeah. And I know Joe Wilson's been calling everybody. He's pissed off because he was designated as a low-level guy, went out to look at it. So, he's all pissed off.
WOODWARD: But why would they send him?
ARMITAGE: Because his wife's a [expletive] analyst at the agency.
WOODWARD: It's still weird.
ARMITAGE: It — It's perfect. This is what she does she is a WMD analyst out there.
WOODWARD: Oh she is.
ARMITAGE: Yeah.
WOODWARD: Oh, I see.
ARMITAGE: Yeah. See?
WOODWARD: Oh, she's the chief WMD?
ARMITAGE: No she isn't the chief, no.
WOODWARD: But high enough up that she can say, "Oh yeah, hubby will go."
ARMITAGE: Yeah, he knows Africa.
WOODWARD: Was she out there with him?
ARMITAGE: No.
WOODWARD: When he was ambassador?

ARMITAGE: Not to my knowledge. I don't know. I don't know if she was out there or not. But his wife is in the agency and is a WMD analyst. How about that [expletive].[66][126]

Judith Miller

New York Times reporter Judith Miller also claims to have learned Plame's CIA affiliation from Scooter Libby. Though she never published an article on the topic, Miller spent twelve weeks in jail when she was found in contempt of court for refusing to divulge the identity of her source to Fitzgerald's Grand Jury after he subpoenaed her testimony. Miller told the court, before being ordered to jail, "If journalists cannot be trusted to keep confidences, then journalists cannot function and there cannot be a free press." Miller was released from jail on September 29, 2005, after Libby assured her in a telephone call that a waiver he gave prosecutors authorizing them to question reporters about their conversations with him was not coerced. Libby also wrote Miller a letter while she was in jail urging her to cooperate with the special prosecutor.[127] The letter has come under scrutiny, and Fitzgerald asked Miller about it during her grand jury testimony.[128] Fitzgerald attempted to enter the letter into evidence at Libby's trial, arguing it showed Libby tried to influence her prospective testimony to the grand jury. Judge Walton ruled it inadmissible.[129] The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Judith Miller Judith P. Miller (born January 2, 1948), is an American journalist. ... I. Lewis Libby I. Lewis Scooter Libby Jr. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Miller testified twice before the grand jury and wrote an account of her testimony for the New York Times. [130][131][132][133][134][135]


In her testimony at Libby's trial, Miller reiterated that she learned of Plame from Libby on June 23, 2003, during an interview at the Old Executive Office Building, and on July 8, 2003, during a breakfast meeting at the St. Regis Hotel in Washington D.C. At the July 8 meeting, which occurred two days after Joe Wilson's op-ed in the New York Times, Libby told the grand jury "that he was specifically authorized in advance... to disclose the key judgments of the classified [October 2002] NIE to Miller" to rebut Wilson's charges. Libby "further testified that he at first advised the Vice President that he could not have this conversation with reporter Miller because of the classified nature of the NIE", but testified "that the Vice President had advised [Libby] that the President had authorized [Libby] to disclose relevant portions of the NIE."[136][137][138] is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... President William Howard Tafts prized Holstein cow, Pauline Wayne, poses in front of the Navy Building, which is known today as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) express the coordinated judgments of the US Intelligence Community, and thus represent the most authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with respect to a particular national security issue. ...


Miller was pressed by the defense at Libby's trial about conversations she may have had with other officials regarding the Wilsons. Miller also testified that after her conversation with Libby, she went to New York Times managing editor Jill Abramson and suggested the Times look into Wilson's wife. Abramson, however, testified at the trial that she had "no recollection of such a conversation."[139][140]


According to Denver criminal defense attorney Jeralyn Merritt, a press-accredited blogger who attended the trial, "After Judith Miller's testimony, Libby lawyer Ted Wells told the judge he would be moving for a judgment of acquittal on a count pertaining to her."[141] Neil A. Lewis reported in The New York Times on February 9, 2007, that "The Libby defense won a victory of sorts when Judge Reggie B. Walton agreed to exclude part of one of the five felony counts against Mr. Libby. But it remained unclear whether the change, which was not contested by the prosecutors, would matter in jury deliberations," and some speculated that Libby's conversation with Miller would be dropped from count 1 of the indictment.[142][141] At Libby's sentencing hearing, Libby's lawyers filed a response to the Government's sentencing request. Libby's filing read, in part, "At the close of the government’s case, the defense moved to dismiss from the indictment the allegation that Mr. Libby had lied about his July 12 conversation with Ms. Miller, because the evidence did not support this allegation. The government did not oppose this motion, and the Court granted it."[143] Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country State Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ... Jeralyn Elise Merritt (b. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


After the verdict was read, a juror told the press that while Miller's memory may have been bad, many on the jury felt sympathy for her due to the nature of her cross-examination. The juror also stated that Miller was deemed credible during deliberations due to the fact that she had made notes of her meeting with Libby.[85][86]


Walter Pincus

Walter Pincus, a Washington Post columnist, has reported that he was told in confidence by an unnamed Bush administration official on July 12, 2003, two days before Novak's column appeared, that Walter Haskell Pincus (born December 24, 1932) is a national security journalist for The Washington Post. ... ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

the White House had not paid attention to former Ambassador Joseph Wilson’s CIA-sponsored February 2002 trip to Niger because it was set up as a boondoggle by his wife, an analyst with the agency working on weapons of mass destruction.

Because he did not believe it to be true, Pincus claims, he did not report the story in The Washington Post until October 12, 2003: Boondoggle, in the sense of a term for a project that wastes time and money, first appeared during the Great Depression in the 1930s, referring to the millions of jobs given to unemployed men and women to try to get the economy moving again, as part of the New Deal. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

I wrote my October story because I did not think the person who spoke to me was committing a criminal act, but only practicing damage control by trying to get me to stop writing about Wilson. Because of that article, The Washington Post and I received subpoenas last summer from Patrick J. Fitzgerald.[144]

On February 12, 2007, Pincus testified during Libby's trial that he learned Wilson's wife worked at the CIA from Ari Fleischer. According to Pincus, Fleischer "suddenly swerved off" topic during an interview to tell him of her employment. Fleischer, who was called to testify by the prosecution, had earlier testified he told two reporters about Valerie Plame, but on cross-examination testified that he did not recall telling Pincus about Plame.[66]</ref> is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) was the press secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush from January, 2001 to July, 2003. ...


Matthew Cooper

Days after Novak's initial column appeared, Matthew Cooper of Time magazine published Plame's name citing unnamed government officials as sources. In his article, entitled "A War on Wilson?", Cooper raises the possibility that the White House has "declared war" on Wilson for speaking out against the Bush Administration.[145] Cooper initially refused to testify before the grand jury, and was prepared to defy a court order and spend time in jail to protect his sources. At a court hearing, where Cooper was expected to be ordered to jail, Cooper told U.S. District Judge Thomas Hogan: "I am prepared to testify. I will comply. Last night I hugged my son good-bye and told him it might be a long time before I see him again. I went to bed ready to accept the sanctions." Cooper explained that before his court appearance, he had received "in somewhat dramatic fashion" a direct personal communication from his source freeing him from his commitment to keep the source's identity secret. In an interview with National Review Online, Robert Luskin, Rove's attorney, stated: "Cooper's lawyer called us and said, 'Can you confirm that the waiver [Rove originally signed in December 2003 or in January 2004] encompasses Cooper?' I was amazed...So I said, 'Look, I understand that you want reassurances. If Fitzgerald would like Karl to provide you with some other assurances, we will.'" Cooper testified before the grand jury and wrote an account of his testimony for Time. Cooper told the grand jury his sources for his article, "A War on Wilson?", were Karl Rove and Scooter Libby.[146][147][148] Matthew Cooper is a reporter with TIME magazine, who, along with New York Times reporter Judith Miller was held in contempt of court and threatened with imprisonment for refusing to testify before the Grand Jury regarding the Valerie Plame CIA leak investigation. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... National Review Online is the online presence of the prominent conservative political magazine National Review. ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ... I. Lewis Libby I. Lewis Scooter Libby Jr. ...


During his appearance at Libby's trial, Cooper recounted how he first learned about Valerie Wilson on July 11, 2003, from Karl Rove. Cooper testified that Rove told him to be wary of Joe Wilson’s criticisms in The New York Times. "Don’t go too far out on Wilson," Cooper recalled Rove saying, adding that Wilson's wife worked at "the agency." Rove reportedly ended the call by saying, "I've already said too much."[31] Cooper testified that when he spoke to Libby, he told Libby that he had heard that Joe Wilson’s wife worked at the C.I.A. According to Cooper, Libby responded, "I heard that too."[139] In Libby's grand jury testimony, Libby recalled telling Cooper that he'd heard something to that effect but that he didn't know for sure if it were true. In Libby's trial, Cooper's notes became the subject of intense scrutiny by the defense.[149][150][151] is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Libby was acquitted on one count involving Cooper. A juror told the press that count three of the indictment came down to Libby's word versus Cooper's word, and thus provided enough reasonable doubt.[85][86]


Tim Russert

According to Patrick Fitzgerald and the Grand Jury Investigation indictment, in his sworn testimony, Libby claimed to have heard of Plame's CIA status from Tim Russert. Timothy John Russert, Jr. ...


Both Russert and Libby testified that Libby called Russert on July 10, 2003 to complain about the MSNBC program Hardball and comments that were made on that show about Libby and Cheney with regard to Wilson's Niger trip and subsequent op-ed. Libby contends, however, that at the end of that conversation, Russert asked him: "Did you know that Ambassador Wilson's wife works at the CIA? All the reporters know it."[152][34] is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hardball with Chris Matthews is a talk show on MSNBC broadcast weekdays at 5 and 7 PM hosted by Chris Matthews. ...


At Libby's trial, Russert was questioned by prosecutors for only 12 minutes, but underwent more than five hours of pointed cross-examination over two days from defense attorney Theodore Wells Jr. Russert told prosecutors that he could not have told Libby about Plame because he had not heard of her until she was publicly revealed by Novak on July 14, 2003, four days after Russert spoke with Libby by phone. Wells challenged Russert's memory and his version of the events that lead to his crucial grand jury testimony. Wells also questioned Russert about his reaction to the announcement of Libby's grand jury indictment.[34] is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Wells also focused on a November 24, 2003, report by John C. Eckenrode, the FBI Special Agent who interviewed Russert as part of the DOJ investigation. In that report Eckenrode writes: is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ...

Russert does not recall stating to Libby, in this conversation, anything about the wife of former ambassador Joe Wilson. Although he could not completely rule out the possibility that he had such an exchange, Russert was at a loss to remember it, and moreover, he believes that this would be the type of conversation that he would or should remember. Russert acknowledged that he speaks to many people on a daily basis and it is difficult to reconstruct some specific conversations, particularly one which occurred several months ago.[153]

Russert testified, however, that he does not believe that he said what Eckenrode reports; while he acknowledged on cross examination that he was not asked about any conversations he may have had with David Gregory or Andrea Mitchell regarding Plame during his deposition with Fitzgerald, he also told the jury that "they never came forward" to share with him anything they were learning about Joe Wilson or Valerie Plame from administration officials, and he testified that after Novak's column was published, the NBC Washington bureau (which he heads) debated whether pursuing Plame's role in the story would compromise her job at the CIA and ultimately decided to pursue the story.[154][155][156][142][157][158] David Gregory (born August 24, 1970) is currently the NBC News Chief White House Correspondent, a job he has held since February, 2001. ... Andrea Mitchell Andrea Mitchell (born October 30, 1946) is an American journalist, television commentator, and writer. ...


According to multiple news accounts of the trial, Russert's testimony was key to Libby's conviction or acquittal, and on the day that the defense rested, February 14, 2007, the judge refused to allow the defense to call Russert back to the stand.[159] A juror told the press that the members of the jury found Russert to be very credible in his testimony. "The primary thing that convinced us on most of the counts was the conversation, alleged conversation with Russert," the juror told the press.[85][86][160] is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Legal issues relating to the CIA leak scandal

There are some major legal issues surrounding the allegations of illegality by administration officials in the CIA leak scandal, including Executive Order 12958, the Intelligence Identities Protection Act, the Espionage Act, Title 18 Section 641, conspiracy to impede or injure officers, the Classified Information Nondisclosure Agreement, other laws and precedents, perjury, conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and compelling the media to testify. In 1995, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 12958 which created tough new standards for the process of classifying documents and led to an unprecedented effort to declassify millions of pages from the U.S. diplomatic and national security history. ... The Intelligence Identities Protection Act of 1982 (PL97-200, 50 U.S. Code Secs. ... The Espionage Act was passed by the 65th United States Congress on June 15, 1917, during World War I. This act made it a crime, punishable by a $10,000 fine and 20 years in jail, for a person to convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ...

See also: Valerie Plame#The Wilsons' Civil Suit

Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (born Valerie Elise Plame 19 April 1963, in Anchorage, Alaska), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former United States CIA officer who worked as a classified covert intelligence agent for over twenty years and the wife of former Ambassador...

Congressional hearings

On March 8, 2007, two days after the verdict in the Libby trial, Congressman Henry Waxman, chair of the U.S. House Committee on Government Reform, announced that his committee would ask Plame to testify on March 16, in an effort by his committee to look into "whether White House officials followed appropriate procedures for safeguarding Plame's identity."[161] is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... See main article: Lewis Libby See main article: Plame affair United States of America v. ... Henry Arnold Waxman (born September 12, 1939 in Los Angeles, California) is an American politician. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Plame's testimony

On March 16, 2007, Plame testified before the committee. Henry Waxman read a prepared statement that was cleared by CIA director Michael Hayden. It read in part: March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Henry Arnold Waxman (born September 12, 1939 in Los Angeles, California) is an American politician. ... Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which is part of the United States Intelligence Community. ... For the composer, see Michael Haydn. ...

"During her employment at the CIA, Ms. Wilson was undercover. Her employment status with the CIA was classified information, prohibited from disclosure under Executive Order 12958. At the time of the publication of Robert Novak's column on July 14, 2003, Ms. Wilson's CIA employment status was covert. This was classified information. Ms. Wilson served in senior management positions at the CIA in which she oversaw the work for other CIA employees and she attained the level of GS-14 — Step Six under the federal pay scale. Ms. Wilson worked on some of the most sensitive and highly secretive matters handled by the CIA. Ms. Wilson served at various times overseas for the CIA." is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Plame's opening statement included the following:

"In the run-up to the war with Iraq, I worked in the Counterproliferation Division of the CIA, still as a covert officer whose affiliation with the CIA was classified. I raced to discover solid intelligence for senior policy makers on Iraq's presumed weapons of mass destruction program. While I helped to manage and run secret worldwide operations against this WMD target from CIA headquarters in Washington, I also traveled to foreign countries on secret missions to find vital intelligence."[36]

When asked by the committee the definition of the term "covert", Plame responded: "I'm not a lawyer, but my understanding is that the CIA is taking affirmative steps to ensure that there is no links between the operations officer and the Central Intelligence Agency." When asked if she was ever told whether her status fit the definition under the Intelligence Identities Protection Act, Plame replied: "No," adding "I'm not a lawyer, but I was covert. I did travel overseas on secret missions within the last five years...[but] no, no one told me that [I fit the definition under the IIPA]."[36]


Plame also told the committee: "For those of us that were undercover in the CIA, we tended to use 'covert' or 'undercover' interchangeably. I'm not — we typically would not say of ourselves we were in a 'classified' position. You're kind of undercover or overt employees."[36]


Plame told the committee she believed her "name and identity were carelessly and recklessly abused by senior officials in the White House and State Department." Plame testified that "I could count on one hand the number of people who knew where my true employer was the day that I was — my name was — and true affiliation was exposed in July 2003." As a result of her exposure as a CIA operative, Plame told the committee "I could no longer perform the work for which I had been highly trained." When asked if she had any evidence government officials knew she was covert when disclosing her identity to reporters, Plame responded "That, I think, is a question better put to the special prosecutor, Congressman."[36]


Knodell's testimony

Dr. James Knodell, Director of the Office of Security at the White House, testified before the committee as well. He was asked whether the White House conducted any internal investigation, as is required by Executive Order 12958. Knodell said that he had started at the White House in August 2004, a year after the leak, but his records showed no evidence of a probe or report: "I have no knowledge of any investigation in my office," he said.[162] When asked why no internal investigation was conducted or disciplinary actions taken after he took office, Knodell replied "there was already an outside investigation that was taking place, a criminal investigation. So that's why we took no action."[163] In response to Knodell's testimony, Waxman sent a letter to White House Chief of Staff Joshua Bolton asking for clarification as to the "steps that the White House took following the disclosure of Ms. Wilson's identity."[164] In 1995, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 12958 which created tough new standards for the process of classifying documents and led to an unprecedented effort to declassify millions of pages from the U.S. diplomatic and national security history. ... Joshua Brewster Bolten is the current White House Chief of Staff serving U.S. President George W. Bush. ...


According to Waxman:

"Mr. Knodell could not explain, however, why the White House did not initiate an investigation after the security breach. It took months before a criminal investigation was initiated, yet according to Mr. Knodell, there was no White House investigation initiated during this period."[164]

Citing Executive Order 12958, Waxman observes that the "White House is required to 'take appropriate and prompt corrective action' whenever there is a release of classified information."[164] On September 29, 2003, approximately two and a half months after the disclosure of Plame's identity and subsequent filing of a crimes report by the CIA with the Justice Department, White House press secretary Scott McClellan told reporters: "The president believes leaking classified information is a very serious matter and it should be pursued to the fullest extent by the appropriate agency and the appropriate agency is the Department of Justice." McClellan also stated that the White House would not launch an internal probe and would not ask for an independent investigation into the matter.[165] In 1995, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 12958 which created tough new standards for the process of classifying documents and led to an unprecedented effort to declassify millions of pages from the U.S. diplomatic and national security history. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Other testimony

Attorneys Mark Zaid and Victoria Toensing also testified before the committee. Each testified that Plame may not have been covert under the IIPA, and that the legal definition is more narrow than the general CIA designation. Zaid told the committee, "Mrs. Toensing is absolutely correct with many of her questions with respect to the Intelligence Identities Act, which has a very exacting standard. Mrs. Plame, as she indicated, was covert. That's a distinction between possibly under the Intelligence Identities Act, and that classified information was leaked. And the question then is it of a criminal magnitude versus something less than that and these could be any number of penalties."[166] Mark S. Zaid is a Washington DC attorney who founded the James Madison Project in 1998 a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to reduce government secrecy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Special Counsel Patrick Fitzgerald was also asked to testify. In a letter to Waxman, Fitzgerald responded to Waxman's request in part: Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960) is an American attorney and the current United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. ...

"I also do not believe it would be appropriate for me to offer opinions, as your letter suggests the committee may seek, about the ultimate responsibility of senior White House officials for the disclosure of Ms. Wilson's identity, or the sufficiency of the remedial measures that White House officials took after the leak. Prosecutors traditionally refrain from commenting outside of the judicial process on the actions of persons not charged with criminal offenses. Such individuals have significant privacy and due process interests that deserve protection as do the intemal deliberations of prosecutors relating to their conduct."[167]

Reaction to hearing

According to Robert Novak, Rep. Peter Hoekstra and Hayden were in a conference together five days after the committee hearing. Novak reported that Hayden "did not answer whether Plame was covert under the terms of the Intelligence Identities Protection Act" when pressed by Hoekstra.[168] Novak reported on April 12, 2007 that: Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... Pete Hoekstra (born October 30, 1953), American politician, is a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993, representing the 2nd District of Michigan. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

"Hayden indicated to me he had not authorized Democratic Rep. Henry Waxman to say Plame had been a 'covert' CIA employee, as he claimed Hayden did, but only that she was 'undercover'...I obtained Waxman's talking points for the hearing. The draft typed after the Hayden-Waxman conversation said, 'Ms. Wilson had a career as an undercover agent of the CIA.' This was crossed out, the hand-printed change saying she 'was a covert employee of the CIA'...Hayden told me that the talking points were edited by a CIA lawyer after conferring with Waxman's staff. 'I am completely comfortable with that,' the general assured me. He added he now sees no difference between 'covert' and 'undercover'...Mark Mansfield, Hayden's public affairs officer, next e-mailed me: 'At CIA, you are either a covert or an overt employee. Ms. Wilson was a covert employee'...On March 21, Hoekstra again requested that the CIA define Plame's status. A written reply April 5 from Christopher J. Walker, the CIA's director of congressional affairs, said only that 'it is taking longer than expected' to reply because of 'the considerable legal complexity required for this tasking.'"[169]
See also: Alternate theories regarding the CIA leak scandal#Questioning the covert nature of Plame's CIA status

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Possible consequences of the public disclosure of Plame's CIA identity

There has been debate over what kinds of damage may have resulted from the public disclosure of Valerie Plame's identity as a CIA operative in Novak's column and its fallout, how far and into what areas of national security and foreign intelligence that damage might extend, particularly vis-à-vis Plame's work with her cover company, Brewster Jennings & Associates. Plame has characterized the damage as "serious," noting, "I can tell you, all the intelligence services in the world that morning were running my name through their databases to see, `Did anyone by this name come in the country? When? Do we know anything about it? Where did she stay? Well, who did she see?'"[170] Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Brewster Jennings & Associates is a front company set up in the mid-1990s by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as a cover for its agents, including Valerie Plame, a covert employee of the CIA whose employment status was classified and whose classified covert identity was published in a syndicated newspaper...


On October 3, 2004, The Washington Post quotes a former diplomat predicting immediate damage: is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...

. . . [E]very foreign intelligence service would run Plame's name through its databases within hours of its publication to determine if she had visited their country and to reconstruct her activities. . . . That's why the agency is so sensitive about just publishing her name.[171]

In contrast, in an October 27, 2005, appearance on Larry King Live, Bob Woodward commented: is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Larry King Live is a nightly CNN interview program hosted by broadcaster and writer Larry King. ... Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ...

They did a damage assessment within the CIA, looking at what this did that [former ambassador] Joe Wilson's wife [Plame] was outed. And turned out it was quite minimal damage. They did not have to pull anyone out undercover abroad. They didn't have to resettle anyone. There was no physical danger to anyone, and there was just some embarrassment.[172]

In an appearance the next night, October 28, 2005, on Hardball, Andrea Mitchell was quoted as saying: is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hardball with Chris Matthews is a talk show on MSNBC broadcast weekdays at 5 and 7 PM hosted by Chris Matthews. ... Andrea Mitchell Andrea Mitchell (born October 30, 1946) is an American journalist, television commentator, and writer. ...

I happen to have been told that the actual damage assessment as to whether people were put in jeopardy on this case did not indicate that there was real damage in this specific instance.[173]

Following Mitchell's appearance on Hardball, on October 29, 2006, The Washington Post's Dafna Linzer reported that no formal damage assessment had yet been conducted by the CIA "as is routinely done in cases of espionage and after any legal proceedings have been exhausted." Linzer writes: is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...

There is no indication, according to current and former intelligence officials, that the most dire of consequences — the risk of anyone's life — resulted from her outing. But after Plame's name appeared in Robert D. Novak's column, the CIA informed the Justice Department in a simple questionnaire that the damage was serious enough to warrant an investigation, officials said.[174]

Mark Lowenthal, who retired from a senior management position at the CIA in March 2005 reportedly told Linzer:

You can only speculate that if she had foreign contacts, those contacts might be nervous and their relationships with her put them at risk. It also makes it harder for other CIA officers to recruit sources.

Another intelligence official who spoke anonymously to Linzer cited the CIA's interest in protecting the agency and its work:

You'll never get a straight answer [from the Agency] about how valuable she was or how valuable her sources were.[174]

On October 28, 2005, the Office of Special Counsel issued a press release regarding Libby's indictment. The following is stated regarding Plame: is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Prior to July 14, 2003, Valerie Wilson’s employment status was classified. Prior to that date, her affiliation with the CIA was not common knowledge outside the intelligence community. Disclosure of classified information about an individual’s employment by the CIA has the potential to damage the national security in ways that range from preventing that individual’s future use in a covert capacity, to compromising intelligence-gathering methods and operations, and endangering the safety of CIA employees and those who deal with them, the indictment states.[175] is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

In a November 3, 2005, online live discussion, in response to a question about the Fitzgerald investigation, The Washington Post's Dana Priest, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist specializing in matters of national security, opined: is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Dana Priest is an author and a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...

I don't actually think the Plame leak compromised national security, from what I've been able to learn about her position."[176]

In a January 9, 2006, letter addressed to "Scooter" Libby's defense team, Patrick Fitzgerald responded to a discovery request by Libby's lawyers for both classified and unclassified documents. In the letter, Fitzgerald writes: is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A formal assessment has not been done of the damage caused by the disclosure of Valerie Wilson’s status as a CIA employee, and thus we possess no such document.

He continues:

In any event, we would not view an assessment of the damage caused by the disclosure as relevant to the issue of whether or not Mr. Libby intentionally lied when he made the statements and gave the grand jury testimony which the grand jury alleged was false.[177]

On March 16, 2007, Plame told the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform "But I do know the Agency did a damage assessment. They did not share it with me, but I know that certainly puts the people and the contacts I had all in jeopardy, even if they were completely innocent in nature."[36] March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


During Libby's trial, Judge Reggie Walton told the jury "No evidence will be presented to you with regard to Valerie Plame Wilson’s status. That is because what her actual status was, or whether any damage would result from disclosure of her status, are totally irrelevant to your decision of guilt or innocence. You must not consider these matters in your deliberations or speculate or guess about them." During court proceedings, when the jury wasn't present, Walton told the court "I don’t know, based on what has been presented to me in this case, what her status was...It’s totally irrelevant to this case...I to this day don’t know what her actual status was."[178] Judge Reggie B. Walton U.S. District Judge for the District of Columbia Reggie B. Walton, JD (born Donora, Pennsylvania, February 8, 1949), is a United States District Judge for the District of Columbia. ...


Larisa Alexandrovna of The Raw Story reports that three intelligence officials, who spoke under condition of anonymity, told her that Larisa Alexandrovna (born December 7, 1971 in Odessa, Ukraine) is a journalist, essayist, poet. ... The Raw Story is a left-leaning news and politics weblog founded in 2004. ...

While Director of Central Intelligence Porter Goss has not submitted a formal damage assessment to Congressional oversight committees, the CIA's Directorate of Operations did conduct a serious and aggressive investigation.

According to her sources,

the damage assessment . . . called a "counter intelligence assessment to agency operations" was conducted on the orders of the CIA's then-Deputy Director of the Directorate of Operations, James Pavitt. . . . [and showed] "significant damage to operational equities." James Pavitt, Deputy Director of Operations of the CIA, in a rare public appearance before the 11 September commission. ...

Alexandrovna also reports that while Plame was undercover she was involved in an operation identifying and tracking weapons of mass destruction technology to and from Iran, suggesting that her outing "significantly hampered the CIA's ability to monitor nuclear proliferation." Her sources also stated that the outing of Plame also compromised the identity of other covert operatives who had been working, like Plame, under non-official cover status. These anonymous officials said that in their judgement, the CIA's work on WMDs has been set back "ten years" as a result of the compromise.[179] For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


MSNBC correspondent David Shuster reported on Hardball later, on May 1, 2006, that MSNBC had learned "new information" about the potential consequences of the leaks: For the news website, see msnbc. ... David Shuster is a correspondent for Hardball w. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Intelligence sources say Valerie Wilson was part of an operation three years ago tracking the proliferation of nuclear weapons material into Iran. And the sources allege that when Mrs. Wilson's cover was blown, the Administration's ability to track Iran's nuclear ambitions was damaged as well. The White House considers Iran to be one of America's biggest threats.[180]

In March 2007, The Washington Post reported that Plame's work "included dealing with personnel as well as issues related to weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and Iran."[181] CBS news would later confirm Plame was "was involved in operations to prevent Iran from building nuclear weapons."[182] CBS News logo, used from Sept. ...


On September 6, 2006, David Corn published an article for The Nation entitled "What Valerie Plame Really Did at the CIA" in which Corn reports that Plame was placed in charge of the operations group within the Joint Task Force on Iraq in the spring of 2001 and that, "when the Novak column ran," in July 2003: is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ...

Valerie Wilson was in the process of changing her clandestine status from NOC to official cover, as she prepared for a new job in personnel management. Her aim, she told colleagues, was to put in time as an administrator — to rise up a notch or two — and then return to secret operations. But with her cover blown, she could never be undercover again.[183] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Official Cover is a term used in espionage to refer to an operative who assumes a position in an organization with diplomatic ties to the government he or she is working for. ...

According to Vanity Fair: American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ...

In fact, in the spring [of 2003], Plame was in the process of moving from NOC status to State Department cover. [Joe] Wilson speculates that "if more people knew than should have, then somebody over at the White House talked earlier than they should have been talking."[184]

In testifying before Congress, Plame described the damage done by her exposure as such:

"The CIA goes to great lengths to protect all of its employees, providing at significant taxpayers' expense painstakingly devised and creative covers for its most sensitive staffers. The harm that is done when a CIA cover is blown is grave, but I can't provide details beyond that in this public hearing. But the concept is obvious.
"Not only have breaches of national security endangered CIA officers, it has jeopardized and even destroyed entire networks of foreign agents, who in turn risk their own lives and those of their families to provide the United States with needed intelligence. Lives are literally at stake."[36]

In her memoir, Plame describes how after her name was published, she feared for her children's safety, but was denied protection by the C.I.A.[185] Larry Johnson told Wolf Blitzer in October 2005 that Plame "had received death threats overseas from Al-Qaeda." According to Johnson, Plame called the CIA and asked for security protection after the FBI contacted her and told her of the threat made by al-Qaeda. Johnson told Blitzer that Plame was told by the CIA "you will have to rely upon 9-1-1."[186] Larry C. Johnson is a former officer of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency as well as the State Departments Office of Counterterrorism[1]. He is the CEO of Berg Associates, LLC. He has worked as a private consultant on issues of international terrorism and has been a commentator... Wolf Blitzer (born March 22, 1948 in Buffalo, New York) is an American journalist and author. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: &#1575;&#1604;&#1602;&#1575;&#1593;&#1583;&#1577;, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... For other uses, see 911 (disambiguation). ...

Main article: Valerie Plame#Career

Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (born Valerie Elise Plame 19 April 1963, in Anchorage, Alaska), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former United States CIA officer who worked as a classified covert intelligence agent for over twenty years and the wife of former Ambassador...

Other perspectives on the CIA leak scandal

Main article: Alternate theories regarding the CIA leak scandal

Since the CIA leak scandal became public knowledge, commentators began presenting multiple and often highly-contested perspectives on it in various media. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

Patrick Fitzgerald, U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois CIA leak grand jury investigation (rel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... See main article: Lewis Libby See main article: Plame affair United States of America v. ... The Office of Special Counsel in the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) replaces the former Office of the Independent Counsel. ... The term Yellowcake Forgery refers to falsified classified documents initially uncovered by Italian intelligence which possibly depicted an attempt by Iraqs Saddam Hussein regime to purchase yellowcake uranium from the country of Niger, in defiance of United Nations sanctions. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Unclassified official United States government records,"Exhibit A", of "Unclassified Summary of Valerie Wilson's CIA Employment and Cover History", from "Sentencing Memo Exhibits", in United States v. Libby, obtained through the Privacy Act, online posting, The Next Hurrah (blog), accessed May 26, 2007: 2-3.
  2. ^ Joel Seidman, "Plame Was 'covert' Agent At Time of Name Leak", MSNBC.com, May 29, 2007, accessed June 10, 2007.
  3. ^ a b Joseph C. Wilson 4th, "What I Didn't Find in Africa", The New York Times, July 6, 2003, accessed June 10, 2007.
  4. ^ a b Stanley M. Moskowitz, Director of Congressional Affairs for the CIA, Letter to Representative John Conyers, Jr., January 30, 2004, online posting, Talking Points Memo Document Collection, accessed June 10, 2007; full text of the letter rpt. in Wilson, The Politics of Truth 359; cf. 358, 360 (discussion).
  5. ^ a b c Michael J. Sniffen and Matt Apuzzo,"Libby Found Guilty in CIA Leak Trial", Associated Press March 6, 2007, accessed March 6, 2007.
  6. ^ "Libby Found Guilty of Perjury, Obstruction", CNN March 6, 2007, accessed March 6, 2007.
  7. ^ a b "Libby Lawyer Demands New Trial After Conviction", CNN March 6, 2007, accessed March 6, 2007.
  8. ^ a b Matt Apuzzo (Associated Press), "Libby Sentenced to 30 Months in Prison", America Online, 5 June 2007, accessed 5 June 2007.
  9. ^ a b Paul Courson, Brianna Keilar, and Brian Todd, "Libby Sentenced to 30 months in Prison", CNN.com 5 June 2007, accessed 5 June 2007.
  10. ^ Associated Press, "Armitage Added To Plame Lawsuit: Ex-State Department Official Joins Cheney, Libby, Rove As Target In Suit", CBS News, September 13, 2006, accessed March 7, 2007.
  11. ^ Joseph C. Wilson, "Statement in Response to Jury's Verdict in U.S. v. I. Lewis 'Scooter' Libby", press release, online posting, Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW) March 6, 2007, accessed March 6, 2007.
  12. ^ Carol D. Leonnig. "Plame's Suit Against Top Officials Dismissed", The Washington Post, July 20, 2007. 
  13. ^ Joseph and Valerie Wilson Legal Support Trust Home Page, [July 20, 2007], accessed July 27, 2007. Cf. "Statement on Ambassador Joseph and Valerie Wilsons' Appeal Filed on July 20", Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW), July 20, 2007, accessed July 27, 2007.
  14. ^ George W. Bush (January 28, 2003). President Delivers "State of the Union". White House.
  15. ^ a b c Report of the Select Committee on Intelligence (PDF) 39–46, 208-222 (July 9, 2004).
  16. ^ a b Susan Schmidt. "Plame's Input Is Cited on Niger Mission", Washington Post, July 10, 2004. 
  17. ^ a b "Statement by George J. Tenet, Director of Central Intelligence". Retrieved on July 11, 2003. 
  18. ^ a b c Neil A. Lewis. "First Source of C.I.A. Leak Said to Admit Role", The New York Times, August 30, 2006. 
  19. ^ "Envoy Says Leak Endangers CIA Wife", CBS News, October 6, 2003. 
  20. ^ "Letter from Bruce C. Swartz to David Addington (PDF page 4)", Department of Justice. 
  21. ^ a b Robert D. Novak, "Mission To Niger", The Washington Post, July 14, 2003
  22. ^ Timothy M. Phelps and Knut Royce. "Columnist Blows CIA Agent's Cover", Newsday, July 22, 2003. 
  23. ^ a b George Tenet (2007). At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA. New York: HarperCollins, 462. 
  24. ^ "Letter from James B. Comey to Patrick Fitzgerald", United States Department of Justice. 
  25. ^ David Stout. "Bush Says He'll Fire Any Aide Who 'Committed a Crime'", New York Times, July 18, 2005. 
  26. ^ Jim VandeHei and Walter Pincus. "Role of Rove, Libby in CIA Leak Case Clearer", The Washington Post, October 2, 2005. 
  27. ^ a b c United States District Court for the District of Columbia (October 28, 2005). Indictment.PDF (152 KiB) in UNITED STATES OF AMERICA v. I. LEWIS LIBBY, also known as "SCOOTER LIBBY". Accessed February 17, 2007. (Full text of Indictment also accessible in Wikisource.)
  28. ^ "Lawyer: Rove Won't Be Charged in CIA Leak Case", CNN.com, June 13, 2006
  29. ^ "No charges against Rove in CIA leak case", New York Times, June 14, 2006
  30. ^ "Plame Lawsuit Brief", USA Today, accessed July 13, 2006.
  31. ^ a b c United States District Judge John D. Bates. "United States District Court for the District of Columbia Memorandum Opinion", July 19, 2007. 
  32. ^ David Corn, "What Valerie Plame Really Did at the CIA", The Nation (Web only) September 6, 2006, accessed December 6, 2006.
  33. ^ The Associated Press. "Cheney aide denies Libby account of CIA leak", CBC, January 25, 2007. 
  34. ^ a b c "Libby's Grand Jury Testimony (PDF)", March 5, 2004. 
  35. ^ "Libby's Grand Jury Testimony (PDF)", March 24, 2004. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h "Plame hearing transcript", Raw Story, March 16, 2007. 
  37. ^ "Outed CIA operative blames White House, State officials", Associated Press, March 16, 2007. 
  38. ^ Julie Hirschfeld Davis (Associated Press). ""Plame Sheds Little Light in Leak Case"", Newsday, March 17, 2007. 
  39. ^ George Tenet (2007). At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA. New York: HarperCollins, 453-454. 
  40. ^ Report of the Select Committee on Intelligence (PDF) 205-222 (July 9, 2004).
  41. ^ Shaun Waterman. "Analysis: Plame Asked to Explain Trip Role", United Press International, May 31, 2007. 
  42. ^ Alan Cooperman. "Valerie Plame, Telling the (Edited) Inside Story", Washington Post, October 22, 2007. 
  43. ^ "I. Lewis 'Scooter' Libby Guilty on Four of Five Counts in CIA Leak Trial", Fox News, March 6, 2007. 
  44. ^ David Corn, "A White House Smear", Capital Games (blog), The Nation. July 16, 2003.
  45. ^ David Corn. "Plamegate Finale: We Were Right; They Were Wrong", The Nation, 10/22/2007. 
  46. ^ a b c Robert Novak. "The CIA Leak", CNN, October 1, 2003.  See also: "Novak: 'No great crime' with Leak", CNN, October 1, 2003, accessed December 12, 2006.
  47. ^ a b Robert D. Novak, "The CIA Leak", TownHall.com, October 1, 2003, accessed December 12, 2006.
  48. ^ Joe Wilson Who's Who in America entry
  49. ^ a b Walter Pincus and Mike Allen. "Leak of Agent's Name Causes Exposure of CIA Front Firm", The Washington Post, October 4, 2003. 
  50. ^ "Plame campaign contribution search". 
  51. ^ Murray S. Waas "Plame Gate," American Prospect (web exclusive), December 2, 2004.
  52. ^ a b Walter Pincus and Jim VandeHei. "Prosecutor In CIA Leak Case Casting A Wide Net", The Washington Post, July 27, 2005. 
  53. ^ Josh Marshall. "It's Clear the Leakers Knew What They Were Doing", The Hill, July 14, 2005. 
  54. ^ Robert Novak. "Ex-CIA official’s comment about Plame story is inaccurate", August 2, 2005. 
  55. ^ Murray Waas. "Rove-Novak Call Was Concern To Leak Investigators", National Journal, May 25, 2006. 
  56. ^ "Novak: 'No great crime' with Leak", CNN, October 1, 2003. 
  57. ^ Dan Froomkin. "The Second Source", The Washington Post (column), July 15, 2005. 
  58. ^ a b c d Isikoff, Michael. "The Man Who Said Too Much", Newsweek, August 28, 2006. 
  59. ^ Transcript, Meet the Press, broadcast on MSNBC, August 27, 2006.
  60. ^ David Johnson. "New Questions About Inquiry in C.I.A. Leak", The New York Times, September 2, 2006. 
  61. ^ Interview with David Martin. "Armitage on CIA Leak — 'I Screwed Up'", CBS News.com, September 7, 2006. 
  62. ^ a b R. Jeffrey Smith. "Armitage Says He Was Source of CIA Leak", The Washington Post, September 8, 2006. 
  63. ^ Robert Novak. "The Real Story behind the Armitage Story", The Chicago Sun Times, September 14, 2006. 
  64. ^ Robert Novak, "Who Said What When: The Rise and fall of the Valerie Plame 'scandal'", The Weekly Standard, October 16, 2006, book review of "Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War," by Michael Isikoff and David Corn, accessed October 8, 2008.
  65. ^ Matt Apuzzo (The Associated Press). "Armitage Says He Was Source on Plame", ABC News, September 8, 2006. 
  66. ^ a b c d Michael J. Sniffen (The Associated Press), "Journalists Name Additional Leak Sources", The San Francisco Chronicle, February 12, 2007, accessed February 15, 2007.
  67. ^ "Novak Memoir: Armitage Wanted Plame Named", Editor and Publisher, July 08, 2007. 
  68. ^ "Affadavit of Patrick Fitzgerald" (PDF), The Next Hurrah (blog), March 1, 2006.  .
  69. ^ Murray Waas. "Rove-Novak Call Was Concern to Leak Investigators", The National Journal, May 25, 2006. 
  70. ^ Robert Novak. "My Role in the Valerie Plame Leak Story", Human Events, July 12, 2006. 
  71. ^ "Government's Response to Court's Inquiry regarding News Articles the Government Intends to Offer As Evidence At Trial (PDF)", The Next Hurrah (blog), May 12, 2006. 
  72. ^ Michael J. Sniffen. "FBI Agent: Libby, Cheney May Have Discussed Plame", Associated Press, February 2, 2007. 
  73. ^ David Johnston, Richard W. Stevenson, and Doublas Jehl. "Cheney Told Aide of C.I.A. Officer, Notes Show", The New York Times, October 24, 2005. 
  74. ^ Murray Waas. "The Libby-Cheney Connection", The National Journal, February 19, 2007. 
  75. ^ Murray Waas. "Libby Says Bush Authorized Leaks", National Journal, April 6, 2006. 
  76. ^ Murray Waas. "Bush Directed Cheney To Counter War Critic", The National Journal, July 3, 2006. 
  77. ^ a b "Appeals from the United States District Court for the District of Columbia IN RE: GRAND JURY SUBPOENA, JUDITH MILLER", Reissued June 29, 2007. 
  78. ^ Emma Schwartz. "First Witnesses May Bolster Libby Defense", LegalTimes.com, January 29, 2007. 
  79. ^ The Associated Press. "Libby Describes Forgetting, Relearning CIA Operative's Identity", USA Today, February 6, 2007. 
  80. ^ "Diary of the Leak Trial (Timeline)", The New York Times. 
  81. ^ Neil A. Lewis. "In Closing Pleas, Clashing Views on Libby’s Role", The New York Times, February 21, 2007. 
  82. ^ Dan Froomkin. "The Cloud Over Cheney", Washington Post, February 21, 2007. 
  83. ^ Amy Goldstein and Carol D. Leonnig. "Court Hears Libby Describe Cheney as 'Upset' at Critic", The Washington Post, February 7, 2007. 
  84. ^ The Associated Press and Editor and Publisher. "FBI Agent Testifies Libby Learned About Plame from Cheney", libertypost.org (blog), February 1, 2007. 
  85. ^ a b c d Greg Mitchell (Editor and Publisher). "Juror Explains Libby Verdict: They Felt He Was 'Fall Guy'", libertypost.org (blog), March 6, 2007. 
  86. ^ a b c d Alex Johnson. "'Where’s Rove? Where are these other guys?': Juror Says Libby Was Guilty But Was Set Up to Take the Fall in Plame Probe", MSNBC, March 6, 2007. 
  87. ^ a b "Transcript of Hardball with Chris Matthews", MSNBC.com, March 8, 2007. 
  88. ^ "Juror Calls On Bush to Pardon Libby", MSNBC, March 7, 2007. 
  89. ^ Neil A. Lewis. "Libby Prosecutor Asks for No Leniency in Sentence", New York Times, May 26, 2007. 
  90. ^ Carol D. Leonnig. "Libby's Lawyers Argue Against Prison as Fitzgerald Seeks 30 Months", The Washington Post, June 1, 2007. 
  91. ^ Joel Seidman. "Was Libby’s Prison Sentence 'excessive'?", NBC News, July 8, 2007. 
  92. ^ ""Government's Memorandum Of Law In Support Of Its Proposed Sentencing Guidelines Calculations"", The Next Hurrah (blog), May 25, 2007. 
  93. ^ The Associated Press. "Libby Sentenced to 30 Months in Prison", MSNBC, June 5, 2007. 
  94. ^ Carol D. Leonnig and Amy Goldstein. "Libby Given 21/2-Year Prison Term", The Washington Post, June 6, 2007. 
  95. ^ Scott Shane and Neil A. Lewis. "Bush Commutes Libby Sentence, Saying 30 Months 'Is Excessive'", The New York Times, July 3, 2007. 
  96. ^ Joel Seidman. "Libby Pays $250,000 Fine", NBC News, July 5, 2007. 
  97. ^ Jim Rutenberg and Scott Shane. "Libby Pays Fine: Judge Poses Probation Query", The New York Times, July 6, 2007. 
  98. ^ "Press Conference by the President", whitehouse.gov, July 12, 2007. 
  99. ^ John Solomon. "Source Tells AP About Rove's Grand Jury Testimony on Plame Leak", Associated Press, July 15, 2005. 
  100. ^ a b Murray Waas. "Why Rove Testified for a Fifth Time", The National Journal, April 28, 2006. 
  101. ^ Pete Yost]] (The Associated Press). "Mysterious 'Official A' Is Karl Rove", TruthOut.org (blog), October 28, 2005. 
  102. ^ Template error: argument title is required. 
  103. ^ Bill Saporito. "When to Give Up a Source", Time, July 3, 2005. 
  104. ^ Carol D. Leonnig. "Lawyer Says Rove Talked to Reporter, Did Not Leak Name", Washington Post, July 3, 2005. 
  105. ^ Tom Hamburger and Richard T. Cooper. "Obvious Question in Plame Case Had Early Answer", The Los Angeles Times, September 9, 2006. 
  106. ^ Jim VandeHei. "Rove Testifies 5th Time on Leak", Washington Post, April 27, 2006. 
  107. ^ "Novak: Rove Confirmed Plame's Identity: Columnist Reveals Cooperation in Probe, Won't Name First Source", CNN July 11, 2006, accessed February 19, 2007.
  108. ^ Russ Hoyle, "The Niger Affair: The Investigation That Won't Go Away," "Foreword" (xiii-xlix) in Joseph C. Wilson, IV, The Politics of Truth: Inside the Lies that Put the White House on Trial and Betrayed My Wife's CIA Identity: A Diplomat's Memoir, rev. ed. (2004; New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2005) xl: "Rove reportedly told MSNBC's Chris Matthews, the host of the political talk show Hardball, that the White House considered Wilson and his wife fair game for poiltical payback." Cf. Joseph C. Wilson, "The Sixteen Words", chap. 1 in The Politics of Truth:

    "'WILSON'S WIFE IS FAIR GAME.'" Those are fighting words for any man, and I'd just had them quoted to me by MSNBC's Chris Matthews. It was July 21, 2003, barely a week since a column by Robert Novak in the Washington Post had named my wife, Valerie, as a CIA officer, and now the host of Hardball was calling to tell me that as far as the White House was concerned, they had declared open season on my family. ... In his signature staccato, Matthews was blunt: "I just got off the phone with Karl Rove. He says, and I quote, 'Wilson's wife is fair game.'" (1; cf. 4-5, 351, 373) See main article: Lewis Libby See main article: Plame affair United States of America v. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This page is for the diplomat. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Stanley M. Moskowitz (c. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... John Conyers, Jr. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Talking points are small arguments or phrases that political strategists issue to representatives or supporters of a party or administration to be used over and over again in speeches, talk show appearances and debates. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This page is for the diplomat. ... Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW) is a Washington, DC-based advocacy organization which professes to fight corruption by U.S. government officials. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Carol D. Leonnig is an American investigative journalist and a prominent Washington Post Staff Writer. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW) is a Washington, DC-based advocacy organization which professes to fight corruption by U.S. government officials. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 11, 2003 Zahra Kazemi, an Iranian-born Canadian journalist, dies of injuries received from a beating while in Iranian custody. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Newsday is a daily tabloid-size newspaper that primarily serves Long Island and the New York City borough of Queens, although it is sold throughout the New York City metropolitan area. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Tenet George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University and was previously the Director of Central Intelligence for the United States Central Intelligence Agency. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... The United States District Court for the District of Columbia is the United States District Court that hears cases originating in the District of Columbia under Federal law. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the countrys national radio and television broadcaster. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Newsday is a daily tabloid-size newspaper that primarily serves Long Island and the New York City borough of Queens, although it is sold throughout the New York City metropolitan area. ... George Tenet George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University and was previously the Director of Central Intelligence for the United States Central Intelligence Agency. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walter Haskell Pincus (born December 24, 1932) is a national security journalist for The Washington Post. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Murray S. Waas is an American freelance investigative reporter who has been noted for his coverage of the White House planning for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The American Prospect is a monthly magazine which focuses on US politics and public policy. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walter Haskell Pincus (born December 24, 1932) is a national security journalist for The Washington Post. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... . The Hill is a mostly Italian-American neighborhood within Saint Louis, Missouri, located on high ground south of the River des Peres and Interstate 44. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dan Froomkin is a journalist for the Washington Post. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Meet the Press (MTP) is a weekly television news show produced by NBC. It started as a radio show in 1945 as American Mercury Presents: Meet the Press, originating from WRC-AM in Washington. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... New Chicago Sun-Times building located at 350 N. Orleans St. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative [1] magazine published 48 times per year. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Isikoff (born 1952) is an investigative journalist for the United States-based magazine Newsweek. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... The San Francisco Chronicle, the self-described Voice of the West, is Northern Californias largest newspaper. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Editor & Publisher (E&P) is a now-monthly journal covering the North American newspaper industry. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Murray S. Waas (born circa 1968) is an American freelance investigative journalist noted most recently for his coverage of the White House planning for the 2003 invasion of Iraq and ensuing controversies such as the CIA leak investigation. ... National Journal is a weekly magazine about American politics and government, published by National Journal Group, Inc. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... Human Events is a weekly conservative magazine founded in 1944. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Murray S. Waas (born circa 1968) is an American freelance investigative journalist noted most recently for his coverage of the White House planning for the 2003 invasion of Iraq and ensuing controversies such as the CIA leak investigation. ... National Journal is a weekly magazine about American politics and government, published by National Journal Group, Inc. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Murray S. Waas (born circa 1968) is an American freelance investigative journalist noted most recently for his coverage of the White House planning for the 2003 invasion of Iraq and ensuing controversies such as the CIA leak investigation. ... National Journal is a weekly magazine about American politics and government, published by National Journal Group, Inc. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States District Court for the District of Columbia is the United States District Court that hears cases originating in the District of Columbia under Federal law. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Carol D. Leonnig is an American investigative journalist and a prominent Washington Post Staff Writer. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... Editor & Publisher (E&P) is a now-monthly journal covering the North American newspaper industry. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Editor & Publisher (E&P) is a now-monthly journal covering the North American newspaper industry. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Hardball with Chris Matthews is a talk show on MSNBC broadcast weekdays at 5 and 7 PM hosted by Chris Matthews. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Carol D. Leonnig is an American investigative journalist and a prominent Washington Post Staff Writer. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... Carol D. Leonnig is an American investigative journalist and a prominent Washington Post Staff Writer. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Murray S. Waas (born circa 1968) is an American freelance investigative journalist noted most recently for his coverage of the White House planning for the 2003 invasion of Iraq and ensuing controversies such as the CIA leak investigation. ... National Journal is a weekly magazine about American politics and government, published by National Journal Group, Inc. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carol D. Leonnig is an American investigative journalist and a prominent Washington Post Staff Writer. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Los Angeles Times (also L.A. Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Niger documents The Niger uranium forgeries refers to falsified classified documents initially revealed by Italian intelligence. ... The Politics of Truth: Inside the Lies that Led to War and Betrayed My Wifes CIA Identity: A Diplomats Memoir (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2004; paperback ed. ... Carroll & Graf Publishers is an imprint of Avalon Publishing Group specializing in history, biography, and fiction. ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... This article is about the journalist. ... Hardball with Chris Matthews is a talk show on MSNBC broadcast weekdays at 5 and 7 PM hosted by Chris Matthews. ... This article is about the journalist. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... ... “CIA” redirects here. ... Hardball with Chris Matthews is a talk show on MSNBC broadcast weekdays at 5 and 7 PM hosted by Chris Matthews. ... This page is about the official residence of the President of the USA. For other White Houses see White House (disambiguation). ... Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W. Bush until the end of August 2007. ...

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The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... Front page of the Tribune incorrectly reporting that Dewey won the 1948 presidential election The Chicago Tribune, formerly self-styled as the Worlds Greatest Newspaper, remains the leading newspaper of the Midwest of the United States. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Carol D. Leonnig is an American investigative journalist and a prominent Washington Post Staff Writer. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. 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Selected references

Screenshot from Media Matters for America (Jan 6, 2006) Media Matters for America (or MMfA) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded in 2004 by journalist and author David Brock. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. [2] Founded on July 6, 1865 as an Abolitionist publication, it is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Dickerson is chief political correspondent for Slate magazine. ... Viveca Novak is an American journalist. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Barton Gellman is a journalist writing for the Washington Post. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen F. Hayes is a columnist for The Weekly Standard, a prominent American right-wing magazine. ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative [1] magazine published 48 times per year. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Isikoff (born 1952) is an investigative journalist for the United States-based magazine Newsweek. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Corn is a political correspondent for The Nation and author of the book as well as the political novel Deep Background and the biography Blond Ghost: Ted Shackley and the CIAs Crusades. ... David Johnston studied with Buckminster Fuller at Southern Illinois University, graduating with a degree in Environmental Systems Design. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Johnston studied with Buckminster Fuller at Southern Illinois University, graduating with a degree in Environmental Systems Design. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Accuracy In Media (AIM) is an American organization which monitors the news media in the United States. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zell Bryan Miller (born February 24, 1932) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Georgia. ... The Atlanta Journal-Constitution is the only major daily newspaper of Atlanta and metro Atlanta. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lowell Bergman (born July 24, 1945) is an investigative reporter with The New York Times and a producer/correspondent for the PBS documentary series Frontline. ... FRONTLINE is a public affairs television program of varying length produced at WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts, and distributed through the Public Broadcasting Service network in the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled WGBH-TV, WGBH (FM) and WGBX-TV, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Boston redirects here. ... PBS redirects here. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... WXXI is a public television station which operates on Channel 21 in Rochester, New York, and is the PBS member station for that city and the surrounding metro area. ... This article is about the city of Rochester in Monroe County. ... Windows Media Player (WMP) is a digital media player and media library application developed by Microsoft that is used for playing audio, video and viewing images on personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system, as well as on Pocket PC and Windows Mobile-based devices. ... QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Robert David Sanders Novak (born February 26, 1931) is a conservative American political commentator. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative [1] magazine published 48 times per year. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Parry is an American investigative journalist who has written extensively about the Iran-Contra scandal. ... The Baltimore Chronicle was founded as The City Dweller, an independent monthly newspaper, by Larry Krause in April 1973 and incorporated as Schenley Press, Inc. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Times[1] is a daily broadsheet newspaper published in Washington, D.C., United States. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... International Freedom of Expression eXchange. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Las Vegas Sun was one of Las Vegas, Nevadas two daily newspapers. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. United Press International (UPI) is a global news agency headquartered in the United States filing news in English, Spanish and Arabic. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. United Press International (UPI) is a global news agency headquartered in the United States filing news in English, Spanish and Arabic. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is dedicated to overseeing the United States Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... PBS redirects here. ... The WGBH identity still used today WGBH is Boston, Massachusetts longtime public television and public radio station (PBS and NPR affiliates, respectively). ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Marcy Wheeler at a fundraising event for the YearlyKos convention Marcy Wheeler is an American blogger, who writes primarily for The Next Hurrah, where her online moniker is emptywheel. ... This page is for the diplomat. ...

Other related external links

  • A Conversation with Ambassador Joseph Wilson, IV, Google Video/UC Berkeley Educational Technology Services
  • Joseph and Valerie Wilson Legal Support Trust. Accessed August 7, 2007.
  • News War: "A special four-part investigation into the future of news." Frontline. Prod. WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts) and a co-production of Frontline in association with the UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism. Broadcast by PBS. Parts 1 and 2: Secrets, Sources, and Spin. Part 1 first broadcast on February 13, 2007. Streaming video in Windows Media Player and Quicktime and multiple other online resources, incl. broadcast schedule, full interviews, and full transcripts (within 7 to 10 days of the broadcast of each part). Part 1 incl. "Prologue: The Plame Affair" (chap. 1) and "Epilogue: 'Plamegate'" (chap. 8).
  • The Politics of Truth: Inside the Lies That Put the White House on Trial and Betrayed My Wife's CIA Identity: A Diplomat's Memoir, by Joseph Wilson: website featuring excerpts from the book, interviews, and reviews, a news archive, and "Bibliography", with hyperlinks. Copyright © 2004, Carroll & Graf Publishers & Joseph Wilson.
  • Special Counsel Patrick J. Fitzgerald's official Web site.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Valerie Wilson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4418 words)
Plame graduated in 1985 from The Pennsylvania State University with a BA in Advertising, she also attended the London School of Economics and Political Science, UK, and the College of Europe, an international-relations school in Bruges, in 1995.
Plame is known to have served in a classified position as a CIA officer.
The revelation of Plame's identity by Novak is the basis for the "Plame affair" (aka.
Plame, Valerie (487 words)
since valerie plame was not in the news, was not publicly bashing the bushvolk...
We just love all the crowing in the right-wing press about how Valerie Plame and the liberals who cheer her on are not going after Richard Armitage now that he...
Now that the truth about the Valerie Plame identity leak has been revealed, the folks who relentlessly perpetuated a story they knew was untrue, for the sole...
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