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Encyclopedia > Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the practice of claiming or implying original authorship of (or incorporating material from) someone else's written or creative work, in whole or in part, into one's own without adequate acknowledgement. Unlike cases of forgery, in which the authenticity of the writing, document, or some other kind of object itself is in question, plagiarism is concerned with the issue of false attribution. The term plagiarism may refer to: Plagiarism, a form of academic dishonesty Plagiarism, a 1998 recording by the band Sparks Plagiarism, a six-track EP of covers by The Dillinger Escape Plan. ... Forgery is the process of making or adapting objects or documents (see false document), with the intention to deceive. ...


Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud and offenders are subject to academic censure. In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier, simply by copying and pasting text from one web page to another. Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... Academic dishonesty or academic misconduct is any type of cheating that occurs in relation to a formal academic exercise. ... An academic scandal is one that exposes the unethical or erroneous work of a major academic figure. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... Journalism ethics or journalistic ethics refers to a set of rules or morals adopted by news organizations or members of the news media. ... For the Wikipedia quotation templates, see Category:Quotation templates. ... For other uses, see Citation (disambiguation). ... Windows keys for cut and pasting: Control + x (cut), Control + c (copy), Control + v (paste) In human-computer interaction, cut and paste or copy and paste is a user interface paradigm for transferring text, data, files or objects from a source to a destination. ...


Plagiarism is different from copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they emphasize different aspects of the transgression. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of the copyright holder, when material is used without the copyright holder's consent. On the other hand, plagiarism is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation that is achieved through false claims of authorship. The Cathach of St. ... Look up reputation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Sanctions

Academia

In the academic world, plagiarism by students is a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment (typically at the high school level) or for the course (typically at the college or university level). For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism (e.g., submitting a copied article as his or her own work), a student may be suspended or expelled. Many students feel pressured to complete papers well and quickly, and with the accessibility of new technology (The Internet) students can plagiarize by copying and pasting information from other sources. This is often easily detected by teachers, for several reasons. First, students' choice of sources are frequently unoriginal; instructors may receive the same passage copied from a popular source (such as Wikipedia) from several students. Second, it is often easy to tell whether a student used his or her own "voice." Third, students may choose sources which are inappropriate, off-topic, or contain incorrect information. Fourth, lecturers may insist that submitted work is first submitted to an online plagiarism detector.[1] Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...


In many universities, academic degrees or awards may be revoked as a penalty for plagiarism.


There is little academic research into the frequency of plagiarism in high schools. Much of the research investigated plagiarism at the post-secondary level.[2] Of the forms of cheating (including plagiarism, inventing data, and cheating during an exam), students admit to plagiarism more than any other. However, this figure decreases considerably when students are asked about the frequency of "serious" plagiarism (such as copying most of an assignment or purchasing a complete paper from a website). Recent use of plagiarism detection software (see below) gives a more accurate picture of this activity's prevalence.


For professors and researchers, plagiarism is punished by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and integrity. Charges of plagiarism against students and professors are typically heard by internal disciplinary committees, which students and professors have agreed to be bound by.


Journalism

Since journalism's main currency is public trust, a reporter's failure to honestly acknowledge their sources undercuts a newspaper or television news show's integrity and undermines its credibility. Journalists accused of plagiarism are often suspended from their reporting tasks while the charges are being looked into by the news organization. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


The ease with which electronic text can be reproduced from online sources has lured a number of reporters into acts of plagiarism: Journalists have been caught "copying-and-pasting" articles and text from a number of websites.


Online plagiarism

Since it is very easy to steal content from the web by simply copying and pasting, the problem of online plagiarism is growing. This phenomenon, also known as content scraping, is affecting both established sites [3] and blogs [4]. The motivation is often to attract away part or all of the original site's search engine-generated web traffic and to convert these stolen visitors into revenue through the use of online ads. A search engine is an information retrieval system designed to help find information stored on a computer system. ... // Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a web site. ... Online advertising is a form of advertising utilizing the Internet and World Wide Web in order to deliver marketing messages and attract customers. ...


Free online tools are becoming available to detect and prevent plagiarism [5], and there are a range of approaches that attempt to limit online copying, such as disabling right clicking and placing warning banners against plagiarism on web pages. Once identified, instances of plagiarism are commonly addressed by the rightful content owners sending a DMCA removal notice to the offending site-owner, or to the ISP that is hosting the offending site. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a controversial United States copyright law which criminalizes production and dissemination of technology that can circumvent measures taken to protect copyright, not merely infringement of copyright itself, and heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet. ... ISP may mean: Internet service provider, an organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ...


Other contexts

Generally, although plagiarism is often loosely referred to as theft or stealing, it has not been set as a criminal matter in the courts.[6] Likewise, plagiarism has no standing as a criminal offense in the common law. Instead, claims of plagiarism are a civil law matter, which an aggrieved person can resolve by launching a lawsuit. Acts that may constitute plagiarism are in some instances treated as copyright infringement, unfair competition, or a violation of the doctrine of moral rights. The increased availability of intellectual property due to a rise in technology has furthered the debate as to whether copyright offences are criminal. For other uses, see Crime (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... This article is about civil law within the common law legal system. ... The Cathach of St. ... Antitrust is also the name for a movie, see Antitrust (movie) Antitrust or competition laws legislate against trade practices that undermine competitiveness or are considered to be unfair. ... Moral rights are rights of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and first recognized in France and Germany, before they were included in the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in 1928. ...


Self-plagiarism

Self-plagiarism is the reuse of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of one’s own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or without citing the original work. Articles of this nature are often referred to as multiple publications. Typically, high public-interest texts are not a subject of self-plagiarism; however, the authors should not violate copyright where applicable. "Public-interest texts" include such material as social, professional, and cultural opinions usually published in newspapers and magazines.


In academic fields, self-plagiarism is a problem when an author reuses portions of his or her own published and copyrighted work in subsequent publications, but without attributing the previous publication.[7] Identifying self-plagiarism is often difficult because of legal issues regarding fair use.[8] Some professional organizations like the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) have created policies that deal specifically with self-plagiarism.[9] As compared to plagiarism, self-plagiarism is not yet very well-regulated. Some universities and editorial boards chose to not regulate it at all; those consider the term self-plagiarism oxymoronic since a person cannot be accused of stealing from himself. For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ... Look up oxymoron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


For authors wishing to avoid potential issues when authoring new papers, the authors are strongly encouraged to follow these "best practices":

  1. Provide full disclosure — mention in the introduction that the new or derivative work incorporates texts previously published.
  2. Ensure there is no violation of copyright.
  3. Cite the old works in the references section of the new work.

Organizational publications

Plagiarism is presumably not an issue when organizations issue collective unsigned works since they do not assign credit for originality to particular people. For example, the American Historical Association's "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct" (2005) regarding textbooks and reference books states that there is no question about taking credit for someone else's ideas. Since textbooks and encyclopedias are summaries of other scholars' work, they are not bound by the same exacting standards of attribution as original research. However, even such a book does not make use of words, phrases, or paragraphs from another text or follow too closely the other text's arrangement and organization. The American Historical Association (AHA) is a society of historians and teachers of history founded in 1884 and incorporated by the United States Congress in 1889. ...


Within an organization, in its own working documents, standards are looser but not non-existent. If someone helped with a report, they expect to be credited. If a paragraph comes from a law report, a citation is expected to be written down. Technical manuals routinely copy facts from other manuals without attribution, because they assume a common spirit of scientific endeavor (as evidenced, for example, in free and open source software projects) in which scientists freely share their work. Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... ...


The Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications Third Edition (2003) by Microsoft does not even mention plagiarism, nor does Science and Technical Writing: A Manual of Style, Second Edition (2000) by Philip Rubens. The line between permissible literary and impermissible source code plagiarism, though, is apparently quite fine. As with any technical field, computer programming makes use of what others have contributed to the general knowledge.


It is common for university researchers to rephrase and republish their own work, tailoring it for different academic journals and newspaper articles, to disseminate their work to the widest possible interested public. However, it must be borne in mind that these researchers also obey limits: If half an article is the same as a previous one, it will usually be rejected. One of the functions of the process of peer review in academic writing is to prevent this type of "recycling". Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ...


Public figures commonly use anonymous speech writers. If a speech uses plagiarized material, however, it is the public figure who may be cast in a bad light. For instance, Delaware Senator Joe Biden was forced out of the 1988 U.S. Presidential race (but remained in the U.S. Senate) when it was discovered that parts of his campaign speeches were plagiarized from speeches by British Labour party leader Neil Kinnock and Robert Kennedy. This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Biden redirects here. ... Joseph Robinette Joe Biden, Jr. ... Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ...


Examples of purported or actual plagiarism

Academia

  • The earliest known instance of an accusation of purported plagiarism was in the 11th century, when al-Khatib al-Baghdadi accused al-Jahiz's Book of Animals of having plagiarized parts of Aristotle's Kitāb al-Hayawān,[10] but later scholars have noted that there was only a limited Aristotelian influence in al-Jahiz's work, and that al-Baghdadi may have been unacquainted with Aristotle's work.[11]
  • James A. Mackay, a Scottish historian, was forced to withdraw all copies of his biography of Alexander Graham Bell from circulation in 1998 because he plagiarized the last major work on the subject, a 1973 work. Also accused of plagiarizing material on biographies of Mary Queen of Scots, Andrew Carnegie, and Sir William Wallace, he was forced to withdraw his next work, on John Paul Jones, in 1999 for an identical reason.[12][13]
  • Marks Chabedi, a professor at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa, plagiarized his doctoral thesis. He used a work written by Kimberly Lanegran at the University of Florida and copied it nearly verbatim before submitting it to The New School. When Lanegran discovered this, she launched an investigation into Chabedi. He was fired from his professorship, and The New School revoked his Ph.D.[14] (The OCLC numbers for the dissertations are AAG9801108 and AAI9980001.)
  • Historian Stephen Ambrose has been criticized for incorporating passages from the works of other authors into many of his books. He was first accused in 2002 by two writers for copying portions about World War II bomber pilots from Thomas Childers's The Wings of Morning in his book The Wild Blue.[15] After Ambrose admitted to the errors, the New York Times found further unattributed passages, and "Mr. Ambrose again acknowledged his errors and promised to correct them in later editions."[16]
  • Author Doris Kearns Goodwin interviewed author Lynne McTaggart in her 1987 book The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys, and she used passages from McTaggart's book about Kathleen Kennedy. In 2002, when the similarities between Goodwin's and McTaggart's books became public, Goodwin stated that she had an understanding that citations would not be required for all references, and that extensive footnotes already existed. Many doubted her claims, and she was forced to resign from the Pulitzer Prize board. [17][18]
  • Mathematician and computer scientist Dănuţ Marcu claims to have published over 383 original papers in various scientific publications. A number of his recent papers have been proven to be exact copies of papers published earlier by other people. [19]
  • A University of Colorado investigating committee found Ethnic Studies professor and activist Ward Churchill guilty of multiple counts of plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification. After the Chancellor recommended Churchill's dismissal to the Board of Regents, Churchill was fired on 24 July 2007.[20][21]
  • Physicist and Vice Chancellor of Kumaon University, India, Prof. B.S. Rajput resigned in 2003 after he and a student were found guilty of plagiarism of a paper (which formed part of the student's thesis).[22][23]
  • In 2007 researchers of Anna University Chennai in Madras published a paper in the Journal of Materials Science [24], an exact copy of an article from the University of Linköping published in PNAS [25] [26]

Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn `Ali ibn Thabit ibn Ahmad ibn Mahdi al-Shafi`i (392-463), A.K.A al-Khatib al-Baghdadi or the writer from Baghdad was a Shafii Sunni Muslim Islamic scholar. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... The Kitāb al-hayawān (كتاب الحيوان, English: Book of Animals) is an Arabic translation in 19 treatises (maqālāt) of the following zoological texts by Aristotle: Historia Animalium : treatises 1-10 De Partibus Animalium : treatises 11-14 De Generatione Animalium : treatises 15-19 While the book is often attributed... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... James Alexander Mackay is a Scottish historian and philatelist, twice accused of wholesale plagiarism 1936-2007. ... This article is about the country. ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 - 2 August 1922) was a Scottish scientist, inventor and innovator. ... Mary I of Scotland; known as Mary, Queen of Scots Mary I of Scotland (Mary Stuart or Stewart) (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587), better known as Mary, Queen of Scots, was the ruler of Scotland from December 14, 1542 – July 24, 1567. ... Andrew Carnegie (last name pronounced IPA: )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel. ... Sir William Wallace (c. ... John Paul Jones (July 11, 1747–July 18, 1792) was Americas first well-known naval hero in the American Revolutionary War. ... The University of the Witwatersrand (pronounced vit-vaters-rant, with flat vowels -- see South African English) is a leading South African university situated in Johannesburg. ... The University of Florida (Florida or UF) is a flagship public land-grant, sea-grant[3] major research university located on a 2,000 acre campus in Gainesville, Florida, United States of America. ... The New School is an institution of higher learning in New York City, located around Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and Richard M. Nixon. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Doris Kearns Goodwin (born January 4, 1943 in Brooklyn, New York) is an award-winning American author and historian. ... DănuÅ£ Marcu (born January 11, 1952, Bucharest) is a Romanian mathematician and computer scientist, who received his Ph. ... Ward LeRoy Churchill (born October 2, 1947) is an American writer and political activist. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Anna University Chennai, one of the leading technological universities of India came into existence in January 2007 upon trifurcation of Anna University into three universities, namely, Anna University Chennai, Anna University Trichy and Anna University Coimbatore. ... Linköping University Linköping University (LiU) or Linköpings universitet is a state university in Linköping, Sweden. ...

Business

On 6 June 2007, the Financial Times published a front page article under the headline: "'Pipeliners All!’ Shell’s memo to Sakhalin" [27] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The article was about a leaked motivational memo in the form of an email from David Greer, the deputy chief executive of Sakhalin Energy circulated to Sakhalin-2 staff. Some keen eyed readers noticed that inspirational passages were appropriated from a famous speech given by the legendary U.S. General George S. Patton, on 5 June 1944 on the eve of D-Day the Sixth of June. On 7 June 2007, a quarter page follow-up article was published in the Financial Times newspaper and on the FT.com website, under the headline: "Sakhalin motivational memo borrows heavily from Patton” [28][citation needed] Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd. ... George Patton redirects here. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ...


On Monday 11 June 2007, the Financial Times published another article at [29] on the subject, this time headlined: “Motivational memos must make their message clear”. One of the opening paragraphs stated: “The memo (www.ft.com/shell) is crass, poorly punctuated and most of it wasn't even written by its author, David Greer, deputy chief executive of Royal Dutch Shell's Sakhalin Energy Investment Company. He had lifted the words of General George S. Patton with no attribution, and clumsily adapted them to spur on his team of recalcitrant pipeline engineers”.[citation needed] David Greer (b. ... Royal Dutch Shell plc is a multinational oil company of British and Dutch origins. ...


On 9 June 2007, The Moscow Times published a front page article on the controversy headlined: Sakhalin Pep Talk From ‘Old Blood and Guts'. Moscow Times is an independent English language Russian daily newspaper. ...


On Friday 22 June 2007, The Moscow Times published a front page story with the headline: "Sakhalin Energy's Greer Steps Down". The newspaper reported that "David Greer, the Sakhalin Energy deputy CEO running the giant Sakhalin-2 oil and gas project, has left the company unexpectedly just weeks after a leaked e-mail he wrote revealed the pressure that managers working there were facing". The article said that Greer had been a 27-year Shell veteran, and was leaving to pursue other business interests.


Computer games

  • Atari's video game Pong was accused by Magnavox of being a copy of the Odyssey's tennis game. Nolan Bushnell saw Ralph Baer's version at a 1972 electronics show in Burlingame, California. Bushnell then founded Atari and established Pong as its featured game. "Baer and Magnavox filed suit against Bushnell and Atari in 1973 and finally reached an out-of-court settlement in 1976. It marked the end for Odyssey and the beginning of the Atari age."[30] [31]

For other uses, see Pong (disambiguation). ... Magnavox (Latin for great voice) is an electronics company founded by Edwin Pridham and Peter L. Jensen. ... Nolan K. Bushnell (born February 5, 1943) is an American electrical engineer and entrepreneur who founded both Atari and the Chuck E. Cheeses Pizza-Time Theaters chain. ... Ralph H. Baer (born 1922) is a German-born American inventor, noted for his many contributions to games and the video game industry. ... Location in San Mateo County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Mateo Incorporated June 6, 1908 Government  - Mayor Terry Nagel  - City Manager Jim Nantell Area  - City  6. ...

Film

  • The 1922 film Nosferatu was an unauthorized adaptation of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula. Stoker's widow sued the producers of Nosferatu, and had many of the film's copies destroyed (although some remain).[32]
  • The 1990 movie Hardware was noted to have substantial similarities to the 2000 AD one-shot story "SHOK!". Following legal action, the filmmakers agreed to amend the credits to read that the movie was "inspired by" the writers of the comic strip.[33]

This article is about the 1922 silent film. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... This article is about the novel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cover of the first issue of 2000 AD, 26 February 1977. ...

Journalism

  • In 1999, writer and television commentator Monica Crowley allegedly plagiarized part of an article she wrote for the Wall Street Journal (August 9, 1999), called "The Day Nixon Said Goodbye." The Journal ran an apology the same week. Timothy Noah of Slate Magazine later wrote of the striking similarities in her article to phrases Paul Johnson used in his 1988 article for Commentary called "In Praise of Richard Nixon".[34]
  • New York Times reporter Jayson Blair plagiarized articles and manufactured quotations in stories, including stories regarding Jessica Lynch and the Beltway sniper attacks. He and several editors from the Times resigned in June 2003.[35]
  • Moorestown Township, New Jersey, high-school student Blair Hornstine had her admission to Harvard University revoked in July 2003 after she was found to have passed off speeches and writings by famous figures, including Bill Clinton, as hers in articles she wrote as a student journalist for a local newspaper.[36]
  • Long-time Baltimore Sun columnist Michael Olesker resigned on January 4, 2006, after being accused of plagiarizing other journalists' articles in his columns.[37]
  • Conservative blogger Ben Domenech, soon after he was hired to write a blog for the Washington Post in 2006, was found to have plagiarized a number of columns and articles he'd written for his college newspaper and National Review Online, lifting passages from a variety of sources ranging from well-known pundits to amateur film critics. Domenech ultimately apologized and resigned.[38]
  • Boston Globe columnist Mike Barnicle was forced to resign when it was revealed that amid other allegations, his Globe column dated August 2, 1998 contained 10 lifted passages from George Carlin's 1997 book Brain Droppings.[39]
  • A Pakistani ezine, Wecite, was found to have plagiarised as many as 11 articles in its May 2007 issue, many of them verbatim, from various sources on the web, including Hindustan Times, Rediff, Blogcritics, Vis-a-Vis magazine and Slate magazines. [40] The ezine management pulled the website and apologised, terming the plagiarism a product of the "mis-use" of authority by writers and editors of the magazines, and promising to deal with the plagiarists accordingly but "by no means" letting the "genuine efforts of its [other] writers, administration, and management suffer for it".[41]
  • In an October 2007 column for The Sun-Herald, Australian television presenter David Koch plagiarised verbatim three lines from a column in The Sunday Telegraph. Koch stated to Media Watch: "... it has since been pointed out to me that these 3 sentences look as though they came from a similar story in another newspaper. While that was not obvious in the research brief it isn't an excuse and I take full responsibility for the mistake."[42]

Monica Crowley (born September 19, 1968) is a conservative radio and television political commentator based in New York City. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Timothy Noah is a senior writer for Slate Magazine, where he writes the Chatterbox column. ... Categories: Magazines stubs | Microsoft subsidiaries | Websites | The Washington Post ... Paul Johnson (born Paul Bede Johnson on 2 November 1928 in Manchester, England) is a British Roman Catholic journalist, historian, speechwriter and author. ... Commentary is an American monthly magazine covering politics, international affairs, Judaism, and social, cultural, and literary issues. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Jayson Blair (born March 23, 1976, Columbia, Maryland) is an African American and former New York Times reporter who was forced to resign from the newspaper in May 2003, after he was caught plagiarizing and fabricating elements of his stories. ... Jessica Dawn Lynch (b. ... Locations of the 15 sniper attacks numbered chronologically. ... Moorestown is a Township in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States. ... Blair L. Hornstine is a woman from Moorestown Township, New Jersey, who achieved notoriety in 2003 by suing Moorestown High School in an effort to name her as its sole valedictorian. ... Harvard redirects here. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... Michael Olesker is a long-time columnist for the Baltimore Sun newspaper who resiged on January 4, 2006, after it was found that he had plagiarized other journalists articles (from the Sun as well as from other newspapers) in his own columns. ... The term Blogger may refer to: A blogger, someone who maintains a weblog. ... Ben Domenech (born December 31, 1981, Jackson, Mississippi) [1] is a conservative blogger who co-founded the RedState group blog. ... ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... Michael Barnicle (born August 24, 1944 in Worcester, Massachusetts) is a radio talk show host in the Boston area with a daily program on WTKK 96. ... George Denis Patrick Carlin[15] (born May 12, 1937) is a Grammy-winning American stand-up comedian, actor, and author. ... Brain Droppings Brain Droppings is a 1997 book by comedian George Carlin. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Online magazine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rediff. ... Blogcritics is a popular news and opinion blog founded in 2002 by Eric Olsen and Phillip Winn. ... Categories: Magazines stubs | Microsoft subsidiaries | Websites | The Washington Post ... The Sydney Morning Herald is one of the most prestigious and important newspapers in Australia, published daily in Sydney, the largest city in Australia. ... David James Koch, (pronounced Kosh), nicknamed Kochie (pronounced Kosh-ee), (born 7 March 1956), is an Australian television personality, and financial commentator. ... The Daily Telegraph is a tabloid newspaper published in Sydney, New South Wales, by Nationwide News, part of News Corporation. ... This article is about the Australian television program. ...

Literature

  • A young Helen Keller was accused in 1892 of plagiarizing Margaret T. Canby's story The Frost Fairies in her short story The Frost King. She was brought before a tribunal of the Perkins Institute for the Blind, where she was acquitted by a single vote. She said she was worried she may have read The Frost Fairies and forgotten it, "remained paranoid about plagiarism ever after" [43][44] and said that this led her to write an autobiography: the one thing she knew must be original.
  • Alex Haley settled a lawsuit with Harold Courlander that cited approximately 80 passages in Haley's novel Roots as having been plagiarized from Courlander's novel The African. "Accusations that portions of 'Roots' (Doubleday hard cover, Dell paperback) consisted of plagiarized material or were concocted plagued Mr. Haley from soon after the book's publication up until his death in February 1992. In 1978, Mr. Haley was sued for plagiarism by Harold Courlander, author of the novel The African, and Haley paid him $650,000 in an out-of-court settlement."[45] Haley insisted that "the passages 'were in something somebody had given me, and I don't know who gave it to me . . . . Somehow or another, it ended up in the book."[46]
  • Dan Brown, author of The Da Vinci Code, has been twice accused of plagiarism resulting in lawsuits, but both suits were ultimately dismissed.[47][48][49][50][51]
    • Brown was accused of "appropriating the architecture" of the book The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail (1982) by Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh. A British judge dismissed the copyright infringement claim in April 2006, on the grounds that the earlier book claims to be non-fictional.
    • Additionally, Brown was accused by novelist Lewis Perdue for plagiarizing his novels The Da Vinci Legacy (1983) and Daughter of God (2000). A U.S. judge dismissed the case in August 2005.
  • Kaavya Viswanathan's first novel How Opal Mehta Got Kissed, Got Wild and Got a Life is reported to contain plagiarized passages from at least five other novels. All editions of the book were subsequently withdrawn, her publishing deal with Little, Brown and Co. was rescinded, and a film deal with Dreamworks SKG was cancelled.[52][53][54]
  • In 1999, J.K. Rowling (author of the Harry Potter series of books) was sued by Nancy Stouffer who claimed the former plagiarised material from the latter's short-lived writing career. Stouffer lost the suit after a judge ruled that she had fabricated evidence.

Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. ... The Frost King was a short story written by Helen Keller at the age of twelve, in 1892. ... Founded in 1832 by Samuel Gridley Howe, and located in Watertown, Massachusetts, Perkins School for the Blind is a learning center for people who are blind, deafblind, or have multiple disabilities, with an emphasis on individual independence. ... Alexander Murray Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer. ... Harold Courlander (September 18, 1908- March 15, 1996) As a child who was a product of a highly diverse Detroit neighborhood, Harold Courlander was interested in other cultures throughout his life. ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1976 books | American novels | Books starting with S ... This article is about the writer. ... The Da Vinci Code is a mystery/detective novel by American author Dan Brown, published in 2003 by Doubleday. ... This article is about the controversies regarding the novel. ... Book cover of The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail 2005 illustrated hardcover edition. ... Author Michael Baigent Reuters Michael Baigent, born March 1948 in Christchurch, New Zealand, is an author and conspiracy theorist who co-wrote (with Richard Leigh) a number of books that question mainstream perceptions of history and many commonly-held versions of the life of Jesus. ... Richard Leigh is the name of: Richard Leigh (author) (born 1943), co-author of The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail Richard Leigh (songwriter) (born 1951), American country music songwriter Richard Leigh (martyr) (1561–1588), Catholic martyr Richard Leigh (poet) (1649–1728), English poet Richard Leigh (musician), free-improvising musician... Lewis Perdue is the author of Daughter of God and The Da Vinci Legacy. ... Kaavya Viswanathan (born January 16, 1987) is an Indian-American undergraduate student at Harvard College. ... Joanne Rowling OBE (born July 31, 1965 in Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire), commonly known as J.K. Rowling (pronunciation: roll-ing; her former students used to joke with her name calling her the Rolling Stone), is a British fiction writer. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... The Harry Potter books by J. K. Rowling have engendered a number of legal disputes since their publication. ...

Music

  • George Harrison was successfully sued in a prolonged suit that began in 1971 for plagiarizing the Chiffons' "He's So Fine" for the melody of his own "My Sweet Lord." [55]
  • In early 2007, Timbaland was alleged to have plagiarized several elements (both motifs and samples) in the song "Do It" on the 2006 album Loose by Nelly Furtado without giving credit or compensation. See 2007 Timbaland plagiarism controversy.
  • In early 2006, The writers of Lee Hyori's song "Get Ya" were accused of plagiarizing Britney Spears' 2005 song "Do Somethin'". This eventually led Lee Hyori to stop promoting the song and contributed to the failure of the song and its album, Dark Angel.
  • In 1994 John Fogerty was sued for self plagiarism after leaving Fantasy Records and pursuing a solo career with Warner Brothers. Fantasy still owned the rights to the CCR library and sound. Saul Zaentz, the owner of Fantasy, claimed Fogerty's song "Old Man Down the Road" was a musical copy of the Creedence song "Run Through the Jungle." The court made a landmark decision when it ruled that an artist cannot plagiarize himself.

For other persons named George Harrison, see George Harrison (disambiguation). ... The Chiffons was an all girl group originating from the Bronx area of New York in 1960 The group comprised Judy Craig (lead singer), Patricia Bennett, and Barbara Lee. ... Hes So Fine is a 1963 song recorded by girl-group, The Chiffons. ... For other uses, see My Sweet Lord (disambiguation). ... Timothy Z. Mosley, who works under the performing name Timbaland (born March 10, 1971), is a Grammy Award-winning American record producer, composer, rapper, and singer. ... Nelly Kim Furtado (born December 2, 1978) is a Canadian singer, songwriter, record producer, and instrumentalist, who also holds Portuguese citizenship. ... Rolling Stones website covers the controversy on January 18th. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Lee Lee Hyori (Korean: 이효리, also Romanized as Lee Hyolee and officially E Hyo-lee), born on May 10, 1979, is a popular South Korean singer and actress. ... Britney Jean Spears (born December 2, 1981) is a Grammy Award-winning[1] American pop singer, dancer, actress, author and songwriter. ... Audio sample Info Do Somethin (help· info) Do Somethin is a single by Britney Spears, the second and final single taken from her 2004 (see 2004 in music) Greatest Hits: My Prerogative compilation. ... - Dark Angels Cover The album features the infamous Get Ya! Tracklisting: 01 Get Ya! (3:34) 02 Depth (3:15) 03 Straight Up (3:35) 04 Dark Angel (3:51) 05 Dear Boy (3:25) 06 Winter Freshness (3:26) 07 Closer (3:28) 08 Stealing A Glance [MARS... This article is about the musician. ...

Politics

Senator Joseph Biden

  • Biden was forced to withdraw from the 1988 Democratic US Presidential nominations when it was alleged that he had failed a 1965 introductory law school course on legal methodology due to plagiarism. "Senator Joseph R. Biden Jr., fighting to salvage his Presidential campaign . . . acknowledged 'a mistake' in his youth, when he plagiarized a law review article for a paper he wrote in his first year at law school. Mr. Biden insisted, however, that he had done nothing 'malevolent,' that he had simply misunderstood the need to cite sources carefully."[56] Biden withdrew from the race September 23, 1987, and reported the law school incident to the Delaware Supreme Court. The court's Board of Professional Responsibility cleared him of any allegations.[57]
  • Biden was also accused of plagiarizing portions of his speeches, notably those of British Labour leader Neil Kinnock and US Senator Robert F. Kennedy. Biden was forced out of the Presidential race after the Michael Dukakis campaign released a video showing Biden using one of Kinnock's speeches without properly attributing it. Biden called the charges "much ado about nothing;"[58] it was also revealed that Biden had used and properly cited the Kinnock speech on several other occasions, although he failed to do so on the one instance recorded by the Dukakis campaign.[59]

Senator Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician, former Governor of Massachusetts, and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1988. ...

Iraq War

  • In a New York Times editorial prior to the Iraq War, United States President George W. Bush's National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice explained that Saddam Hussein could not be trusted for various reasons, including the fact that Hussein had committed plagiarism. "Iraq's declaration [to the United Nations regarding the state of its nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons programs] even resorted to unabashed plagiarism, with lengthy passages of United Nations reports copied word-for-word (or edited to remove any criticism of Iraq) and presented as original text."[60]
  • On February 3, 2003, Alastair Campbell, British Prime Minister Tony Blair's Director of Communications and Strategy, released a briefing document to journalists entitled "Iraq: Its Infrastructure of Concealment, Deception and Intimidation." It described Iraq and its weapons of mass destruction programs. Journalists discovered that many sources, particularly an article by Ibrahim al-Marashi, had been copied word-for-word, including typographical errors. Journalists dubbed the document the "Dodgy Dossier." After the revelation, Blair's office issued a statement admitting that a mistake was made in not crediting its sources, but it did not concede that the quality of the document's content was affected.[61]

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Ibrahim al-Marashi is a research associate at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) at the Monterey Institute of International Studies where he researches on the diffusion of weapons of mass destruction and missile technologies in the Middle East, particularly Iraq and Iran. ... The briefing paper entitled Iraq: Its Infrastructure of Concealment, Deception and Intimidation has come to be known as the Dodgy Dossier. ...

Vladimir Putin

  • Russian President Vladimir Putin has been accused of plagiarism by fellows at the Brookings Institution who allege that "[l]arge chunks of Putin's economics dissertation on planning in the natural resources sector were lifted from a management text published by two University of Pittsburgh academics nearly 20 years earlier."[62]

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... The Brookings Institution is a United States nonprofit public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C.. Described in 1977, by TIME magazine as as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank,[1] the institution is devoted to public service through research and education in the social sciences, particularly...

Wikipedia

  • In November 2006, the Associated Press reported activist Daniel Brandt's claim to have uncovered 142 articles with plagiarized content among the 12,000 Wikipedia articles he chose to search. Wikipedia administrators responded that this list misidentified some articles where it was the allegedly original text that had plagiarized Wikipedia, and reported that they took action on the cases that involved copyright violations.[63] He "called on Wikipedia to conduct a thorough review of all its articles."[64]
  • George Orwel has been accused of plagiarizing Wikipedia in the book Black Gold: The New Frontier in Oil for Investors. The publisher, John Wiley & Sons, has confirmed that the book used "about five paragraphs"[65] from a 2005 Wikipedia article on the Khobar Towers Bombing in Saudi Arabia. One of the Wikipedia user pages contains related discussion.[66] Additional comments (including some original material) and opinions are found in web-media.[67][68]

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ...

Other instances

Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • In 1991 a Boston University investigation into allegations of academic misconduct concluded that Martin Luther King, Jr. had plagiarized large portions of his doctoral thesis. "A committee of scholars at Boston University concluded that Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. plagiarized portions of his doctoral dissertation, completed there in the 1950s." The BU committee recommended that King's doctoral degree should not be revoked; however, a letter is now attached to King's dissertation in the university library, noting that numerous passages were included without the appropriate citations of sources.[69]
  • It has been charged that for his "I Have A Dream" speech King plagiarized the 1952 address of Archibald Carey to the Republican National Convention, the similarities being in the reference to the Samuel Francis Smith patriotic hymn "America" in the peroration followed by a listing of geographical locations from which the orator exhorts his audience to "let freedom ring." Many, however, believe that the comparisons are so slightly similar that they do not rise to the level of plagiarism. [70][71][72][73]

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Martin Luther King, Jr. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Academic dishonesty is cheating or plagiarism that occurs within an educational setting. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Samuel Francis Smith Samuel Francis Smith, (1808-1895), Baptist minister, journalist and author, is best known for having written the lyrics to My Country, Tis of Thee, which he entitled America. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: America My Country, Tis of Thee, also known as America, is an American patriotic song. ...

Bruce Lee

  • Writings attributed to martial arts actor Bruce Lee published posthumously by his estate in several volumes (including The Tao of Jeet Kune Do and the Bruce Lee Library Series of books), have been found to contain scores of incorrectly attributed material, including passages belonging to Alan Watts, Helen Keller, Dear Abby, Fritz Perls, Benjamin Franklin, Hugh Prather, Eric Hoffer, Jiddu Krishnamurti, Johann Von Goethe, and dozens of other writers. These writings were published from hand-written notes which Bruce Lee compiled throughout his life. While it is fair to point out that Bruce Lee did not authorize the publication of his notes after his death, one of the books, The Tao of Gung Fu, contains at least one essay Lee submitted to his Freshman English class at the University of Washington at Seattle as well as a draft of a chapter for a proposed book by the same name. Both contain plagiarized passages from the books The Way of Zen and This is It by Alan Watts, creatively arranged and presented as the first-person experiences of Lee.[74] In the book, Bruce Lee: The Man Only I Knew, written by Lee's widow, Linda, Bruce Lee's former English teacher recounts accusing Lee of plagiarizing. "I accused him once of doing that and he sort of laughed," stated Margaret Walters. "He didn't admit it, but he didn't deny it, either."[75]

Bruce Lee (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: Lǐ Xiǎolóng; Cantonese Yale: Léih Síulùhng; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973) was a Chinese-American martial artist, philosopher, instructor, and martial arts actor widely regarded as the most influential martial artist of the 20th century and a...

William H. Swanson

William H. Swanson (born 1950) is the chairman and chief executive officer of Raytheon Company. ... Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in defense systems and defense and commercial electronics. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...

Lyle Menendez

Joseph Lyle (Lyle) Menendez (born January 10, 1968) and brother Erik Galen (Erik) Menendez (born November 27, 1971) were arrested for the murders of their parents in 1989. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...

See also

Academic dishonesty or academic misconduct is any type of cheating that occurs in relation to a formal academic exercise. ... // Definition Contract cheating is a phenomena which was observed in 2006 by Thomas Lancaster and Robert Clarke at the University of Central England, Birmingham in which students get others to complete their coursework for them by putting it out to tender. ... In general, the term credit in the artistic or intellectual sense refers to an acknowledgement of those who contributed to a work, whether through ideas or in a more direct sense. ... Cryptomnesia, or concealed recollection, is the name for a theoretical phenomenon involving suppressed or forgotten memories. ... An essay mill, sometimes also called a paper mill, is a business, usually online, which dishonestly sells essays and other forms of homework assignments to students who are unable or unwilling to do it themselves. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... Journalism scandals are high-profile incidents or acts, whether intentional or accidental, that run contrary to the generally accepted ethics and standards of journalism, or otherwise violate the ideal mission of journalism: to report news events and issues accurately and fairly. ... Kaavya Viswanathan (born January 16, 1987) is an Indian-American undergraduate student at Harvard College. ... Duplicate publication refers to publishing the same intellectual material more than once, by the author or publisher. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. ...

References

  1. ^ Alexander Klein (June 8, 2007). Opinion: Why Do They Do It?. The New York Sun. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  2. ^ Hart, Mike & Friesner, Tim (December 15, 2004), research Plagiarism and Poor Academic Practice – A Threat to the Extension of e-Learning in Higher Education?, Electronic Journal of E-Learning, <http://www.ejel.org/volume-2/vol2-issue1/issue1-art25.htm research>. Retrieved on 11 December 2007
  3. ^ Authorship gets lost on Web. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2006-07-31-net-plagiarism_x.htm?POE=TECISVA
  4. ^ Online plagiarism strikes blog world. http://www.boston.com/business/articles/2006/05/08/online_plagiarism_strikes_blog_world/
  5. ^ http://news.com.com/8301-10784_3-5663303-7.html, http://www.webpronews.com/topnews/2005/08/30/copyscape-searches-for-scraped-content
  6. ^ http://faculty.law.lsu.edu/stuartgreen/pdf/j-green2.pdf Stuart Green
  7. ^ Irving Hexham (2005). Academic Plagiarism Defined.
  8. ^ Pamela Samuelson (August 1994). "Self-plagiarism or fair use?". Communications of the ACM 27 (8). 
  9. ^ ACM Policy and Procedures on Plagiarism (October 2006).
  10. ^ Peters, F. E., Aristotle and the Arabs: The Aristotelian Tradition in Islam, New York University Press, NY, 1968.
  11. ^ J. N. Mattock (1971). "Aristotle and the Arabs: The Aristotelian Tradition in Islam by F. E. Peters", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 34 (1), p. 147-148.
  12. ^ Ralph Blumenthal (September 21). Repeat Accusations of Plagiarism Taint Prolific Biographer. The New York Times.
  13. ^ Ralph Blumenthal (September 26). Familiarity Stops the Presses. The New York Times.
  14. ^ Kim Lanegran (July 2, 2004). Fending Off a Plagiarist. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  15. ^ David D. Kirkpatrick (January 5). 2 Say Stephen Ambrose, Popular Historian, Copied Passages. The New York Times.
  16. ^ David D. Kirkpatrick (January 11). As Historian's Fame Grows, So Do Questions on Methods. The New York Times.
  17. ^ Noah, Timothy (January 22, 2002). Doris Kearns Goodwin, Liar. Slate Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  18. ^ How the Goodwin Story Developed. George Mason University's History News Network (2005-10-06). Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  19. ^ http://l1.lamsade.dauphine.fr/~bouyssou/Marcu.pdf
  20. ^ Wesson, Marianne; Clinton, Robert & Limón, José et al. (2006), Report of the Investigative Committee of the Standing Committee on Research Misconduct at the University of Colorado at Boulder concerning Allegations of Academic Misconduct against Professor Ward Churchill, University of Colorado at Boulder, <http://www.colorado.edu/news/reports/churchill/download/WardChurchillReport.pdf>
  21. ^ Ward Churchill The Research Misconduct Inquiry. colorado.edu. Retrieved on 2006-07-03.
  22. ^ Physics Plagiarism Alert
  23. ^ The Hindu : Kumaon University V-C resigns
  24. ^ Determination of dopant of ceria system by density functional theory K. Muthukkumaran1, Roshan Bokalawela, Tom Mathews and S. Selladurai Journal of Materials Science Volume 42, Number 17 / September, 2007 7461-7466 doi:10.1007/s10853-006-1486-5
  25. ^ Optimization of ionic conductivity in doped ceria David A. Andersson, Sergei I. Simak, Natalia V. Skorodumova, Igor A. Abrikosov, and Börje Johansson PNAS March 7, 2006 vol. 103 no. 10 3518-3521 doi:10.1073/pnas.0509537103
  26. ^ Linköping University: News and Events
  27. ^ ["Pipeliners All!’ Shell’s memo to Sakhalin]
  28. ^ "www.royaldutchshellplc.com - Sakhalin motivational memo borrows heavily from Patton”.
  29. ^ www.tellshell.com
  30. ^ "A 30 Year Odyssey for Home Video Games," Chicago Sun-Times, February 16, 2003
  31. ^ www.pong-story.com
  32. ^ Grayling, Christopher. "The Vampfather", UK Independent, January 21, 2001. 
  33. ^ 2000AD Online "spinoff" archive
  34. ^ Nixon's Monica Stonewalls About Plagiarism! - Timothy Noah - Slate Magazine
  35. ^ Kristina Nwazota (December 10). Jayson Blair: A Case Study of What Went Wrong at The New York Times. PBS Online News Hour.
  36. ^ Hornstine, Blair. "Stories, essays lacked attribution". The Courier Post. June 3, 2003
  37. ^ Associated Press (January 4). Baltimore Sun Columnist Quits Amid Plagiarism Charges. Fox News.
  38. ^ Washington Post online Post.com Blogger Quits Amid Furor, Howard Kurtz. March 25, 2006
  39. ^ Former Boston Globe Columnist Is Returning, but to a Rival The New York Times.
  40. ^ "The Ugly Face Of Internet Plagiarism - WeCite Busted!". Desicritics. June 1, 2007
  41. ^ "Message from WeCite Management"
  42. ^ Media Watch: Koch-y Kat (15/10/2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  43. ^ Walter Kendrick (August 30). Her Hands Were a Bridge to the World. The New York Times.
  44. ^ Helen Keller (1903). The Story of My Life.
  45. ^ Esther B. Fein (March 3). Book Notes. The New York Times.
  46. ^ Anne S. Crowley (October 24, 1985). Research Help Supplies Backbone for Haley's Book. Chicago Tribune.
  47. ^ Report in The Scotsman
  48. ^ Maev Kennedy, In a packed high court, a new twist in The Da Vinci Code begins to unfold, The Guardian, 28 February 2006
  49. ^ Publish and be damned if you don't sell more, The Birmingham Post, 10 March 2006
  50. ^ Da Vinci trial pits history against art, The Observer, 26 February 2006
  51. ^ Court rejects Da Vinci copy claim, BBC News, 7 April 2006
  52. ^ "Student’s Novel Faces Plagiarism Controversy", David Zhou,, The Harvard Crimson, April 23, 2006
  53. ^ "For new author, a difficult opening chapter", Vicki Hyman, The Star-Ledger, April 25, 2006.
  54. ^ "Author McCafferty talks shop with Brick's Lit Chicks", Colleen Lutolf, Brick Township Bulletin, May 18, 2006.
  55. ^ The "My Sweet Lord"/"He's So Fine" Plagiarism Suit
  56. ^ E.J. Dionne, Jr. (September 18). Biden Admits Plagiarism in School But Says It Was Not "Malevolent". The New York Times.
  57. ^ E.J. Dionne, Jr. (May 29). Professional Board Clears Biden in Two Allegations of Plagiarism. The New York Times.
  58. ^ E.J. Dionne, Jr. (September 18). Biden Admits Plagiarism in School But Says It Was Not "Malevolent". The New York Times.
  59. ^ Jake Tapper (January 28). Biden Set to Enter Presidential Race. ABCNews.com.
  60. ^ Condoleezza Rice (January 23). Why We Know Iraq Is Lying. The New York Times.
  61. ^ Julian Rush (February 6). Downing St dossier plagiarised. Channel 4 News.
  62. ^ David R. Sands (March 25). Researchers Peg Putin as a Plagiarist over Thesis. The Washington Times.
  63. ^ Jesdanun, Anick (November 3, 2006). Wikipedia Critic Finds Copied Passages. Associated Press.
  64. ^ Wikipedia Critic Finds Copied Passages. The Sydney Morning Herald (2006-11-04). Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  65. ^ Noam Cohen (November 19, 2007). Part of an Oil Book Relied on Wikipedia New York times. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
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  68. ^ Jason Lee Miller (November 16, 2007). Does Open License Mean Open Season. WebProNews. Retrieved on 2007-11-24.
  69. ^ "Panel Confirms Plagiarism by King at BU" by Charles A. Radin, The Boston Globe, October 11, 1991
  70. ^ King's "I Have a Dream" Speech
  71. ^ Carey's Speech
  72. ^ My Country, 'Tis of Thee
  73. ^ Martin Luther King. Snopes. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
  74. ^ Bishop, James (2004). Bruce Lee: Dynamic Becoming. Dallas: Promethean Press, 136-138. ISBN 0-9734054-0-6. 
  75. ^ Lee, Linda (1975). Bruce Lee: The Man Only I Knew. New York: Warner Paperbacks, 53. ISBN 0-446-78774-4. 
  76. ^ Raytheon Chairman & CEO Comments Regarding 'Unwritten Rules'. Raytheon News Release. Retrieved on 2006-05-02.
  77. ^ "Raytheon halts distribution of controversial booklet by CEO", AP/Boston.com, 2006-05-02. Retrieved on 2006-05-02. 
  78. ^ COURT TV ONLINE - The Menendez Brothers - Hot Document

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), mostly commonly referred to as PNAS, is the official publication of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Courier-Post is a daily newspaper in Cherry Hill Township, New Jersey, United States. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Star-Ledger is the leading newspaper in New Jersey. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Urban Legends Reference Pages, also known as snopes. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Thomas L. Jeffers, “Plagiarism High and Low,” Commentary (October 2002), 54-60. Go to [1]
  • American Historical Association, "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct" (2005)
  • What is the price of plagiarism? A The Christian Science Monitor article
  • The Assessment in Higher Education web site's plagiarism page contains links to a variety of resources (articles, books, cheat sites, etc).
  • "Plagiary: Cross-disciplinary Studies in Plagiarism, Fabrication, and Falsification." journal
  • Plagiarism and Academia: Personal Experience, Bruce Schneier
  • JISC Plagiarism Advisory Service Provides advice and guidance to UK learning institutions.
  • Columbia University Music Plagiarism Project
  • College Students, Plagiarism, and the Internet:The Role of Academic Librarians in Delivering Education and Awareness - Wiebe, Todd J. (2006). MLA Forum 5(2).
  • Famousplagiarists.com Personal site by Plagiary.org journal editor John P. Lesko documenting plagiarists and their deeds.
Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Plagiarism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3556 words)
Plagiarism is the practice of dishonestly claiming original authorship of material which one has not actually created, such as when a person incorporates material from someone else's work into his own work without attributing it.
Plagiarism is not necessarily the same as copyright infringement, which occurs when one violates copyright law.
Accidental plagiarism is often the result of poor citation or referencing, or of poor preparation, or a misunderstanding of plagiarism per se.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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