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Encyclopedia > Place of articulation
Places of articulation (passive & active):1. Exo-labial, 2. Endo-labial, 3. Dental, 4. Alveolar, 5. Post-alveolar, 6. Pre-palatal, 7. Palatal, 8. Velar, 9. Uvular, 10. Pharyngeal, 11. Glottal, 12. Epiglottal, 13. Radical, 14. Postero-dorsal, 15. Antero-dorsal, 16. Laminal, 17. Apical, 18. Sub-apical
Places of articulation (passive & active):
1. Exo-labial, 2. Endo-labial, 3. Dental, 4. Alveolar, 5. Post-alveolar, 6. Pre-palatal, 7. Palatal, 8. Velar, 9. Uvular, 10. Pharyngeal, 11. Glottal, 12. Epiglottal, 13. Radical, 14. Postero-dorsal, 15. Antero-dorsal, 16. Laminal, 17. Apical, 18. Sub-apical

In phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active (moving) articulator (typically some part of the tongue) and a passive (stationary) articulator (typically some part of the roof of the mouth). Along with the manner of articulation and phonation, this gives the consonant its distinctive sound. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (851x1002, 90 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Place of articulation User:Ish ishwar ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (851x1002, 90 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Place of articulation User:Ish ishwar ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. ... In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ...

Contents


Types of articulation

A place of articulation is defined as both the active and passive articulators. For instance, the active lower lip may contact either a passive upper lip (bilabial, like [m]) or the upper teeth (labiodental, like [f]). The hard palate may be contacted by either the front or the back of the tongue. If the front of the tongue is used, the place is called retroflex; if back of the tongue ("dorsum") is used, the place is called "dorsal-palatal", or more commonly, just palatal. In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and vertebrate animals. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ...


There are five basic active articulators: the lip ("labial consonants"), the flexible front of the tongue ("coronal consonants"), the middle/back of the tongue ("dorsal consonants"), the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis ("radical consonants"), and the larynx ("laryngeal consonants"). These articulators can act independently of each other, and two or more may work together in what is called coarticulation (see below). Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue against either the hard palate, or the flexible velum just behind it, or even against the uvula. ... Haha u cant see this b/c wiess The epiglottis is a thin, lid-like flap of cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the root of the tongue, that guards the entrance of the glottis, the opening between the vocal cords. ... Radical consonants are articulated with the root (base) of the tongue in the throat. ... The pharynx (plural pharynx), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ...


The passive articulation, on the other hand, is a continuum without many clear-cut boundaries. The places linguolabial and interdental, interdental and dental, dental and alveolar, alveolar and palatal, palatal and velar, velar and uvular merge into one another, and a consonant may be pronounced somewhere between the named places.


In addition, when the front of the tongue is used, it may be the upper surface or blade of the tongue that makes contact ("laminal consonants"), the tip of the tongue ("apical consonants"), or the under surface ("sub-apical consonants"). These articulations also merge into one another without clear boundaries. A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... A sub-apical consonant is a consonant made by contact with the underside of the tip of the tongue. ...


Consonants that have the same place of articulation, such as alveolar [n, t, d, s, z, l] in English, are said to be homorganic.


Table of active articulations and places of articulation

Places of articulation
Labial
Bilabial
Labial-velar
Labial-alveolar
Labiodental
Coronal
Linguolabial
Interdental
Dental
Alveolar
Apical
Laminal
Postalveolar
Alveolo-palatal
Retroflex
Dorsal
Palatal
Labial-palatal
Velar
Uvular
Uvular-epiglottal
Radical
Pharyngeal
Epiglotto-pharyngeal
Epiglottal
Glottal
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Active gesture Active + passive place of articulation
Labial Bilabial
Labiodental
Coronal Laminal Linguolabial
Interdental
Laminal dental
Laminal denti-alveolar
Laminal alveolar
Laminal postalveolar ("retroflex" #1)
Domed (partially palatalized) Domed postalveolar ("palato-alveolar")
Palatalized Palatalized postalveolar ("alveolo-palatal")
Apical Apical dental
Apical alveolar
Apical postalveolar ("retroflex" #2)
Sub-apical Sub-apical (pre)palatal ("retroflex" #3)
Dorsal Prepalatal
Palatal
Prevelar (or medio-palatal)
Velar
Postvelar
Uvular
Radical Upper pharyngeal
Lower pharyngeal
Epiglotto-pharyngeal
(Ary-)epiglottal
Laryngeal Glottal

Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... Labial-velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips. ... A labial-alveolar consonant is a consonant produced with two simultaneous places of articulation: At the lips (labial; a p, b, or m sound), and at the gums (alveolar; a t, d, or n sound). ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Linguolabials are consonants articulated by putting the tongue tip or tongue blade against the upper lip. ... Interdental consonants are produced by placing the blade of the tongue against the upper incisors. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Dorsal consonants are articulated with the back of the tongue against either the hard palate, or the flexible velum just behind it, or even against the uvula. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... In phonetics, the labialised palatal approximant is a consonant with two constrictions in the vocal tract: with the tongue on the palate, and rounded at the lips. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A uvular-epiglottal consonant is a doubly articulated consonant pronounced by making a simultaneous uvular consonant and epiglottal consonant. ... Radical consonants are articulated with the root (base) of the tongue in the throat. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... An epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported type of consonant, articulated with the epiglottis against the back wall of the pharynx. ... An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottal folds (see larynx) against the epiglottis. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Linguolabials are consonants articulated by putting the tongue tip or tongue blade against the upper lip. ... Interdental consonants are produced by placing the blade of the tongue against the upper incisors. ... Dentals are consonants articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. ... Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... An epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported type of consonant, articulated with the epiglottis against the back wall of the pharynx. ... An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottal folds (see larynx) against the epiglottis. ... Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. ...

List of places where the obstruction may occur

  • Bilabial: between the lips
  • Labiodental: between the lower lip and the upper teeth
  • Linguolabial: between the front of the tongue and the upper lip
  • Dental: between the front of the tongue and the top teeth
  • Alveolar: between the front of the tongue and the ridge behind the gums (the alveolus)
  • Postalveolar: between the front of the tongue and the space behind the alveolar ridge
  • Retroflex: in "true" retroflexes, the tongue curls back so the underside touches the palate
  • Palatal: between the middle of the tongue and the hard palate
  • Velar: between the back of the tongue and the soft palate (the velum)
  • Uvular: between the back of the tongue and the uvula (which hangs down in the back of the mouth)

(All of the above may be nasalized, and most may be lateralized.) Detailed drawing of the alveoli from Grays Anatomy, 1918 - Schematic longitudinal section of a primary lobule of the lung (anatomical unit); r. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The uvula is a small cone-shaped mass of tissue hanging down from the soft palate, near the back of the throat. ... In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ...

  • Pharyngeal: between the root of the tongue and the back of the throat (the pharynx)
  • Epiglotto-pharyngeal: between the epiglottis and the back of the throat
  • Epiglottal: between the aryepiglottal folds and the epiglottis (see larynx)
  • Glottal: at the glottis (see larynx)

Pharynx is the part of the neck and throat just behind the mouth and nose. ... Haha u cant see this b/c wiess The epiglottis is a thin, lid-like flap of cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the root of the tongue, that guards the entrance of the glottis, the opening between the vocal cords. ... The pharynx (plural pharynx), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ... The space between the vocal cords is called the glottis. ... The pharynx (plural pharynx), or voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ...

Nasals and laterals

  • In nasals, the velum is lowered to allow air to pass through the nose (technically a place, but generally considered as a manner of articulation)
  • In laterals, the air is released past the tongue sides and teeth rather than over the tip of the tongue. English has only one lateral, /l/, but many languages have more than one, e.g. Spanish written "l" vs. "ll"; Hindi with dental, palatal, and retroflex laterals; and numerous Native American languages with not only lateral approximants, but also lateral fricatives and affricates. Some Northeast Caucasian languages have five, six, or even seven lateral consonants.

In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, Nakh-Dagestanian, or Dagestanian, are a family of languages spoken mostly in the Dagestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia regions of Russia, in Northern Azerbaijan, and in Georgia. ...

Coarticulation

Some languages have consonants with two simultaneous places of articulation, called coarticulation. When these are doubly articulated, the articulators must be independently movable, and therefore there may only be one each from the categories labial, coronal, dorsal, and radical. (The glottis controls phonation and sometimes the airstream, and is not considered an articulator.) Co-articulated consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation. ... Doubly articulated consonants are consonants with two simultaneous primary places of articulation of the same manner (both plosive, or both nasal, etc. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... 1966 Airstream Overlander International Airstream is the name of a brand of recreational vehicle presently manufactured in Jackson Center, Ohio. ...


However, more commonly there is a secondary articulation of an approximantic nature, in which case both articulations can be similar, such as labialized labials, palatalized velars, etc. Secondary articulation refers to co-articulated consonants (consonants produced simultaneously at two places of articulation) where the two articulations are not of the same manner. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...


Some common coarticulations include:

  • Labialization, rounding the lips while producing the obstruction, as in and English w.
  • Palatalization, raising the body of the tongue toward the hard palate while producing the obstruction, as in Russian .
  • Velarization, raising the back of the tongue toward the soft palate (velum), as in the English dark el, or ɫ.
  • Pharyngealization, constriction of the throat (pharynx), such as Arabic "emphatic" .
  • Doubly articulated stop: a stop produced simultaneously with another stop, such as labial-velar k͡p, found throughout West and Central Africa. There is also a labial-alveolar t͡p, found as a distinct consonant only in a single language in New Guinea, while Somali has a uvular-epiglottal stop q͡ʡ.

Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pharyngealisation is a secondary feature of phonemes in a language. ... Pharynx is the part of the neck and throat just behind the mouth and nose. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Labial-velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips. ... A labial-alveolar consonant is a consonant produced with two simultaneous places of articulation: At the lips (labial; a p, b, or m sound), and at the gums (alveolar; a t, d, or n sound). ... A uvular-epiglottal consonant is a doubly articulated consonant pronounced by making a simultaneous uvular consonant and epiglottal consonant. ...

See also

A Acoustic phonetics Affricate Airstream mechanism Alfred C. Gimson Allophone Alveolar approximant Alveolar consonant Alveolar ejective fricative Alveolar ejective Alveolar flap Alveolar nasal Alveolar ridge Alveolar trill Alveolo-palatal consonant Apical consonant Approximant consonant Articulatory phonetics aspiration Auditory phonetics B Back vowel Bilabial click Bilabial consonant Bilabial ejective Bilabial nasal... In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ...

External links

  • interactive places and manners of articulation

  Results from FactBites:
 
Place of articulation (442 words)
The lower lip articulates with the upper teeth.
The possible places of articulation form a continuum along the upper surface of the vocal tract; therefore the places listed above should be seen as arbritary (but conventional) divisions which can be modified if necessary through the use of additional categories, e.g., "interdental", "alveolo-palatal" or "prevelar".
Uvular place of articulation is illustrated by the formal pronunciation of "r" in French or German (a uvular trill [
: place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction ... (1710 words)
: place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active (moving) articulator (typically some part of the tongue) and a passive (stationary) articulator (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active (moving) articulator (typically some part of the tongue) and a passive (stationary) articulator (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
There are five basic active articulators: the lip ("labial consonants"), the flexible front of the tongue ("coronal consonants"), the middle/back of the tongue ("dorsal consonants"), the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis ("radical consonants"), and the larynx ("laryngeal consonants").
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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