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Encyclopedia > Piye

Piye, whose name was once transliterated as Py(ankh)i. (d.721 BC) was a Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt who ruled Egypt from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia. His predecessor, Kashta, almost certainly exercised a strong degree of influence over Thebes prior to Piye's accession because Kashta managed to have his daughter, Amenirdis I, adopted as the Heiress to the serving God's Wife of Amun, Shepenupet I, before the end of his reign. A Year 19 date carved at Wadi Gasus associates Shepenupet I (daughter of Osorkon III) with Year 12 of her Adopted Adoratice, Amenirdis I. This inscription has been interpreted by Egyptologists to mean that Year 12 of Piye is equivalent to Year 19 of one of Osorkon III's two sons, likely Takelot III based on recent archaeological discoveries. For other uses, see Kush (disambiguation). ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ... Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... Kashta was a king of the Kushite Dynasty. ... The Ancient Kushite princess Amenirdis I, was the daughter of Kashta and sister of Piye. ... Usimare Setepenamun Osorkon III Si-Ese was the famous Crown Prince and High Priest of Amun Osorkon B, son of Takelot II by Queen Karomama-Merytmut. ... Usimare Setepenamun Osorkon III Si-Ese was the famous Crown Prince and High Priest of Amun Osorkon B, son of Takelot II by Queen Karomama-Merytmut. ... Usimare Setepenamun Takelot III Si-Ese was Osorkon IIIs eldest son and successor. ...

Conquest of Egypt

As the next ruler of Nubia, Piye took advantage of the squabbling of Egypt's rulers by expanding Nubia's power beyond Thebes into central Egypt. In reaction against the growing Kushite influence in Upper Egypt, Tefnakht of Sais formed a coalition between the local kings of the Delta Region and enticed Piye's nominal ally—king Nimlot of Hermopolis—to defect to his side. Tefnakht then sent his coalition army south and besieged Herakleopolis where its king Peftjaubast and the local Nubian commanders appealed to Piye for help. Piye reacted quickly to this crisis in his Year 20 by assembling an army to invade Middle and Lower Egypt and visited Thebes in time for the great Opet Festival which proves he effectively controlled Upper Egypt by this time. His military feats are chronicled in the Victory stela at Gebel Barkal. Today Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan, but in ancient times it was an independent kingdom. ... nomen or birth name Tefnakht I or Tefnakhte (in Greek known as Tnephachthos), was a Libyan-descended king and founder of the relatively short Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. ... Look up sais in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Black siltstone obelisk of King Nectanebo II. According to the vertical inscriptions he set up this obelisk at the doorway of the sanctuary of Thoth, the Twice-Great, Lord of Hermopolis. ... Herakleopolis Magna is the Greek name of the capital of the Twentieth nome (administrative division) of ancient Egypt. ... The Beautiful Feast of Opet (or Opet Festival) was an Ancient Egyptian festival, celebrated annually in Thebes, during the New Kingdom period and later. ... Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal is small a mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Sudan, on a large bend of the Nile River, in the region called Nubia. ...

Piye then marched north and achieved complete victory at Herakleopolis, conquering the cities of Hermopolis and Memphis among others, and received the submission of the kings of the Nile Delta including Iuput II of Leontopolis, Osorkon IV of Tanis and his former ally Nimlot at Hermopolis. Hermopolis fell to the Nubian king after a siege lasting five months. Tefnakht took refuge in an island in the Delta and formally conceded defeat in a letter to the Nubian king but refused to personally pay homage to the Kushite ruler. Satisfied with his triumph, Piye proceeded to sail south to Thebes and returned to his homeland in Nubia never to return to Egypt. Despite Piye's successful campaign into the Delta, his authority only extended northward from Thebes up to the western desert oases and Herakleopolis where Peftjaubastet ruled as a Nubian vassal king. The local kings of Lower Egypt especially Tefnakht were essentially free to do what they wanted without Piye's oversight. It was Shabaka, Piye's successor, who later rectified this unsatisfactory situation by attacking Sais and defeating Tefnakht's successor Bakenranef at Sais, in his second regnal year. Power Memphis, coordiates , , was the ancient capital of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 1300 BC. Its Ancient Egyptian name was Ineb Hedj (The White Walls). The name Memphis is the Greek deformation of the Egyptian name of Pepi... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... Leontopolis is the Greek name for the Ancient Egyptian city known as Taremu in ancient times and as Tell al Muqdam today. ... Shabaka (or Shabaka Neferkare) was a Kushite pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, between (721 BC – 707/706 BC). ... Bakenranef (also known by the Greek form of his name, Bocchoris) was a king of the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt. ... Regnal year: the year of the reign of a sovereign. ...

Reign Length

Piye adopted two throne names: Usimare and Sneferre during his reign and was much more passionate (in common with many kings of Nubia) about the worship of the god Amun. He revitalised the moribund Great Temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal, first built under Thutmose III of the New Kingdom by employing numerous sculptors and stone masons from Egypt to renew the temple. He was once thought to have also used the throne name 'Menkheperre' ("the Manifestation of Ra abides") but this prenomen has now been recognised as belonging to a local Theban king named Ini instead who was a contemporary of Piye. Piye's Highest known Date was long thought to be the Year 24 III Akhet day 10 date mentioned in the "Smaller Dakhla Stela" (Ashmoleum Museum No.1894) from his reign. This sandstone stela measures 81.5 cm by 39.5 cm and was discovered from the Sutekh temple at Mut al-Kharib in the Western Desert Oasis town of Dakhla, according to a JEA 54(1968) article by Jac Janssen. However, in early 2006, the Tomb of the Southern Vizier Padiamonet, son of Pamiu, was discovered in the third Upper Terrace of Queen Hatshepsut's mortuary Temple at Deir El-Bahari by the Polish Mission for the Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology. It was carved approximately 8 metres into the rock face of the temple cliff in an area where several other Third Intermediate Period and Late Period burials have also been discovered. According to this articles in the Polish news site Nauka w Polsce (Science & Scholarship in Poland), Padiamonet's tomb contains a burial inscription which is dated to Year 27 of Piye.[1] Dr. Zbigniew Szafrański, Director of the Polish Mission, states regarding the find: Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Αμμον Ammon, and Άμμον Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities, before fading into obscurity. ... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu, Menwi... This article is about the Egyptian god. ... Menkheperre Ini or Iny Si-Ese Meryamun was a local king who ruled at Thebes for at least 4-5 years after the death of Rudamun. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issues Neferure Father Thutmose I...

"The tomb had been plundered. We don't know whether in antiquity or in more recent times; however we have found fragments of the mummy. On the basis of the inscriptions found in the tomb we suspect that buried there was the vizier Padiamonet who died in the 27th Year of the rule of the Pharaoh Piankhi (Piye) from the 25th Dynasty." Szafrański notes that the Mummy cartonnage (a cover in which the mummy is placed) found in Padiamonet's burial chamber featured "beautiful, ornate, colourful pictures [in which] you can read in hieroglyphs the name of the Vizier. It is also visible on the fragments of the [mummy] bandages." (English translation by A. Bak)[2]

The Great Temple at Gebel Barkal contains carved relief scenes depicting Piye celebrating a Heb Sed Festival but there is some doubt among scholars as to whether it portrayed a genuine Sed Feast or was merely Anticipatory. Under the latter scenario, Piye would have planned to hold a Jubilee Festival in this Temple in his 30th Year--hence his recruitment of Egypt's Artisans to decorate it--but died before this event took place. While Piye's precise reign length is still unknown, this new find and his subsequently higher Year 27 date affirms the traditional view that Piye lived into his Year 30 and celebrated his Jubilee that year. Kenneth Kitchen in his book, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, has suggested a reign of 31 years for Piye based on the Year 7 donation stela of a certain Shepsesre Tefnakht whom he viewed as Piye's opponent. However, this stela is now believed to refer instead to a second later Saite king called Tefnakht II from the late Nubian era because it is almost similar in style and format to a newly revealed donation stela--from a private collection--which is dated to Year 2 of Necho I's reign. (This new document was analysed by Olivier Perdu in CRAIBL 2002) Hence, no reliance can be placed on the Year 8 stela of Shepsesre Tefnakht to determine Piye's reign length. However, Dr Szafrański's recent discovery suggests that the Gebel Barkal Heb Sed scenes are likely genuine and supports the conventional view that Piye enjoyed a reign of roughly three full decades. Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ... Tefnakht II was an early Saite king who ruled Sais during the 25th Nubian Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... nomen or birth name Necho I (672 BC–664 BC) was governor of the Egyptian city of Sais. ...

Piye was buried in a pyramid at el-Kurru near Gebel Barkal, a site that would come to be occupied by the tombs of several later members of the dynasty. He was succeeded by his brother Shabaka. A pyramid is any three-dimensional structure where the upper surfaces are triangular and converge on one point. ... Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal is small a mountain located some 400 km north of Khartoum, in Sudan, on a large bend of the Nile River, in the region called Nubia. ...

External links and references

  • The Victory Stela of Piankhy
  • Roberto B. Gozzoli: The Writing of History in Ancient Egypt during the First Millennium BC (ca. 1070-180 BC), Trends and Perspectives, London 2006, S. 54-67 ISBN 0-9550256-3-X
  • Jac Janssen, "The Smaller Dakhla Stele," JEA 54(1968) pp.165-171
  • Kenneth Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC). 3rd ed. (1996) Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd.
  • Olivier Perdu, "La Chefferie de Sébennytos de Piankhy à Psammétique Ier", RdE 55 (2004), pp.95-111
  • Szymon Łucyk, "Polscy archeolodzy odkryli grób wezyra w świątyni Hatszepsut" or 'Polish Archaeologists have discovered the tomb of a Vizier in Hatshepsut's temple' in Nauka w Polsce, February 22, 2006 [3]
Preceded by
Pharaoh of Egypt
Twenty-fifth Dynasty
Succeeded by

  Results from FactBites:
Egyptian Pharaohs : Late Kingdom : Dynasty 25 : Piye (352 words)
Piye is the first to unite the leadership of Nubia and Egypt (even though his father, Kashta, did control Thebes and took the titles of pharaoh over the united "Two lands".
Piye moved north to counter his invasion and took the lands that were controlled by Tefnakhte and also by Nimlot I -- who was at one point an ally.
Piye continued his move northward to take the city of Herakleopolis which had been ruled by another ally, Pefjauawybast and threatened by Tefnakhte.
  More results at FactBites »



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