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Encyclopedia > Pituitary gland
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 Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180.png | Caption = Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica(also known as turkish saddle)of the sphenoid bone. | Image2 = Gray1181.png | Caption2 = Median sagittal through the hypophysis of an adult monkey. Semidiagrammatic. | Precursor = neural and oral ectoderm, including Rathke's pouch | System = | Artery = superior hypophyseal artery, infundibular artery, prechiasmal artery, inferior hypophyseal artery, capsular artery, artery of the inferior cavernous sinus[1]| Vein = | Nerve = | Lymph = | MeshName = Pituitary+Gland | MeshNumber = A06.407.747 | DorlandsPre = h_22 | DorlandsSuf = 12439692 | 

}} The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae) at the base of the brain. The pituitary fossa, in which the pituitary gland sits, is situated in the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa at the base of the brain. The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The Sella turcica (literally Turkish saddle) is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull. ... The sphenoid bone (os sphenoidale) is a bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital. ... The ectoderm is outermost of the three germ layers of the developing embryo, the other two being the mesoderm and the endoderm. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The superior hypophysial artery is an artery supplying the pituitary gland. ... The inferior hypophysial artery is an artery supplying the pituitary gland. ... An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... The Sella turcica (literally Turkish saddle) is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull. ... The dura mater (from the Latin hard mother), or pachymeninx, is the tough and inflexible outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain. ... The pituitary gland is attached to the end of the infundibulum, and is situated in the fossa hypophyseos of the sphenoidal bone, where it is retained by a circular fold of dura mater, the diaphragma sellae; this fold almost completely roofs in the fossa, leaving only a small central aperture... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The sphenoid bone (os sphenoidale) is a bone situated at the base of the skull in front of the temporals and basilar part of the occipital. ... The middle fossa, deeper than the anterior cranial fossa, is narrow in the middle, and wide at the sides of the skull. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ...


The pituitary gland made of other semen on the penis other endocrine glands. It is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Median Eminence The median eminence is part of the inferior boundary for the hypothalamus. ...


The hypophysis is also the top cell of the suspensor in a dicot embryo, which will differentiate to form part of the root cap.

Contents

Sections

Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus. It is composed of two lobes: the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis, also referred to as the anterior pituitary is divided into anatomical regions known as the pars tuberalis and pars distalis. The neurohypophysis, also referred to as the posterior pituitary. The pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk, whereby hypothalamic releasing factors are released and in turn stimulate the release of pituitary hormones. The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The pituitary stalk, also known as the infundibular stalk or simply the infundibulum is the connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary. ...


Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis)

Main article: Anterior pituitary

The anterior lobe is derived from the oral ectoderm and is composed of glandular epithelium. The anterior pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus via the hypophysial-portal vascular connection in the pituitary stalk. Through this vascular connection the hypothalamus integrates stimulatory and inhibitory central and peripheral signals to the five phenotypically distinct pituitary cell types. The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The pituitary stalk, also known as the infundibular stalk or simply the infundibulum is the connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...


The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes important endocrine hormones, such as ACTH, TSH, prolactin, growth hormone, endorphins, FSH, and LH. These hormones are released from the anterior pituitary under the influence of hypothalamic hormones. The hypothalamic hormones travel to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary system, called the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system. The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtrɒpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn, əˈdrinoʊˌkɔrtɪkoʊˈtroʊpɪk ˈhɔrmoʊn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... For other uses, see Endorphin (disambiguation). ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin[1]) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The hypophyseal portal system is the system of blood vessels that links the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis. ...


Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)

Main article: Posterior pituitary

The posterior happy new year people to the hypothalamus via the infundibulum or pituitary stalk, giving rise to the tuberoinfundibular pathway. Hormones are made in nerve cell bodies positioned in the hypothalamus, and these hormones are then transported down the nerve cell's axons to the posterior pituitary. The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... The pituitary stalk, also known as the infundibular stalk or simply the infundibulum is the connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary. ... The tuberoinfundibular pathway is a neural pathway which runs between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. ...


The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are

Oxytocin is the only pituitary hormone to create a positive feedback loop. For example, uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, which in turn increases uterine contractions. This positive feedback loop continues until the baby is born. Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ...


Intermediate lobe

There is also a intermediate lobe in many animals. For instance in fish it is believed to control physiological colour change. In adult humans it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and posterior pituitary. The intermediate lobe produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), although this function is often (imprecisely) attributed to the anterior pituitary. Pars intermedia is the boundary between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ...


Functions

The pituitary hormones help control some of the following body processes:

Human development is the process of growing to maturity. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Parturition redirects here. ... It has been suggested that the section Benefits for the infant from the article Breastfeeding be merged into this article or section. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of those anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... The thyroid gland and its relations In anatomy, the thyroid (IPA θaɪɹoɪd) is an endocrine gland. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Osmolality, in biology and chemistry, is a measure of moles of solute per kg of water. ...

Pathology

Disorders involving the pituitary gland include:

Condition Direction Hormone
Acromegaly overproduction growth hormone
Growth hormone deficiency underproduction growth hormone
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone overproduction vasopressin
Diabetes insipidus underproduction vasopressin
Sheehan syndrome underproduction prolactin
Pituitary adenoma overproduction any pituitary hormone
Hypopituitarism underproduction any pituitary hormone

Acromegaly (from Greek akros high and megas large - extremities enlargement) is a hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH). ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Growth hormone deficiency is the medical condition of inadequate production of growth hormone (GH) and its effects on children and adults. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a condition commonly found in the hospital population, especially in patients being hospitalized for central nervous system (CNS) injury. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Sheehan syndrome, also known as Simmonds disease, postpartum hypopituitarism or postpartum pituitary necrosis is hypopituitarism (decreased functioning of the pituitary gland), caused by necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms. ... Hypopituitarism is a medical term describing deficiency (hypo) of one or more hormones of the pituitary gland. ...

Additional images

See also

An MRI scan of the head. ...

References

  1. ^ Gibo H, Hokama M, Kyoshima K, Kobayashi S (1993). "[Arteries to the pituitary]". Nippon Rinsho 51 (10): 2550-4. PMID 8254920. 

External links

  • NeuroNames hier-382
  • Histology at BU 14201loa
  • The Pituitary Gland, from the UMM Endocrinology Health Guide
  • Oklamoma State, Endocrine System
  • Pituitary apoplexy mimicking pituitary abscess [[1]]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pituitary gland disorders (329 words)
Hypopituitarism is a condition that affects the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Pituitary gigantism due to growth hormone excess is the single condition which accounts for nearly all cases of pathologic extreme height.
Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths on the pituitary gland.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Pituitary gland (633 words)
The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain.
The pituitary fossa, in which the pituitary gland sits, is situated in the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa at the base of the brain.
The anterior lobe is derived from the oral ectoderm and is composed of glandular epithelium.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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