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Encyclopedia > Pitjantjatjara
Image:Some aboriginal communities in the northern territory australia.jpg
Location of Pitjantjatjara (blue, near bottom left) in the Northern Territory

Pitjantjatjara IPA: [ˈpɪcaɲcacaɾa] is the name of both an Aboriginal people of the Central Australian desert, and their language (for which see Pitjantjatjara language). They are closely related to the Yankunytjatjara and Ngaanyatjarra,they are also related to the GHyeisyriieue and their languages are, to a large extent, mutually intelligible (all of them are varieties of the Western Desert Language). Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $10,418 (8th)  - Product per capita  $51,634/person (2nd) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  207,700 (8th)  - Density  0. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. ... Central Australia is a term used to describe the area of land surrounding and including Alice Springs in Australia. ... Pitjantjatjara is a dialect of the Western Desert language traditionally spoken by the Pitjantjatjara people of Central Australia. ... Yankunytjatjara (also Yankuntatjara, Jangkundjara, Kulpantja) is an Australian Aboriginal language. ... Ngaanyatjarra (also Nyanganyatjara, Ngaanyatjara, Ngaanjatjarra) is an Australian Aboriginal language. ... Western Desert Language is the name used to refer to an otherwise un-named Australian Aboriginal language. ...


They refer to themselves as Anangu (people). Pitjantjatjara country is mostly in the north-west of South Australia, extending across the border into the Northern Territory to just south of Lake Amadeus, and west a short distance into Western Australia. The land is an inseparable and important part of their identity, and every part of it is rich with stories and meaning to Anangu. Anangu, more accurately AṉaÅ‹u or Arnangu, IPA: is a word found in a number of eastern varieties of the Western Desert Language (WDL), an Australian Aboriginal language of the Pama-Nyungan family, spoken in the desert regions of western and central Australia. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $10,418 (8th)  - Product per capita  $51,634/person (2nd) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  207,700 (8th)  - Density  0. ... Lake Amadeus is a big salt lake in the area of Uluru (Ayers Rock), located in the SW corner of Australias Northern Territory. ... Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $100,900 (4th)  - Product per capita  $50,355/person (3rd) Population (December 2006)  - Population  2,050,900 (4th)  - Density  0. ...


They have, for the most part, now given up their nomadic hunting and gathering lifestyle but have managed to retain their languages and much of their culture in spite of increasing influences from the broader Australian community.


Today there are still about 4,000 Anangu living scattered in small communities and outstations across their traditional lands, forming one of the most successful joint land arrangements in Australia with Aboriginal Traditional Owners.

Contents

Some major communities

See WARU community directory for a complete list

Ernabella or Pukatja (26. ... Yalata () [1] is the main settlement of the Yalata indigenous Australians. ... The Maralinga Tjarutja is the Aboriginal people who inhabit the remote western area of South Australia. ... Kalka Aboriginal Community in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Lands of South Australia lies on Land administered under the Pitjantjatjara Land Rights Act 1981. ...

History

After many horrific and often fatal encounters with European dingo hunters and settlers, 73,000 square kilometres of land was established in the north west of South Australia for their use in 1921. Dingo range Breed standards (external link) ANKC The dingo (plural dingoes or dingos) or warrigal, Canis lupus dingo, is a type of wild dog, probably descended from the Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes). ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Extended droughts in the 1920s and between 1956 to 1965 in their homelands in the Great Victoria and Gibson Deserts led many Pitjantjatjara, and their traditionally more westerly relations, the Ngaanyatjarra, to move east towards the railway between Adelaide and Alice Springs in search of food and water, thus mixing with the most easterly of the three, the Yankunytjatjara. They refer to themselves as Anangu, which originally just meant people in general, but has now come to imply an Aboriginal person or, more specifically, a member of one of the groups that speaks a variety of the Western Desert Language. The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The Great Victoria Desert is a barren, arid and sparsely populated desert ecoregion in southern Australia. ... A four wheel drive in the Gibson Desert The Gibson Desert is a Western Australian desert made up of sandhills and dry grass. ... Ngaanyatjarra (also Nyanganyatjara, Ngaanyatjara, Ngaanjatjarra) is an Australian Aboriginal language. ... Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia, with a population of over 1. ... Alice Springs on a large scale map Alice Springs is a large town in the Northern Territory of Australia located at 23°42′ S 133°52′ E. Its population of 28,178 (2001 Census) makes it the second-largest settlement in the Territory (the only other towns of... Yankunytjatjara (also Yankuntatjara, Jangkundjara, Kulpantja) is an Australian Aboriginal language. ... Anangu, more accurately AṉaÅ‹u or Arnangu, IPA: is a word found in a number of eastern varieties of the Western Desert Language (WDL), an Australian Aboriginal language of the Pama-Nyungan family, spoken in the desert regions of western and central Australia. ...


However, European depredations continued and Dr. Charles Duguid tirelessly fought for their protection, wellbeing and a chance to gradually accustom themselves to their rapidly-changing circumstances. In response, the South Australian Government finally supported a plan by the then Presbyterian Church to set up the Ernabella Mission in the Musgrave Ranges as a safe haven. This mission, largely due to the insistence of Dr. Duguid himself, was ahead of the times in that there was no systematic attempt to destroy Aboriginal culture, as was common on many other missions. // The son of Charles Duguid and Jane Snodgrass Kinnier, Charles Duguid was born in Saltcoats, Ayrshire on 6th April 1884. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Ernabella or Pukatja (26. ... Musgrave Ranges is a mountain range in Central Australia, straddling the boundary of South Australia and the Northern Territory, extending into Western Australia. ...


Beginning in 1950, many Anangu were forced to leave their homelands due to British nuclear tests at Maralinga. A large number of Anangu were subsequently contaminated by the nuclear fallout from the atomic tests, and many have died as a consequence. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Maralinga atomic weapons test site was set up on the Nullarbor Plain in South Australia during the early 1950s, as a joint test facility between the British and Australian governments. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ...


Their experience of issues of land rights and native title in South Australia have been unique. After four years of campaigning and negotiations with government and mining groups, the Pitjantjatjara Land Rights Act was passed on 19 March 1981, granting freehold title over 103,000 square kilometres of land in the far northwestern corner of South Australia. Because land is a limited resource and property rights include the right to exclude others, land rights are a form of monopoly. ... Native title is a concept in the law of Australia that recognises the continued ownership of land by local Indigenous Australians. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ...


The Maralinga Tjarutja Land Rights Act, 1984 (SA) (the Act) granted freehold title of an area of 80,764 square kilometres to Maralinga Tjarutja. The Unnamed Conservation Park (now Mamungari Conservation Park) was transferred to the Maralinga Tjarutja in 2004. The Maralinga Tjarutja are the Indigenous Australian people who traditionally inhabit the remote western areas of South Australia. ... Mamungari Conservation Park (formerly known as Unnamed Conservation Park) is a wilderness reserve in South Australia (Australia) in the southern Great Victoria Desert and northern Nullarbor Plain, around 200 km west of Maralinga and 450 km northwest of Ceduna. ...


Recognition of sacred sites

Pitjantjatjara people (Anangu) live in the area around Uluru and south to the Great Australian Bight
Pitjantjatjara people (Anangu) live in the area around Uluru and south to the Great Australian Bight

The sacred sites of Uluru (Ayers Rock) and Kata Tjuta (the Olgas) were extremely important spiritually and cermonially to the Anangu with more than forty named sacred sites and eleven separate Tjurkurpa (or 'Dreaming') tracks in the area. Some of these dreaming tracks led as far as the sea in all directions. Unfortunately, Uluru and Kata Tjuta were just over the border in the Northern Territory and separated from the Pitjantjatjara Lands in South Australia and had become a major tourist attraction and, ultimately, a National Park. The Central Land Council laid claim to the Ayers-Rock-Mt. Olga National Park and some adjoining vacant Crown land in 1979, but this claim was fiercely resisted by the Northern Territory government. Image File history File links Uluru_1. ... Image File history File links Uluru_1. ... Anangu, more accurately AṉaÅ‹u or Arnangu, IPA: is a word found in a number of eastern varieties of the Western Desert Language (WDL), an Australian Aboriginal language of the Pama-Nyungan family, spoken in the desert regions of western and central Australia. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Great Australian Bight is a large bight, or open bay, encompassing an area of the Southern Ocean located off the central and western portions of the southern coastline of mainland Australia. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Uluru (also Ayers Rock or The Rock) is a large rock formation in central Australia, in the Northern Territory. ... Kata Tjuta Kata Tjuta, also known as Mount Olga (or colloquially as The Olgas), are large conglomerate rock formations, which are a remarkable group of 30 or so domed hills situated about 25 km from Uluru in the Northern Territory of Australia. ... The large monolithic rock formations known as Kata Tjuta (The Olgas) are a remarkable group of 30 or so domed hills situated very close to Uluru (Ayers Rock) in the Northern Territory of Australia. ... Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $10,418 (8th)  - Product per capita  $51,634/person (2nd) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  207,700 (8th)  - Density  0. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... The Central Land Council is in the southern half of the Northern Territory of Australia. ... Uluru-Kata Tjuta is a national park in the Northern Territory of Australia, 1431 km (890 miles) south of Darwin. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $10,418 (8th)  - Product per capita  $51,634/person (2nd) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  207,700 (8th)  - Density  0. ...


After eight years of intensive lobbying by the Traditional Owners, on 11 November 1983, Prime Minister Bob Hawke announced that the Federal Government intended to transfer inalienable freehold title to them. He also agreed to ten main points they had demanded in exchange for a lease-back arrangement to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service for a "joint-management" régime where Anangu would have a majority on the Board of Management. This was finally granted in 1985, but with the government reneging on two of the most important points the Anangu had requested: they were forced to agree to lease the Park for 99 years, instead of the fifty years originally agreed on, perhaps more importantly, they had to allow tourists to climb Uluru, thus continuing the desecration of one of their main dreaming tracks. November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert James Lee Bob Hawke AC (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian trade union leader turned politician who became the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Representation of the Rainbow serpent, the Waugal The Dreamtime is the central, unifying theme in Australian Aboriginal mythology. ...


Park Management has erected signs asking visitors not to climb the "Rock," but have no authority to enforce it. Thousands of visitors climb the rock every year. This is said to offend and sadden the Traditional Owners.


However, joint management of the 13.25 square kilometre World Heritage listed National Park has certainly been of benefit to Anangu, the Government and the millions of visitors who continue to be awed by the unique beauty and interest of the Park.[citation needed] Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...


The name of the language

Origin of the name

The name Pitjantjatjara derives from the word pitjantja, a form of the verb 'go' which, combined with the comitative suffix -tjara means something like ' pitjantja-having' (i.e. the variety that uses the word pitjantja for 'go'). This distinguishes it from its near neighbour Yankunytjatjara which has yankunytja for the same meaning. This naming strategy is also the source of the names of Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaatjatjarra but in that case the names contrast the two languages based on their words for 'this' (respectively, ngaanya and ngaatja). The two languages Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara may be grouped together under the name Nyangatjatjara (indicating that they have nyangatja for 'this') which then contrasts them with Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaatjatjarra. The Comitative case is used where English would use in company with or together with. It, and many other cases, are found in the Finnish language, the Hungarian language, and the Estonian language. ... Ngaanyatjarra (also Nyanganyatjara, Ngaanyatjara, Ngaanjatjarra) is an Australian Aboriginal language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ngaatjatjarra. ... Ngaanyatjarra is an Aboriginal Australian dialectal group of the Western Desert cultural bloc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ngaatjatjarra language. ...


Pronunciation of the name

The name Pitjantjatjara is usually pronounced (in normal, fast speech) with one of the repeated syllabes -tja- deleted, thus: pitjantjara. In slow, careful speech all syllables will be pronounced.


References

  • Duguid, Charles. 1972. Doctor and the Aborigines. Rigby. ISBN 0-85179-411-4.
  • Glass, Amee and Hackett, Dorothy. 1979. Ngaanyatjarra texts. New Revised edition of Pitjantjatjara texts (1969). Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra. ISBN 0-391-01683-0.
  • Goddard, Cliff. 1996. Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara to English Dictionary. IAD Press, Alice Springs. ISBN 0-949659-91-6.
  • Hilliard, Winifred. M. 1968. The People in Between: The Pitjantjatjara People of Ernabella. Reprint: Seal Books, 1976. ISBN 0-7270-0159-0.
  • Isaacs, Jennifer. 1992. Desert Crafts: Anangu Maruku Punu. Doubleday. ISBN 0-86824-474-0.
  • Kavanagh, Maggie. 1990. Minyma Tjuta Tjunguringkula Kunpuringanyi: Women Growing Strong Together. Ngaanyatjarra, Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara Women's Council 1980-1990. ISBN 0-646-02068-4.
  • Tame, Adrian & Robotham, F.P.J. 1982. MARALINGA: British A-Bomb Australian Legacy. Fontana / Collins, Melbourne. ISBN 0-00-636391-1.
  • Toyne, Phillip and Vachon, Daniel. 1984. Growing Up the Country: The Pitjantjatjara struggle for their land. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-007641-7.
  • Wallace, Phil and Noel. 1977. Killing Me Softly: The Destruction of a Heritage. Thomas Nelson, Melbourne. ISBN 0-17-005153-6.
  • Woenne-Green, Susan; Johnston, Ross; Sultan, Ros & Wallis, Arnold. 1993. Competing Interests: Aboriginal Participation in National Parks and Conservation Reserves in Australia - A Review. Australian Conservation Foundation. Fitzroy, Victoria. ISBN 0-85802-113-7.

External links

  • Ngapartji Online course of Pitjantjatjara language, and related performance event
  • Web portal for Anangu Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara and Ngaanyatjarra peoples, communities and organisations
  • Yalata Land Management
  • Pitjantjatjara entry in the AusAnthrop database

  Results from FactBites:
 
waru.org: Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Council (262 words)
Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara (APY) is incorporated by the 1981 Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Land Rights Act whereby the SA Parliament gave Aboriginal people title to more than 103,000 square kilometres of arid land in the far northwest of South Australia.
All Pitjantjatjara, Yankunytjatjara and Ngaanyatjarra people who are traditional owners of any part of the Lands are members of Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara.
Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjra is seeking to improve its provision of electronic services and sees the internet as a vehicle to help reduce the isolation of the communities.
Pitjantjatjara language, alphabet and pronunciation (209 words)
Pitjantjatjara is part of the Western Desert Group of the Pama-Nyungan languages spoken in central Australia by about 3000 people, about 80% of whom are monolingual.
Pitjantjatjara has been written with the Latin alphabet since the 1940s and the spelling system was standarised in 1979 and confirmed in 1987 by the publication of a Pitjantjatjara–English dictionary.
Ngayuku ini Raelene-nya, ngayulu walkapai Pitjantjatjara, ngayulu ngura Areyonga-la. Munu ngayuku nyunytju mama-kulu walkapai Pitjantjatjara, ka ngayuku tjamu walkapi Ngaatjatjarra, ka ngayuku kami walkapai Pitjantjatjara.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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