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Encyclopedia > Pitcher plant
Pitcher of Nepenthes distillatoria. A: Honey-gland from attractive surface of lid. B: Digestive gland from interior of pitcher, in pocket-like depression of epidermis, opening downwards. C: Traverse section same.
Pitcher of Nepenthes distillatoria. A: Honey-gland from attractive surface of lid. B: Digestive gland from interior of pitcher, in pocket-like depression of epidermis, opening downwards. C: Traverse section same.

Pitcher plants are carnivorous plants whose prey-trapping mechanism features a deep cavity filled with liquid known as a pitfall trap. It has been widely assumed that the various sorts of pitfall trap evolved from rolled leaves, with selection pressure favouring more deeply cupped leaves over evolutionary time. However, some pitcher plant genera (such as Nepenthes) are placed within clades consisting mostly of flypaper traps: this indicates that this view may be too simplistic, and some pitchers may have evolved from flypaper traps by loss of mucilage. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1075x1027, 34 KB)Diagram of a pitcher plant from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1075x1027, 34 KB)Diagram of a pitcher plant from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. ... Binomial name Nepenthes distillatoria L. (1753) Distribution of . ... Nepenthes mirabilis in flower, growing on a road cut in Palau Carnivorous plants (sometimes called insectivorous plants) are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, most focusing on insects and other arthropods. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species See text The genus Nepenthes (Tropical Pitcher Plants or Monkey Cups) in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae contains roughly 80-100 species, (depending on author), several natural and many cultivated hybrids. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... Mucilage is a thick gluey substance, often produced by plants. ...


Whatever their evolutionary origins, foraging, flying or crawling insects such as flies are attracted to the cavity formed by the cupped leaf, often by visual lures such as anthocyanin pigments, and nectar bribes. The sides of the pitcher are slippery and may be grooved in such a way so as to ensure that the insects cannot climb out. The small bodies of liquid contained within the pitcher traps are called phytotelmata. They drown the insect, and the body of it is gradually dissolved. This may occur by bacterial action (the bacteria being washed into the pitcher by rainfall) or by enzymes secreted by the plant itself. Furthermore, some pitcher plants contain mutualistic insect larvae, which feed on trapped prey, and whose excreta the plant absorbs.[citation needed] Whatever the mechanism of digestion, the prey items are converted into a solution of amino acids, peptides, phosphates, ammonium and urea, from which the plant obtains its mineral nutrition (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus). Like all carnivorous plants, they occur in locations where the soil is too poor in minerals and/or too acidic for most plants to be able to grow. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... Phytotelmata, or literally from Greek, plants that hold some water. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Excreta is a generic term used to refer to any masses or fluids excreted as part of the digestive system of a living organism, usually that of humans. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ...


Types of pitcher plants

Nepenthes pitchers hang from tendrils
Nepenthes pitchers hang from tendrils

The families Nepenthaceae and Sarraceniaceae are the best-known and largest groups of pitcher plants. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 353 KB) Here is a photo of my cultivated N. muluensis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 353 KB) Here is a photo of my cultivated N. muluensis. ... Species See text The genus Nepenthes (Tropical Pitcher Plants or Monkey Cups) in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae contains roughly 80-100 species, (depending on author), several natural and many cultivated hybrids. ... Genera Nepenthes Anurosperma Families of Flowering Plants as of 2002-10-20 Nepenthaceae is a family of pitcher plants. ... Genera Darlingtonia Heliamphora Sarracenia Families of Flowering Plants as of 2002-10-20 Sarraceniaceae is the Pitcher plant family, belonging to order Ericales, previously Nepenthales. ...


The Nepenthaceae contains a single genus, Nepenthes, containing about 120 species and numerous hybrids and cultivars. In these Old World pitcher plants, the pitchers are borne at the end of tendrils that extend from the midrib of an otherwise unexceptional leaf. The plants themselves are often climbers, accessing the canopy of their habitats using the aforementioned tendrils, although others are found on the ground in forest clearings, or as epiphytes on trees. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species See text The genus Nepenthes (Tropical Pitcher Plants or Monkey Cups) in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae contains roughly 80-100 species, (depending on author), several natural and many cultivated hybrids. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... In botany, a tendril is a specialized stem, leaf or petiole with a threadlike shape that is used by climbing plants for support and attachment, generally by twining around whatever it touches. ... Is a strenthened vein which is located down the middle of a leaf or flower peltal. ... The canopy is the habitat found at the uppermost level of a forest, especially rainforest. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

North American Pitcher plants belong to the genus Sarracenia and form upright, tubular leaves
North American Pitcher plants belong to the genus Sarracenia and form upright, tubular leaves
Cobra lilies (Darlingtonia californica) use window-like aeriolae to lure insects into their hollow leaves
Cobra lilies (Darlingtonia californica) use window-like aeriolae to lure insects into their hollow leaves

In contrast, the New World pitcher plants (Sarraceniaceae), which comprise three genera, are ground-dwelling herbs whose pitchers arise from a horizontal rhizome. In this family, the entire leaf forms the pitcher, whereas in the Nepenthaceae, the pitcher arises from the terminal portion of the leaf. The species of Heliamphora, which are popularly known as marsh pitchers (or erroneously as sun pitchers), have a simple rolled-leaf pitcher, at the tip of which is a spoon-like structure that secretes nectar. They are restricted to areas of high rainfall in South America. The North American genus Sarracenia are the trumpet pitchers, which have a more complex trap than Heliamphora, with an operculum, which prevents excess accumulation of rainwater in most of the species. The single species in the Californian genus Darlingtonia is popularly known as the cobra plant, due to its possession of an inflated 'lid' with elegant false-exits, and a forked 'tongue', which serves to ferry ants and other prey to the entrance of the pitcher. The species in the genus Sarracenia readily hybridise, making their classification a complex matter. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 636 KB) Pitcher plant Sarracenia flava at Kew Gardens, London, England. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 636 KB) Pitcher plant Sarracenia flava at Kew Gardens, London, England. ... Sarracenia range (all species) Species See text. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1349 KB) Summary Description: Darlingtonia californica Picture taken by: NoahElhardt Date: 7/8/05 Location: Rocky Creek Trail, OR Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Carnivorous plant Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1349 KB) Summary Description: Darlingtonia californica Picture taken by: NoahElhardt Date: 7/8/05 Location: Rocky Creek Trail, OR Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Carnivorous plant Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Binomial name Darlingtonia californica Torr. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... For other uses, see Rhizome (disambiguation). ... The genus Heliamphora contains approximately eight species of pitcher plants native to South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... North American redirects here. ... Sarracenia range (all species) Species See text. ... In botany, operculum may be used to describe any of the following: A flap of the sporangium of a moss, covering the peristome (appendages surrounding the mouth of a moss capsule). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Binomial name Darlingtonia californica Torr. ...

The Albany Pitcher Plant is the only member of the Australian genus Cephalotus
The Albany Pitcher Plant is the only member of the Australian genus Cephalotus

There are two other genera of pitcher plants, but both contain just one or two carnivorous species. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 136 KB) Cephalotus follicularis Author: Alexander Fisch --> http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 136 KB) Cephalotus follicularis Author: Alexander Fisch --> http://www. ... Binomial name Cephalotus follicularis Cephalotus is a monotypic genus of southwest Australian pitcher plants, containing the single species Cephalotus follicularis, commonly called the Albany Pitcher Plant or the Western Australian Pitcher Plant. ...


The Cephalotaceae is a monotypic family with but one genus and species, Cephalotus follicularis. This species has a small (2 to 5 cm) pitcher similar in form to those of Nepenthes. It occurs in only one location in southwestern Australia. Binomial name Cephalotus follicularis Labill. ... Binomial name Cephalotus follicularis Cephalotus is a monotypic genus of southwest Australian pitcher plants, containing the single species Cephalotus follicularis, commonly called the Albany Pitcher Plant or the Western Australian Pitcher Plant. ...


A few species of bromeliads (Bromeliaceae), such as Brocchinia reducta and Catopsis berteroniana are known or suspected to be carnivorous. Bromeliads are monocots, and given that they all naturally collect water where their leaves meet each other, and that many collect detritus, it is not surprising that a few should have been naturally selected to develop the habit into carnivory by the addition of wax and downward-pointing hairs. Subfamiles Bromelioideae Pitcairnioideae Tillandsioideae Bromeliaceae (the bromeliads) is a large family of flowering plants native to the tropical and warm temperate New World. ... Brocchinia reducta is one of few carnivorous bromeliads. ... Binomial name Catopsis berteroniana Catopsis berteroniana is an epiphytic bromeliad thought to be a possible carnivorous plant, similar to Brocchinia reducta, although the evidence is equivocal. ... Hemerocallis flower, with three flower parts in each whorl Wheat, an economically important monocot The monocotyledons or Monocots are a group of flowering plants, (angiosperms) dominating great parts of the earth. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... This article is about the body feature. ...


The Purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, is the floral emblem of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Binomial name L. Sarracenia purpurea range Sarracenia purpurea, commonly known as the Purple pitcher plant or Side-saddle flower, is a carnivorous plant in the family Sarraceniaceae. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


External links

  • Carnivorous Plants Enthusiast Forum
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pitcher (plant)

This article incorporates text from the Encyclop√¶dia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "Pitcher Plants", a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
How to Grow North American Pitcher Plants, Sarracenia (403 words)
Pitcher plants attract their prey with an intoxicating nectar which is secreted from the hood of the funnel.
Once the insects enter the pitcher, escape is nearly impossible because of the downward pointing hairs on the inside of the hood and the slippery wax coating on the inside of the Pitcher's tube (not to mention the fact that they may be a bit drunk).
Most Pitcher Plant species are hardy in USDA zones 6-8, and may survive in even colder areas provided they are given a thick cover of winter mulch.
ScienceDaily: Pitcher plant (1504 words)
Pitcher plants (or pitfall traps) are carnivorous plants whose prey-trapping mechanism features a deep cavity filled with liquid known as a pitfall trap.
Carnivorous plants occur in locations where the soil is too poor in minerals and/or too acidic for most plants to be able to grow.
Pitcher plant -- Pitcher plants (or pitfall traps) are carnivorous plants whose prey-trapping mechanism features a deep cavity filled with liquid known as a pitfall trap.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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