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Encyclopedia > Pit Grave culture
Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. The bodies were typically covered with ochre.
Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. The bodies were typically covered with ochre.

The Yamna (from Ukrainian, Russian яма "pit") or Pit Grave or Ochre Grave culture is a late copper age/early Bronze Age culture of the Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to the 36th23rd centuries BC. The culture was predominantly nomadic, with some agriculture practiced near rivers and a few hillforts. Image File history File links excavated Yamna grave. ... Image File history File links excavated Yamna grave. ... This article is about the color. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Bug (pronunciation Boog) is the name of two rivers in Europe: Western Bug Southern Bug See also Bug - other kinds of bugs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Dniester (Polish Dniestr, Ukrainian Дністер (Dnister), Romanian Nistru, Russian Днестр (Dnestr), Yiddish‫נעסטער ‬ (nester), Serbian (Dnjester) and during antiquity was called Tyras in Latin) is a river in Eastern Europe. ... The Ural River (Russian: Урал, Urál [formerly: Яик, Yaik River], Kazakh: Жайық, Zhayyq) flows through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... The Pontic steppe refers to the steppelands to the north of the Black Sea and on its eastern side as far as the Caspian Sea. ... (37th century BC - 36th century BC - 35th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Civilization of Sumeria Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions Categories: Centuries | 36th century BC | 4th millennium BC ... (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term hill fort is commonly used by archeologists to describe fortified enclosures located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. ...


Characteristic for the culture are the inhumations in kurgans (tumuli) in pit graves with the dead body placed in a supine position with bent knees. The bodies were covered in ochre. Multiple graves have been found in these kurgans, often as later insertions. Significantly, animal grave offerings were made (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and horse), a feature associated with both Proto-Indo-Europeans or Proto-Indo-Iranians. By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow-in-Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... The supine position is a position of the body is laying down with the face up. ... This article is about the color. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ...


It is said to have originated in the middle Volga based Khvalynsk culture and the middle Dnieper based Sredny Stog culture. In its western range, it is succeeded by the Catacomb culture; in the east, by the Poltavka culture and the Srubna culture. Khvalynsk culture, 4900-3500 BC. A copper age culture centered on the Samara bend of the Volga River. ... The Sredny Stog culture dates from 4500-3500 BC. It was situated just north of the Sea of Azov betweeen the Dnieper and the Don. ... Catacomb culture, ca. ... Poltavka culture, 2700—2100 BC, an early to middle bronze age archaeological culture of the middle Volga from about where the Don-Volga canal begins up to the Samara bend, with an easterly extension north of present Khazakstan along the Samara River valley to somewhat west of Orenburg. ... Srubna or Timber-grave culture, 16th-12th centuries BC. This is a bronze age successor to the Yamna culture, the Catacomb culture and the Abashevo culture. ...


The Yamna culture is identified with the late Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) in the Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas. It is one candidate for the Urheimat (homeland) of the Proto-Indo-European language, along with the preceding Sredny Stog culture. The earliest remains in Eastern Europe of a wheeled cart were found in the "Storozhova mohyla" kurgan (Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, excavated by Trenozhkin A.I.) associated with the Yamna culture. The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Kurgan hypothesis was introduced by Marija Gimbutas in 1956 in order to combine archaeology with linguistics in locating the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples. ... Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... The Sredny Stog culture dates from 4500-3500 BC. It was situated just north of the Sea of Azov betweeen the Dnieper and the Don. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... It has been suggested that Wheel and Axle be merged into this article or section. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Dnipropetrovsk highlighted. ...


Maps

Sources

J. P. Mallory, "Yamna Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997. JP Mallory is the nom-de-plume of Irish-American archaeologist and Indo-Europeanist Prof. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ...


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