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Encyclopedia > Pistachio
Pistachio
Pistachio with ripening fruit
Pistachio with ripening fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Pistacia
Species: P. vera
Binomial name
Pistacia vera
L.

The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of Iran, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. It has deciduous pinnate leaves 10–20 cm long. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x882, 169 KB) Photo of Pistacia vera Kerman (Pistachio) at the Desert Demonstration Garden in Las Vegas, taken May 2003 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Pistachio User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Plants M-Z... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... Genera See text Anacardiaceae is a family of flowering plants bearing fruits that are drupes. ... Species Pistacia afghanistania Pistacia atlantica - Betoum Pistacia chinensis - Chinese Pistache Pistacia khinjuk Pistacia lentiscus - Mastic or Lentisco Pistacia mexicana - Mexican Pistache Pistacia terebinthus - Terebinth Pistacia texana - Texas Pistache Pistacia vera - Pistachio Pistacia wienmannifolia Pistacia is a genus of ten species in the family Anacardiaceae, native to the Canary Islands, northwest... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Genera See text Anacardiaceae is a family of flowering plants bearing fruits that are drupes. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off) and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally. ... Look up Pinnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The plants are dioecious, with separate male and female trees. The flowers are apetalous and unisexual, and borne in panicles. The fruit is a drupe, containing an elongated seed (a nut in the culinary sense, but not a true botanical nut) with a hard, whitish shell and a striking kernel which has a mauvish skin and light green flesh, with a particular characteristic flavour. Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For the petals of chakras, see Petal (chakra). ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structures holding the fruits. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ...


When the fruit ripens, the husk changes from green to an autumnal yellow/red and the shells split partially open (see photo). This happens with an audible pop.

Contents

History

Pistachio is often confused with some of the other nine species in the genus Pistacia, such as P. terebinthus and P. lentiscus. These species have a very different distribution, in the Mediterranean and southwest Asia, and have much smaller nuts, lacking the hard shell of P. vera. Their turpentine-flavoured nuts were a popular food in antiquity. Finds of Pistacia from pre-classical archaeological sites, or references in pre-classical texts, always refer to one of these other species (often P. terebinthus). Species Pistacia afghanistania Pistacia atlantica - Betoum Pistacia chinensis - Chinese Pistache Pistacia khinjuk Pistacia lentiscus - Mastic or Lentisco Pistacia mexicana - Mexican Pistache Pistacia terebinthus - Terebinth Pistacia texana - Texas Pistache Pistacia vera - Pistachio Pistacia wienmannifolia Pistacia is a genus of ten species in the family Anacardiaceae, native to the Canary Islands, northwest... Binomial name Pistacia terebinthus L. Terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus) also called turpentine tree is a species of Pistacia, native to the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Portugal east to Turkey and Syria, and also the Canary Islands. ... Binomial name Pistacia lentiscus L. Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 3-4 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Iberia east to Turkey. ...


Pistachio (in the sense of P. vera) was first cultivated in Western Asia. It reached the Mediterranean world by way of central Iran, where it has long been an important crop. Although known to the Romans, the pistachio nut appears not to have reached the Mediterranean or most of the Near East in any quantity before medieval times. More recently pistachio has been cultivated in California (first commercial harvest in 1976) and Australia. The word pistachio is a Persian loanword, coming into English through Italian, and is a cognate to the Modern Persian word پسته Peste'. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Cultivation and uses

Pistachio nuts in the shell and out of it

The kernels are often eaten whole, either fresh or roasted and salted, and are also used in ice cream and confections such as baklava. In July 2003, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first qualified health claim specific to nuts lowering the risk of heart disease: "Scientific evidence suggests but does not prove that eating 1.5 ounces per day of most nuts, such as pistachios, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease".[1]. In research at Pennsylvania State University, pistachios in particular significantly reduced levels of LDL, the 'bad' cholesterol, in the blood of volunteers.[2] Pennsylvania State University's Department of Nutrition and Sciences has also conducted related research on other health benefits of pistachios, including an April 2007 study concluding that pistachios may calm acute stress reaction [3], and a June 2007 study on the cardiovascular health benefits of eating pistachios.[4] Paramount Farms[5], the largest commercial producer of pistachios in the United States, operates and maintains a public website with information on pistachio health, nutrition, history, and facts, as well as links or downloadable files for all of the above health research studies and more at PistachioHealth.com.[6] Pistachios (in the shell and out of it). ... Pistachios (in the shell and out of it). ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Baklava is prepared on large trays and cut into a variety of shapes Baklava or Baklawa is a rich, sweet pastry featured in many cuisines of the Middle East and the Balkans (i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML...


On the Greek island of Chios, the husk or flesh of the pistachio fruit, that surrounds the shell, is cooked and preserved in syrup, a spoonful of which would traditionally be offered as a sweet delicacy to guests. Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios, see also List of traditional Greek place names; Ottoman Turkish: صاقيز Sakız; Genoese: Scio) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea five miles off the Turkish coasts. ...


The shell of the pistachio is naturally a beige colour, but it is sometimes dyed red or green in commercial pistachios. Originally the dye was applied by importers to hide stains on the shells caused when the nuts were picked by hand. However most pistachios are now picked by machine and the shells remain unstained, making dyeing unnecessary (except that some consumers have been led to expect coloured pistachios). Roasted pistachio nuts turn naturally red if they are marinated prior to roasting in a salt and strawberry marinade, or salt and citrus salts [citation needed]. Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The trees are planted in orchards, and take approximately seven to ten years to reach significant production. Production is alternate bearing or biennial bearing, meaning the harvest is heavier in alternate years. Peak production is reached at approximately 20 years. Trees are usually pruned to size to make the harvest easier. One male tree produces enough pollen for eight to twelve nut-bearing females. Pistachio orchards can be damaged by the fungal disease Botryosphaeria panicle and shoot blight, which kills the flowers and young shoots. A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Pistachio trees are fairly hardy in the right conditions, and can survive temperature ranges between −10°C (14°F) in winter to 40°C (104°F) in summer. They need a sunny position and well-drained soil. Pistachio trees do poorly in conditions of high humidity, and are susceptible to root rot in winter if they get too much water and the soil is not sufficiently free draining. Long hot summers are required for proper ripening of the fruit.


Pistachio nuts are highly flammable when stored in large quantities, and are prone to self heating and spontaneous combustion.[7] Spontaneous combustion is the self-ignition of a material. ...


Diseases

This article is a list of diseases of pistachios (Pistacia vera). ...

Worldwide production

Pistachio output in 2005
Pistachio output in 2005

Share of a total 2005 worldwide production of 501 thousand metric tonnes: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of pistachio output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Iran - 227,640 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of pistachio output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Iran - 227,640 tonnes). ...

Country Production
(1000 tonnes)
Iran 229.66
U.S. (mainly California) 128.79
Syria 60
Turkey 60
China 34
Greece 9.37
Italy 2.72
Tunisia 1.21
Uzbekistan 1.11
Pakistan 0.20
Madagascar 0.15
Kyrgyzstan 0.10
Morocco 0.04
Mexico 0.03
Cyprus 0.02
Azerbaijan 0.01

Source: FAOSTAT


California produces almost all U.S. pistachios, and about half of these are exported, mainly to China, Hong Kong, Japan, Europe and Canada. Almost all California pistachios are of the cultivar 'Kerman'. The tree is grafted to a rootstock when the rootstock is one year old. Only a few years after California growers started growing pistachios, the 1979 hostage crisis of U.S. citizens in Iran would give stronger commercial impetus to the American-based pistachio nut industry. Previous to that time, most Westerners were familiar with only the slightly smaller, deeply red-hued (dyed) nuts produced mainly in Iran. California with its often perceived penchant for things natural and improved would set a new standard of uniform quality and size in its pistachio nut harvests. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Grafting is a method of plant propagation by which one woody plant is mechanically attached to another so that the two eventually fuse together. ...

  1. ^ FDA Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (July 2003) “Qualified Health Claims: Letter of Enforcement Discretion - Nuts and Coronary Heart Disease” (Docket No 02P-0505)
  2. ^ Daily Telegraph (London) 2 May 2007
  3. ^ DailyScience.com, via PistachioHealth.com, link and copy of April 2007 Pennsylvania State University research study
  4. ^ PistachioHealth.com link to PDF copy of June 2007 Pennsylvania State University Cardiovascular Health Pistachio study
  5. ^ Paramount Farms Official Website
  6. ^ http://www.pistachiohealth.com PistachioHealth.com Website]
  7. ^ http://www.containerhandbuch.de/chb_e/scha/index.html?/chb_e/scha/scha_13_06.html Cargo container's handbook].

See also

  • List of culinary nuts

According to the botanical definition, nuts are a particular kind of dry fruit. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
PISTACHIO Fruit Facts (1315 words)
Origin: The pistachio tree is native to western Asia and Asia Minor,from Syria to the Caucasus and Afghanistan.
Although known as a nut, the fruit of the pistachio is botanically a drupe, the edible portion of which is the seed.
The pistachio is unique in the nut trade due to its semi-split shell which enables the processor to roast and salt the kernel without removing the shell, and which at the same time serves as a convenient form of packaging.
Supplier & exporter of pistachio in Iran (0 words)
Sirjan Adel Pistachio is proud of being one of the pioneers in producing and exporting iranian pistachios of the best quality...
Adel Pistachio is one of the most famous pioneers in producing and exporting pistachios in Iran.
Pistachio is the core of dried nuts, and one of the most valuable high calorie foods.
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