FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pirate radio

The term Pirate Radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio transmission. The term is most commonly used to describe illegal broadcast for entertainment or political purposes, but is also sometimes used for illegal two-way radio operation. Rules and regulations vary largely from country to country. In countries such as the USA and many countries in Europe, many types of radio licenses exist, and often the term pirate radio generally describes the unlicensed broadcasting of FM radio, AM radio, or shortwave signals over a significant coverage area that could be picked up by listeners. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... A two-way radio is simply a radio that can both transmit and receive (a transceiver). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... FM radio is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3 MHz (3,000 kHz) and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than...


Sometimes radio stations are deemed legal where the signal is transmitted, but illegal and considered "pirate stations" where the signals are received—especially when the signals cross a country's border. In other cases, a broadcast may be considered "pirate" due to the nature of its content, its transmission format (especially a failure to transmit a station identification according to regulations), or the transmit power (wattage) of the station, even if the broadcast is not technically illegal (such as a webcast or a ham radio broadcast). Therefore pirate radio can sometimes mean different things to different people. Pirate radio stations are sometimes called bootleg stations (a term especially associated with two-way radio), clandestine stations or Free Radio stations. Station identification (sometimes called a sounder or stinger) is the practice of any type of radio or television station or network identifying itself, typically with a call sign or brand name. ... A webcast is a live media file distibuted over the Internet using streaming media technology. ... Amateur radio, commonly called ham radio, is a hobby enjoyed by many people throughout the world (as of 2004 about 3 million worldwide, 70,000 in Germany, 5,000 in Norway, 57,000 in Canada, and 700,000 in the USA). ... A two-way radio is simply a radio that can both transmit and receive (a transceiver). ...

Contents

Pirate radio history and examples

Denmark had the first known radio station in the world to broadcast commercial radio from a vessel in international waters without permission from the authorities in the country that it broadcast to (Denmark in this case). The station was named Radio Mercur and began transmission on August 2nd 1958. In the Danish newspapers it was soon called a "pirate radio". Radio Mercur was a Danish offshore broadcasting commercial radio station. ...


In the 1960s in the UK, the term referred to not only a perceived theft of the state-run airwaves by the unlicensed broadcasters, but also the risk-taking nature of offshore radio stations that actually operated on anchored ships or marine platforms.


A good example of this kind of activity was Radio Luxembourg located in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The English language evening broadcasts from Radio Luxembourg were intentionally beamed toward the British Isles by Luxembourg licensed transmitters, while the intended audience in the United Kingdom originally listened to their radio sets by permission of a Wireless License issued by the British General Post Office (GPO). However, under terms of that Wireless License, it was an offense under the Wireless Telegraphy Act to listen to unauthorized broadcasts which possibly included those transmitted by Radio Luxembourg. Therefore as far as the British authorities were concerned, Radio Luxembourg was a "pirate radio station" and British listeners to the station were breaking the law (although as the term 'unauthorised' was never properly defined it was somewhat of a legal grey area). This did not stop British newspapers from printing programme schedules for the station, or a British weekly magazine aimed at teenage girls, "Fab 208" from promoting the deejays and their lifestyle (Radio Luxembourg's wavelength was 208 metres). Radio Luxembourg (1933-1992, 2005-)was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in Europe. ... The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe The British Isles (French: , Irish: [1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa,[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh, Scottish Gaelic: , Welsh: ), are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The term General Post Office is or has been used by a number of postal and telecommunications governmental administrations worldwide, including: United Kingdom until 1969, see Post Office UK. After 1981 see Royal Mail for a continuing history of the British Post Office. ... GPO can refer to: General Post Office General Post Office (Dublin) General Post Office, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Generalplan Ost Green Party of Ontario Group Policy Object, a mechanism in Microsofts Active Directory used to apply policies to directory objects. ... The Wireless Telegraphy Act is the name given to the foundation of all communication laws in the United Kingdom. ...


Radio Luxembourg was later joined by two other well known pirate stations received in the UK in violation of UK licensing, Radio Caroline and Radio London, both of which broadcast from vessels anchored outside of territorial limits and were therefore legitimate but unauthorised in much the same way as Luxembourg. Indeed, all three stations even had registered offices based in mainland UK. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wonderful Radio Londons transmitter ship, the MV Galaxy Don Pierson in 1964 Wonderful Radio London also known as Big L, was a top 40 (in Londons case, the Fab 40) offshore commercial station that operated from 16 December 1964 to 14 August 1967, from a ship anchored in...


Where actual sea faring vessels are not involved, the term pirate radio is a political term of convenience as the word "pirate" suggests an illegal venture, regardless of the broadcast's actual legal status. The radio station XERF located at Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila, Mexico, just across the Rio Grande from Del Rio, Texas, USA, is an example. Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The call letters XERF-AM are assigned to a licensed border-blaster radio station that was located in Villa Acuña (later renamed Ciudad Acuña) and that was operated under the laws of Mexico. ... Ciudad Acuña, also known simply as Acuña, (originally Garza Galán, later Villa Acuña) is a city located in the Mexican state of Coahuila, at and a mean height above sea level of 280 metres. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... For other uses, see Rio Grande (disambiguation). ... Del Rio is the county seat of Val Verde CountyGR6,United States. ...


While Mexico issued radio station XERF with a license to broadcast, the power of its 250,000 watts transmitter was far greater than the maximum of 50,000 watts authorized for commercial use by the government of the United States of America. Consequently, XERF and many other radio stations in Mexico which sold their broadcasting time to sponsors of English-language commercial and religious programs, were labeled as "border blasters", but not "pirate radio stations", even though the content of many of their programs were in violation of US law. Predecessors to XERF, for instance, had originally broadcast in Kansas, advocating "goat-gland surgery" for improved masculinity, but moved to Mexico to evade US laws about advertising medical treatments, particularly unproven ones. The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one joule per second. ... A border blaster, unlike an international broadcasting station, is a term that has been specifically used to describe licensed commercial radio stations that have transmited at very high power to the United States of America from various points along the Mexican side of the border. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...


In 1924, New York City station WHN was accused of being an "outlaw" station by AT&T (then American Telephone and Telegraph Company) for violating trade licenses which permitted only AT&T stations to sell airtime on their transmitters. As a result of the AT&T interpretation a landmark case was heard in court, which even prompted comments from Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover when he took a public stand in the station's defense. Although AT&T won its case, the furor created was such that those restrictive provisions of the transmitter license were never enforced. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other senses of this word, see outlaw (disambiguation). ... AT&T Inc. ... AT&T (formerly an abbreviation for American Telephone and Telegraph) Corporation (NYSE: T) is an American telecommunications company. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals (programs) to a number of recipients (listeners or viewers) that belong to a large group. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ...


Free radio

Another variation on the term pirate radio came about during the "Summer of Love" in San Francisco during the hippie days when many things were named "free". Examples include "free store", "free love" and even "free radio", which usually referred to clandestine and unlicensed land-based transmissions. These were also tagged as being pirate radio transmissions. GET YOUR INTRO PAGE RIGHT ON SUMMER OF LOVE -- CHANGE TO 1967 N O T 1969 -- CHEERS FROM NORTHERN CALIFORNIA (ONE WHO WAS THERE!) Poster for the Monterey Pop Festival, June 1967 This article refers to the summer of 1967. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Singer at a modern Hippie movement in Russia Hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) refers to a member of a subgroup of the counterculture that began in the United States during the early 1960s, becoming an established social group by 1965, and expanding to other countries before declining in the mid-1970s. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ...


The term free radio crossed the Atlantic Ocean, where it was adopted by the Free Radio Association of listeners who defended the rights of the offshore "pirate radio stations" broadcasting from ships and marine structures off the coastline of the United Kingdom. However, the term free radio also has another meaning, because it differentiates between that form of licensed broadcasting supported by the sale of commercial airtime which anyone can hear free of charge, from that form of licensed commercial broadcasting (especially television) that listeners and especially viewers have to subscribe to and which is usually known as Pay TV. Pay television, or pay-TV, usually refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. ...


Félix Guattari points out:


"Technological development, and in particular the miniaturization of transmitters and the fact that they can be put together by amateurs, 'encounters' a collective aspiration for some new means of expression." [1]


[1] Félix Guattari. "Plan for the Planet". In Molecular Revolution. Psychiatry and Politics. London: Penguin Books, 1984. p. 269.


In Europe, in addition to adopting the term free radio, supportive listeners of what had been called pirate radio adopted the term offshore radio, which was usually the term used by the owners of the marine broadcasting stations. Offshore radio refers to the practice of radio broadcasting from ships or fixed maritime structures, usually in international waters. ...


Freebooter was yet another variation of the term pirate radio and it was sometimes used by the business press in the USA when describing marine broadcasting in Europe. For marine freebooters, see pirate For American usage, see filibuster (settler) For Irish usage, see rapparee For the musical trio from Thunder Bay, Ont. ...


While pirate radio began as a defamatory term in Britain, it later became accepted as having a secondary meaning to describe adventurous forms of licensed broadcasting that had roots in true offshore unlicensed broadcasting. To this end the British licensing authorities have allowed both independent stations and to date even one local BBC station to use this name, while the government retained use of the term pirate radio to describe any stations on land or at sea which are broadcasting without a license and contrary to law. The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ...


Pirate radio by geographical area

Since this subject covers both national territories, international waters and international airspace, the only effective way to treat this subject is on a country by country, international waters and international airspace basis. Because the laws vary, the interpretation of the term pirate radio also varies considerably.


Questions have been raised about various types of broadcasting conducted by national governments against the interests of other national governments which have in turn created jamming stations transmitting noises on the same frequency so as to destroy the receivability of the incoming signal. The term Jamming can refer to several things: Jamming as an electronic warfare (EW) - a technique to limit the effectiveness of an opponents communications and/or detection equipment, like Radio Jamming and Radar Jamming E-Mail Jamming- used by electronic political activists or hackers to disable e-mail systems...


While the USA transmitted its programs towards the USSR which attempted to jam them, in 1970 the government of the United Kingdom decided to employ a jamming transmitter to drown out the incoming transmissions from the commercial station Radio North Sea International, which was based aboard the Motor Vessel (MV) Mebo II anchored off Southeast England in the North Sea. 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Radio Nordsee International (RNI) also known as Radio North Sea International was a European offshore pirate radio station. ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


Other examples of this type of unusual broadcasting include the Coast Guard Cutter USCGC Courier which both originated and relayed broadcasts of the Voice of America from an anchorage at the island of Rhodes, Greece to Soviet bloc countries. Balloons have been flown above Key West, Florida to support the TV transmissions of TV Martí which are directed at Cuba. Military broadcasting aircraft have been flown over Vietnam, Iraq and many other nations by the United States Air Force. The European Union financially supported a radio station broadcasting news and information into the former Yugoslavia from a ship anchored in international waters. United States Coast Guard Cutter Courier Originally launched in 1945 as the M/V Coastal Messenger, the United States Coast Guard Cutter Courier was a joint operation between the United States State Department and the United States Coast Guard. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... Deer statues in Mandraki harbor, where the Colossus of Rhodes once stood This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area South Florida Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... TV Martí was created by the US Government to provide news and current affairs programming to Cuba. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


New Media Pirate Radio

Pirate radio has long been synonymous with AM (LW,MW & SW) and FM (VHF) unlicensed broadcasting and "border blasting" in most parts of the world. With the advent of the internet, many conventional AM/FM radio stations have also taken to simulcasting via the web. These range from public broadcasters, licensed commercial radio, and in some countries, the 3rd tier of low power license exempt radio stations.


Despite pirate radio being known for over the air transmission, a new type of pirate radio stations now operate online. The distinguishing feature is that these online pirates will usually not pay music copyright fees, like most of their AM/FM pirate cousins. Thes online pirate radio stations will usually attract a small and loyal audience and may go unnoticed by the authorities, unlike AM/FM pirates who can easily be heard and traced on a conventional radio.


A recent case of online pirate radio was seen in the UK. Hitz Radio (UK) and not to be confused with HitzRadio.com (USA) managed to attract large amounts of mainstream media publicity in early 2007. This publicity resulted from Ryan Dunlop, the owner of the station, nominating Hitz Radio for various business awards. After this publicity, many people with radio industry knowledge began to probe the station, which had claimed "millions of fans" and tens of thousands of listeners online. These claims, along with others, were part of the portfolio put forward for the business awards. When industry insiders checked these claims, it resulted in the UK music copyright agencies PPL and MCPS-PRS Alliance chasing back fees owed by Ryan Dunlop and Hitz Radio. That in turn resulted in the audience claims to be false, based upon the amount of back dated fees owed for copyright. Logo for Hitz Radio Unsigned, one of the Hitz Radio stations. ... Logo for Hitz Radio Unsigned, one of the Hitz Radio stations. ... PPL can stand for: An abbreviation for People, often used in IRC and Instant Messengers. ... An operational alliance between the UKs mechanical right collecting society, the MCPS and the UKs performing right collecting society, the PRS. The companies license the use of music on behalf of songwriters, composers and music publishers. ... Logo for Hitz Radio Unsigned, one of the Hitz Radio stations. ...


Pirate radio in Asia

For individual listings under this heading please click the link above.
China (From International Waters)
Taiwan (The history of Underground Radio)
An introduction to the subject of Pirate Radio can be found under that heading. ...


Pirate radio in Australia

For individual listings under this heading please click the link above.
New Zealand (From International Waters)


Pirate radio in Central America and Caribbean Sea

For individual listings under this heading please click the link above.
Swan Island (History of Radio Swan / Radio Americas)
// 1960: Radio Swan commenced unlicensed transmissions in May as a commercial radio station (CIA Inspector General (1962) pp. ...


Pirate radio in Europe

For individual listings under this heading please click the link above. An introduction to the subject of pirate radio can be found under that heading. ...

Pirate radio in the Middle East

For individual listings under this heading please click the link above.
Israel (From Territorial Waters)
An introduction to the subject of Pirate Radio can be found under that heading. ...


Pirate radio in North America

For individual listings under this heading please click the link above.
Mexico (History of the "Border blasters")
United States of America (History of Pirate Radio; From International Waters)
// Since the 1960s and the advent of the revolutionary government of Fidel Castro, the United States has engaged in a number of overt and covert political broadcasting operations intended to undermine the government of Cuba. ... A border blaster, unlike an international broadcasting station, is a term that has been specifically used to describe licensed commercial radio stations that have transmited at very high power to the United States of America from various points along the Mexican side of the border. ...

Piracy in amateur and two-way radio

Illegal use of licensed radio spectrum (also known as bootlegging in CB circles) is fairly common and takes several forms. Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is a hobby that uses various types of radio broadcasting equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... A two-way radio is simply a radio that can both transmit and receive (a transceiver). ... The term pirate radio usually refers to illegal or unregulated radio broadcasting. ...

  • Unlicensed operation -- Particularly associated with amateur radio and licensed personal communication services such as GMRS, this refers to use of radio equipment on a section of spectrum for which the equipment is designed but on which the user is not licensed to operate (most such operators are informally known as "bubble pack pirates" from the sealed plastic retail packaging common to such walkie-talkies). While piracy on the US GMRS band is, for example, widespread (some estimates have the number of total GMRS users outstripping the number of licensed users by several orders of magnitude), such use is generally only disciplined in cases where the pirate's activity interferes with a licensee. (A notable case is that of United States amateur operator and political activist Jack Gerritsen (operating under the revoked call sign KG6IRO), who was successfully prosecuted by the FCC for unlicensed operation and malicious interference [1].) A subcategory of this is freebanding, the use of allocations nearby a legal allocation (most typically the 27MHz Citizen's Band) on modified or purpose-built gear.
  • Inadvertent interference -- Common when personal communications gear is brought into countries where it is not certified to operate. Such interference results from clashing frequency allocations, and occasionally requires wholesale reallocation of an existing band due to an insurmountable interference problem; for example, the 2004 approval in Canada of the unlicensed use of the United States General Mobile Radio Service frequencies due to interference from users of FRS/GMRS radios from the United States, where Industry Canada had to transfer a number of licensed users on the GMRS frequencies to unoccupied channels to accommodate the expanded service.
  • Deliberate or malicious interference -- refers to the use of two-way radio to harass or jam other users of a channel. Such behavior is widely prosecuted, especially when it interferes with mission-critical services such as aviation radio or marine VHF radio.
  • Illegal equipment -- This refers to the use of illegally modified equipment or equipment not certified for a particular band. Such equipment includes illegal linear amplifiers for CB radio, antenna or circuit modifications on walkie-talkies, the use of "export" radios for freebanding, or the use of amateur radios on unlicensed bands that amateur gear is not certified for. The use of marine VHF radio gear for inland mobile radio operations is common in some countries, with enforcement difficult since marine VHF is generally the province of maritime authorities.

Pirate Radio in Popular Culture Christian Slater's character in the movie Pump Up the Volume (1990) runs a pirate radio station from his basement. The General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) is a land-mobile radio service in the United States available for short-distance two-way communications to facilitate the activities of an adult individual and his or her immediate family members, including a spouse, children, parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, nephews, nieces, and in... Call sign can refer to different types of call signs: Airline call sign Aviator call sign Cosmonaut call sign Radio and television call signs Tactical call sign, also known as a tactical designator See also: International Callsign Allocations, Maritime Mobile Service Identity This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... A typical mobile citizens band radio Citizens band radio (CB) is, in the United States, a system of short distance radio communication between individuals on a selection of 40 channels within the single 27 MHz (11 meter) band. ... GMRS capable handheld radio The General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) is a land-mobile UHF radio service in the United States available for short-distance two-way communications to facilitate the activities of an adult individual who possesses a valid GMRS license, as well his or her immediate family members... The Family Radio Service is an improved walkie talkie system authorized in the United States. ... Industry Canada is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for regional economic development, investment, and innovation/research and development. ... A Bendix/King KY197 Airband VHF communication radio mounted above a Cessna ARC RT-359A Transponder (the beige box) in a light airplane instrument panel. ... Portable VHF radio set Marine VHF radio is installed on all large ships and most motorized small craft. ... A linear amplifier is an electronic circuit whose output is proportional to its input, but capable of delivering more power into a load. ... Portable VHF radio set Marine VHF radio is installed on all large ships and most motorized small craft. ...


See also

Radio Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pirate radio - definition of Pirate radio in Encyclopedia (1590 words)
While Mexico issued radio station XERF with a license to broadcast, the power of its 250,000 watts transmitter was far greater than the maximum of 50,000 watts authorized for commercial use by the government of the United States of America.
Consequently, XERF and many other radio stations in Mexico which sold their broadcasting time to sponsors of English-language commercial and religious programs, were labeled as "border blasters", but not "pirate radio stations", even though the content of many of their programs were in violation of US law.
The term free radio crossed the Atlantic Ocean, where it was adopted by the Free Radio Association of listeners who defended the rights of the "pirate radio stations" broadcasting from ships and marine structures off the coastline of the United Kingdom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m