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Encyclopedia > Piracy in the Caribbean
Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map)
Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map)
An 18th-century pirate flag.
An 18th-century pirate flag.

The great era of piracy in the Caribbean began in the 1560s and died out in the 1720s as the nation-states of Western Europe with colonies in the Americas began to exert more state control over the waterways of the New World. The period during which pirates were most successful was from the 1640s until the 1680s. Piracy flourished in the Caribbean because of British seaports such as Port Royal in Jamaica and the French settlement at Tortuga. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 783 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1392 × 1066 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 783 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1392 × 1066 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Pirate_Flag_of_Rack_Rackham. ... Image File history File links Pirate_Flag_of_Rack_Rackham. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... William Shakespeare is born. ... Events and Trends Manufacture of the earliest surviving pianos. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Events and Trends The personal union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal ends due to a revolution in the latter (1640). ... Events and Trends The Treaty of Ratisbon between France and England in 1684 ended the Age of Buccaneers. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in Magny-les-Hameaux, in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... Tortuga (Île de la Tortue in French) is a Caribbean island that forms part of Haiti, off the northwest coast of Hispaniola. ...

Contents

The Causes of Piracy

Piracy in the Caribbean resulted from the lucrative but illegitimate opportunities for common seamen to attack European merchant ships (especially Spanish fleets sailing from the Caribbean to Europe) and seize their valuable cargo. A practice that increased in the 17th century. Piracy was sometimes given "legal" status by colonial powers, especially England and the Netherlands, in the aim to weaken their rivals. This "legal" form of piracy is known as privateering. The following quote by a Welsh pirate shows the motivations for piracy in the 17th century Caribbean: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about the concept in naval history. ...

In an honest Service, there is thin Commons, low Wages, and hard Labour; in this, Plenty and Satiety, Pleasure and Ease, Liberty and Power; and who would not balance Creditor on this Side, when all the Hazard that is run for it, at worst, is only a sower Look or two at choaking. No, a merry Life and a short one shall be my Motto

—Pirate Captain Bartholomew Roberts Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ...


The Caribbean had become a center of European trade and colonization after Columbus’ discovery of the New World for Spain in 1492. In the 1493 Treaty of Tordesillas the non-European world had been divided between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south line 270 leagues west of the Cape Verde. This gave Spain control of the Americas, a position the Spaniards later reinforced with an equally unenforceable papal bull. On the Spanish Main, the key early settlements were Cartagena in present-day Colombia, Porto Bello and Panama City on the Isthmus of Panama, Santiago on the southeastern coast of Cuba, and Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola. In the sixteenth century, the Spanish were mining staggering amounts of silver bullion from the mines of Zacatecas in New Spain (Mexico) and Potosí in Peru (actually now located in Bolivia). The huge Spanish silver shipments from the New World to the Old attracted pirates and privateers, both in the Caribbean and across the Atlantic, all along the route from the Caribbean to Seville. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Cantino planisphere of 1502 depicting the meridian designated by the treaty. ... Motto: Unity, Work, Progress Anthem: Cântico da Liberdade Capital Praia Largest city Praia Official language(s) Portuguese (official) and nine Portuguese Creoles Government Republic  - President Pedro Pires  - Prime Minister José Maria Neves Independence from Portugal   - Recognized July 5, 1975  Area    - Total 4,033 km² (165th)   1,557 sq mi... The Spanish Man was a name given to the Caribbean coast of the Spanish Empire in mainland Central and South America. ... For other places with the same name, see Cartagena (disambiguation). ... Portobelo (formerly Puerto Bello) is a port in Panama. ... This article is about the capital city of Panama. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ... Santiago de Cuba is the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in the south-eastern area of the island nation of Cuba, some 540 miles (869 km) east south-east of the Cuban capital of Havana. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Zacatecas is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... Potosí is a city, the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ...


To combat this constant danger, in the 1560’s the Spanish adopted a convoy system. A treasure fleet or flota would sail annually from Seville (and later from Cádiz) in Spain, carrying passengers, troops, and European manufactured goods to the Spanish colonies of the New World. This cargo, though profitable, was really just a form of ballast for the fleet as its true purpose was to transport the year’s worth of silver to Europe. The first stage in the journey was the transport of all that silver from the mines in Peru and New Spain in a mule convoy called the Silver Train to a major Spanish port, usually on the Isthmus of Panama or from Veracruz in Mexico. The flota would meet up with the Silver Train, offload its cargo of manufactured goods to waiting colonial merchants and then transfer the precious cargo of gold and silver (in bullion or coin form) into its holds. This made the returning Spanish treasure fleet a tempting target, although pirates were more likely to shadow the fleet to attack stragglers than try and seize the well-guarded main vessels. The classic route for the treasure fleet in the Caribbean was through the Lesser Antilles to the ports along the Spanish Main on the coast of Central America and Mexico, then northwards into the Yucatán Channel to catch the westerly winds back to Europe. A treasure fleet is being loaded with riches. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 212 Largest City Veracruz Government  - Governor Fidel Herrera Beltrán (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 6 PAN: 11 PRD: 2 Convergencia: 2  - Federal Senators PRD: 1 PAN: 1 Convergencia: 1 Area Ranked 11th  - Total 71,699 km² (27,683. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The Yucatán Channel is a strait between Mexico and Cuba. ...


The Dutch United Provinces of the Netherlands and England, both defenders of Protestantism, were defiantly opposed to Catholic Spain (the greatest power of Christendom in the sixteenth century) by the 1560’s, while the French government was seeking to expand its colonial holdings in the New World now that Spain had proven they could be extremely profitable. It was the French who had established the first non-Spanish settlement in the Caribbean when they had founded Fort Caroline near what is now Jacksonville, Florida in 1564, although the settlement was soon wiped out by a Spanish attack from the larger colony of Saint Augustine. Aided by their governments, English, French and Dutch traders and colonists utterly ignored the unenforceable line drawn by the Treaty of Tordesillas to invade Spanish colonial territory even in times of peace between their nations in Europe, which gave rise to the famed sixteenth century phrase: “No peace beyond the line.” For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Fort Caroline shown in an old etching Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Nickname: Location in St. ...


The Spanish, despite being the wealthiest state in Christendom at the time, could not afford a sufficient military presence to control such a vast area of ocean or enforce their exclusionary, mercantilist trading laws which allowed only Spanish merchants to trade with the colonists of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. This allowed for constant smuggling to break the Spanish trading laws and new attempts at Caribbean colonization in peacetime by England, France and the Netherlands. Whenever a war was declared in Europe between the Great Powers the result was always widespread piracy and privateering throughout the Caribbean.


The Anglo-Spanish War in 1585 - 1604 was partly due to trade disputes in the New World. A focus on extracting mineral and agricultural wealth from the New World rather than building productive, self-sustaining settlements in its colonies; inflation fueled in part by the massive shipments of silver and gold to Western Europe; endless rounds of expensive wars in Europe; an aristocracy that belittled commercial opportunities as beneath them; and an inefficient system of tolls and tariffs that hampered industry all contributed to Spain’s decline of power during the 17th century. However, very profitable trade continued between its colonies and Spain's overseas empire continued to expand until the early 19th century. Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts the battle of Gravelines. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...


Meanwhile, in the Caribbean the arrival of European diseases with Columbus had reduced the local Indian populations; the native population of New Spain fell from its original numbers in the 1500's. This loss of native population led Spain to increasingly rely on African slave labor to run Spanish America's colonies, plantations and mines and the trans-Atlantic slave trade offered new sources of profit for English, Dutch and French traders who wanted to violate the Spanish mercantilist laws—and did so, with impunity. But the relative emptiness of the Caribbean also made it an inviting place for England, France and the Netherlands to set up colonies of their own, especially as gold and silver became less important as commodities to be seized and were replaced by tobacco and sugar as cash crops that could make men very rich. The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the Transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African persons supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ...


As Spain’s military might in Europe weakened, the Spanish trading laws in the New World were violated with greater frequency by the merchants of other nations. The Spanish port on the island of Trinidad off the northern coast of South America, permanently settled only in 1592, became a major point of contact between all the nations with a presence in the Caribbean. For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The Early Seventeenth Century, 1600-1660

In the early seventeenth century, expensive fortifications and the size of the colonial garrisons at the major Spanish ports increased to deal with the enlarged presence of Spain’s enemies in the Caribbean, but the treasure fleet’s silver shipments and the number of Spanish-owned merchant ships operating in the region declined. But perhaps the most important feature of the Caribbean by 1600 was that the vast Spanish Empire in the Americas, as noted above, was also one with few subjects—the diseases like smallpox and measles brought by the first Europeans to the New World had inflicted a century’s worth of devastating plagues on the native Indian peoples. The entire Caribbean basin had been depopulated. In New Spain (Mexico), the Indian population had plunged from an estimated range of 10 million to 25 million people in 1500 before Cortes’ conquest of the Aztecs to only 2 million by 1600. Food supplies had become short because of the sheer lack of people to work farms and the output in the Spanish silver mines had declined from the death of so many Indian slaves. The number of European-born Spaniards in the New World or Spaniards of pure blood who had been born in New Spain, known as peninsulares and creoles, respectively, in the Spanish race-based caste system, totaled no more than 250,000 people in 1600. Even worse, almost no Spanish colonists in the New World served as the productive members of society who grew crops or manufactured goods—they all wanted to pursue lives of aristocratic luxury in their haciendas as the masters of great plantations growing food, tobacco or sugar, with African or Indian slaves to serve them and do all of the real labor. This social structure held true throughout the Caribbean and along the coasts of the Spanish Main and would in time create the enormous inequality in the distribution of wealth that plagues Latin America even to this day. Later settlements in the Caribbean islands by other European powers also relied on the labour of non-European workers, namely African slaves. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Hernán Cortés, 16th century Spanish conquistador Pablo Cortés, 18th century Spanish slave trader Corte (disambiguation), for the judicial bodies of the Spanish-speaking Americas, and the communes in France and Italy Cortes Generales (General Courts), usually just las Cortes, national legislative assembly of Spain The term Cortes... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kriulo, kriol, krio, etc. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... Hacienda is a Spanish word describing a vast ranch, common in the Pampa. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


At the same time, England and France were powers on the rise in seventeenth century Europe as they mastered their own internal religious schisms between Catholic and Protestant and the resulting societal peace allowed their economies to rapidly expand. England especially began to turn its people’s maritime skills into the basis of commercial prosperity. English and French kings of the early seventeenth century—James I (r. 1603-1625) and Henry IV (r. 1598-1610), respectively, each sought more peaceful relations with Habsburg Spain in an attempt to decrease the financial costs of the ongoing wars. Although the onset of peace in 1604 reduced the opportunities for both piracy and privateering against Spain’s colonies, neither monarch discouraged his nation from trying to plant new colonies in the New World and break the Spanish monopoly on the Western Hemisphere. The reputed riches, pleasant climate and the general emptiness of the Americas all beckoned to those eager to make their fortunes and a large assortment of Frenchmen and Englishmen began new colonial ventures during the early seventeenth century, both in North America, which lay basically empty of European settlement north of Mexico, and in the Caribbean, where Spain remained the dominant power until late in the century. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...


As for the Dutch Netherlands, after decades of rebellion against Spain fueled by both Dutch nationalism and their staunch Protestantism, independence had been gained in all but name (and that too would eventually come with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648). The Netherlands had become Europe’s economic powerhouse. With new, innovative ship designs like the fluyt (a cargo vessel able to be operated with a small crew and enter relatively inaccessible ports) rolling out of the ship yards in Amsterdam and Rotterdam, new capitalist economic arrangements like the joint-stock company taking root and the military reprieve provided by the Twelve Year Truce with the Spanish (1609-1621), Dutch commercial interests were expanding explosively across the globe, but particularly in the New World and East Asia. However, in the early seventeenth century, the most powerful Dutch companies, like the Dutch East India Company, were most interested in developing operations in the East Indies (Indonesia) and Japan, and left the West Indies to smaller, more independent Dutch operators. The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... This article is about the trading company. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and...


In the early seventeenth century, the Spanish colonies of Cartagena, Havana, Santiago, Panama City, and Santo Domingo were the most important settlements of the Spanish West Indies. Each possessed a large population, a self-sustaining economy and was well-protected by Spanish defenders. These Spanish settlements were generally unwilling to deal with traders from the other European states because of the strict enforcement of Spain’s mercantilist laws pursued by the large Spanish garrisons. In these cities European manufactured goods could command premium prices for sale to the colonists, while the trade goods of the New World—tobacco, chocolate and other raw materials, were shipped back to Europe. This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... The Spanish West Indies (also known as Las Antillas) consist of Cuba, Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic and Haiti), Puerto Rico, Jamaica (until the 1655) , the Cayman Islands, Trinidad (until 1797) and Bay Islands (until 1643). ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


By 1600, Porto Bello had replaced Nombre de Dios (where Sir Francis Drake had first struck at the Spanish) as the Isthmus of Panama’s Caribbean port for the Spanish Silver Train and the annual treasure fleet. Veracruz, the major port city in Mexico, continued to serve the vast interior of New Spain as its window on the Caribbean. By the seventeenth century, the majority of the towns along the Spanish Main and in Central America had become self-sustaining. The smaller towns of the Main grew tobacco and also welcomed foreign smugglers who avoided the Spanish mercantilist laws. The underpopulated inland regions of Hispaniola were another area where tobacco smugglers in particular were welcome to ply their trade. Sir Francis Drake, c. ...


The Spanish-ruled island of Trinidad was already a wide-open port open to the ships and seamen of every nation in the region at the start of the seventeenth century, and was a particular favorite for smugglers who dealt in tobacco and European manufactured goods. Local Caribbean smugglers sold their tobacco or sugar for decent prices and then bought manufactured goods from the trans-Atlantic traders in large quantities to be dispersed among the colonists of the West Indies and the Spanish Main who were eager for a little touch of home. The Spanish governor of Trinidad, who lacked both strong harbor fortifications and possessed only a laughably small garrison of Spanish troops, could do little but take lucrative bribes from English, French and Dutch smugglers and look the other way—or risk being overthrown and replaced by his own people with a more pliable administrator. For other uses, see Trinidad (disambiguation). ...


The English had established an early colony on the island of Barbados in the West Indies in 1627, although this small settlement’s people faced considerable dangers from the local Carib Indians (known to be cannibals) for some time after its founding. Barbados needed regular imports of food from England or the rest of the Caribbean to survive in its first few years, much like the English colonies on the North American mainland. No large tobacco plantations or even truly organized defenses were established by the English on its Caribbean settlements at first and it would take time for London to realize just how valuable its possessions in the Caribbean could prove to be. Barbados, the first truly successful English colony in the West Indies, grew fast as the seventeenth century wore on. Increasingly, English ships chose to use it as their home port in the Caribbean. Like Trinidad, merchants in the trans-Atlantic trade who based themselves on Barbados always paid good money for tobacco and sugar. Both of these commodities remained the key cash crops of this period and fueled the growth of the American Southern colonies as well as their counterparts in the Caribbean. Carib family (by John Gabriel Stedman) Drawing of a Carib woman Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people, after whom the Caribbean Sea was named, live in the Lesser Antilles islands. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


After the destruction of Fort Caroline by the Spanish, the French made no further colonization attempts in the Caribbean for several decades as France was convulsed by its own Catholic-Protestant religious divide during the late sixteenth century Wars of Religion. However, old French privateering anchorages with small “tent camp” towns could be found during the early seventeenth century in the Bahamas. These settlements provided little more than a place for ships and their crews to take on some fresh water and food and perhaps have a dalliance with the local camp followers, all of which would have been quite expensive. The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598. ... [--168. ...


In the early seventeenth century, Dutch merchant ships were commonly seen plying Caribbean waters, but no true Dutch-owned ports (the Dutch called their colonies “factories”) yet existed. The Dutch spent most of their time trading in smuggled goods with the smaller Spanish colonies. Trinidad was the unofficial home port for Dutch traders and privateers in the New World early in the seventeenth century before they established their own colonies in the 1620’s and 1630’s. As usual, Trinidad’s ineffective Spanish governor was helpless to stop the Dutch from using his port and instead he usually accepted their lucrative bribes. The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ...


The first third of the seventeenth century in the Caribbean was defined by the outbreak of the savage and destructive Thirty Years’ War in Europe (1618-1648) that represented both the culmination of the Protestant-Catholic conflict of the Reformation and the final showdown between Habsburg Spain and Bourbon France. The war was mostly fought in Germany, where one-third to one-half of the population would eventually be lost to the strains of the conflict, but it had some effect in the New World as well. The Spanish presence in the Caribbean began to decline at a faster rate, becoming more dependent on African slave labor. The Spanish military presence in the New World also declined as Madrid shifted more of its resources to the Old World in the Habsburgs’ apocalyptic fight with almost every Protestant state in Europe. This need for Spanish resources in Europe accelerated the decay of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. The settlements of the Spanish Main and the Spanish West Indies became financially weaker and were garrisoned with a much smaller number of troops as their home countries were more consumed with happenings back in Europe. The Spanish Empire’s economy remained stagnant and the Spanish colonies’ plantations, ranches and mines became totally dependent upon slave labor imported from West Africa. With Spain no longer able to maintain its military control effectively over the Caribbean, the other Western European states finally began to move in and set up permanent settlements of their own, ending the Spanish monopoly over the control of the New World. The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


Even as the Dutch Netherlands were forced to renew their struggle against Spain for independence as part of the Thirty Years’ War (the entire rebellion against the Spanish Habsburgs was called the Eighty Years’ War in Holland), Holland had become the world’s leader in mercantile shipping and commercial capitalism and Dutch companies finally turned their attention to the West Indies in the seventeenth century. The renewed war with Spain with the end of the truce offered many opportunities for the successful Dutch joint-stock companies to finance military expeditions against the Spanish Empire. The old English and French privateering anchorages from the sixteenth century in the Caribbean now swarmed anew with Dutch warships.


In England, a new round of colonial ventures in the New World was fueled by declining economic opportunities at home and growing religious intolerance for more radical Protestants (like the Puritans) who rejected the compromise Protestant theology of the established Church of England. After the demise of the Saint Lucia and Grenada colonies soon after their establishment, and the near-extinction of the English settlement of Jamestown in Virginia, new and stronger colonies were established by the English in the first half of the seventeenth century, at Plymouth, Boston, Barbados, the West Indian islands of Saint Kitts and Nevis and Providence Island. These colonies would all persevere to become centers of English civilization in the New World. The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Church of England logo since 1996. ... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Total 134. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...


For France, now ruled by the Bourbon King Louis XIII (r. 1610-1642) and his able minister Cardinal Richelieu, religious civil war had been reignited between French Catholics and Protestants (called Huguenots). Throughout the 1620’s, French Huguenots fled France and founded colonies in the New World much like their English counterparts. Then, in 1636, to decrease the power of the Habsburg dynasty who ruled Spain and the Holy Roman Empire on France’s eastern border, France entered the cataclysm in Germany—on the Protestants’ side. Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (September 9, 1585 – December 4, 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ...


Many of the cities on the Spanish Main in the first third of the seventeenth century were self-sustaining but few had yet achieved any prosperity. The more backward settlements in Jamaica and Hispaniola were primarily places for ships to take on food and fresh water. Spanish Trinidad remained a popular smuggling port where European goods were plentiful and fairly cheap, and good prices were paid by its European merchants for tobacco or sugar.


The English colonies on Saint Kitts and Nevis, founded in 1623, would prove to become wealthy sugar-growing settlements in time. Another new English venture on Providence Island off the malaria ridden Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua, deep in the heart of the Spanish Empire, had become the premier base for English privateers and other pirates raiding the Spanish Main. The article is about the Central American area. ...


On the shared Anglo-French island of Saint Christophe (called “Saint Kitts” by the English) the French had the upper hand. The French settlers on Saint Christophe were mostly Catholics, while the unsanctioned but growing French colonial presence in northwest Hispaniola (the future nation of Haiti) was largely made up of French Protestants who had settled there without Spain’s permission to escape Catholic persecution back home. France cared little what happened to the troublesome Huguenots, but the colonization of western Hispaniola allowed the French to both rid themselves of their religious minority and strike a blow against Spain—an excellent bargain, from the French Crown’s point of view! The ambitious Huguenots had also claimed the island of Tortuga off the northwest coast of Hispaniola and had established the settlement of Petit Goave on the island itself. Tortuga in particular was to become a pirate and privateer haven and was beloved of smugglers of all nationalities—after all, even the creation of the settlement had been illegal! Tortuga (ÃŽle de la Tortue in French) is a Caribbean island that forms part of Haiti, off the northwest coast of Hispaniola. ...


Dutch colonies in the Caribbean remained rare until the second third of the seventeenth century. Along with the traditional privateering anchorages in the Bahamas and Florida, the Dutch West India Company settled a “factory” (commercial town) at New Amsterdam on the North American mainland in 1626 and at Curacao in 1634, an island positioned right in the center of the Caribbean off the northern coast of Venezuela that was perfectly positioned to become a major maritime crossroads. Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ... This article is about the settlement in present-day New York City. ... Curaçao and Bonaire are two Caribbean islands Curaçao [pronounced koo-rah-sow] (population 150,000) is an island in the southern part of the Caribbean Sea, one of the Windward Islands of the Netherlands Antilles, a self-governing part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. ...


The mid-seventeenth century in the Caribbean was again shaped by events in far-off Europe. For the Dutch Netherlands, France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, the Thirty Years War being fought in Germany, the last great religious war in Europe, had degenerated into an outbreak of famine, plague and starvation that managed to kill off one-third to one-half of the population of Germany. England, having wisely avoided any entanglement in the European mainland’s wars, had fallen victim to its own ruinous civil war that resulted in the short but brutal Puritan military dictatorship (1649-1660) of the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell and his Roundhead armies. Of all the European Great Powers, Spain was in the worst shape economically and militarily as the Thirty Years’ War concluded in 1648. Economic conditions had become so poor for the Spanish by the middle of the seventeenth century that a major rebellion began against the bankrupt and ineffective Habsburg government of King Philip IV (r. 1625-1665) that was eventually put down only with bloody reprisals by the Spanish Crown. This did not make poor Philip IV more popular. This article is about the medieval empire. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Look up pestilence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death in 1314. ...


But disasters in the Old World bred new opportunities in the New World. The Spanish Empire’s colonies were badly neglected from the middle of the seventeenth century because of Spain’s many woes. Freebooters and privateers, experienced after decades of European warfare, pillaged and plundered the almost defenseless Spanish settlements with ease and with little interference from the European governments back home who were too worried about their own European problems to turn much attention to their New World colonies. The non-Spanish colonies were growing and expanding across the Caribbean, fueled by a great increase in immigration as people fled from the chaos and lack of economic opportunity in Europe. While most of these new immigrants settled into the West Indies’ expanding plantation economy, others took to the life of the buccaneer. Meanwhile, the canny Dutch, at last truly independent of Spain when the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia ended their own Eighty Years’ War (1568-1648) with the Habsburgs, made a fortune carrying the European trade goods needed by these new colonies. Peaceful trading was not as profitable as privateering, but it was a far safer business. An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ...


By the later half of the seventeenth century, Barbados had become the unofficial capital of the English West Indies before this position was claimed by Jamaica later in the century. Barbados was a merchant’s dream port in this period. European goods were freely available, the island’s sugar crop sold for premium prices, and the island’s English governor rarely sought to enforce any type of mercantilist regulations. The English colonies at Saint Kitts and Nevis were economically strong and now well-populated as the demand for sugar in Europe increasingly drove their plantation-based economies. The English had also expanded their dominion in the Caribbean and settled several new islands, including Bermuda in 1612, Antigua and Montserrat in 1632, and Eleuthera in the Bahamas in 1648, though these settlements began like all the others as relatively tiny communities that were not economically self-sufficient.


The French also founded major new colonies on the sugar-growing islands of Guadeloupe in 1634 and Martinique in 1635 in the Lesser Antilles. However, the heart of French activity in the Caribbean in the seventeenth century always remained Tortuga, the well-fortified island haven off the coast of Hispaniola for privateers, buccaneers and outright pirates. The main French colony on the rest Hispaniola remained the settlement of Petit Goave, which was the French toehold that would develop into Haiti. French privateers still used the tent city anchorages in the Florida Keys to plunder the Spaniards’ shipping in the Florida Channel, as well as to raid the shipping that plied the sealanes off the northern coast of Cuba. The Florida Channel is a public affairs television network operated by Florida State University, WFSU-TV and the Florida State Legislature. ...


For the Dutch in the seventeenth-century Caribbean, the island of Curacao was the equivalent of England’s port at Barbados. This large, rich, well-defended free port, open to the ships of all the European states, offered good prices for sugar that was re-exported to Europe and also sold large quantities of manufactured goods in return to the colonists of every nation in the New World. A second Dutch-controlled free port had also developed on the island of Saint Eustatius which was settled in 1636.The constant back-and-forth warfare between the Dutch and the English for possession of it in the 1660’s later damaged the island’s economy and desirability as a port. The Dutch also had set up a settlement on the island of Saint Martin which became another haven for Dutch sugar planters and their African slave labor. In 1648, the Dutch agreed to divide the prosperous island in half with the French. Curaçao and Bonaire are two Caribbean islands Curaçao [pronounced koo-rah-sow] (population 150,000) is an island in the southern part of the Caribbean Sea, one of the Windward Islands of the Netherlands Antilles, a self-governing part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Map showing location of Sint Eustatius relative to Saba and Sint Maarten/Saint Martin Sint Eustatius (also Saint Eustace and Statia), pop. ... St. ...


The Golden Age of Piracy, 1660-1720

"Haunts of the 'Brethren of the Coast'", a map of the time reproduced in "Buccaneers and Pirates of Our Coasts" (1897)
"Haunts of the 'Brethren of the Coast'", a map of the time reproduced in "Buccaneers and Pirates of Our Coasts" (1897)
Main article: Golden Age of Piracy

The late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries are often considered the "Golden Age of Piracy" in the Caribbean. The military power of the Spanish Empire in the New World started to decline when King Philip IV of Spain was succeeded by King Charles II (r. 1665-1700), who in 1665 became the last Habsburg king of Spain at the age of four. While Spanish America in the late seventeenth century had little military protection as Spain entered a phase of decline as a Great Power, it also suffered less from the Spanish Crown's mercantilist policies with its economy. This lack of interference, combined with a surge in output from the silver mines due to increased availability of slave labor (the demand for sugar increased the number of slaves brought to the Caribbean) began a resurgence in the fortunes of Spanish America. A painting depicting the era. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


England, France and the Dutch Netherlands had all become New World colonial powerhouses in their own right by 1660. Worried by Holland’s intense commercial success since the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia, England launched a trade war with the Dutch. The English Parliament passed the first of its own mercantilist Navigation Acts (1651) and the Staple Act (1663) that required that English colonial goods be carried only in English ships and legislated limits on trade between the English colonies and foreigners. These laws were aimed at ruining the Dutch merchants whose livelihoods depended on free trade. This trade war would lead to three outright Anglo-Dutch Wars over the course of the next twenty-five years. Meanwhile, King Louis XIV of France (r. 1642-1715) had finally assumed his majority with the death of his regent mother Queen Anne of Austria’s chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin, in 1661. The “Sun King’s” aggressive foreign policy was aimed at expanding France’s eastern border with the Holy Roman Empire and led to constant warfare against shifting alliances that included England, Holland, the various German states and Spain. In short, Europe was consumed in the final decades of the seventeenth century by nearly constant dynastic intrigue and warfare—an opportune time for pirates and privateers to engage in their bloody trade. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Navigation Acts The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain and its colonies). ... The painting Dutch attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, painted c. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


In the Caribbean, this political environment led colonial governors to new threats from every direction. The Dutch sugar island of Saint Eustatius changed ownership ten times between 1664 and 1674 as the English and Dutch dueled for supremacy. Consumed with the various wars in Europe, the mother countries provided few further military reinforcements to their colonies, so the colonial governors of the Caribbean increasingly made use of buccaneers as mercenaries and privateers to guard their colonies or carry the fight to their mother country’s current enemy. Surprisingly (or not), these undisciplined and greedy dogs of war often proved difficult for their sponsors to control. Map showing location of Sint Eustatius relative to Saba and Sint Maarten/Saint Martin Sint Eustatius (also Saint Eustace and Statia), pop. ...


By the late seventeenth century, the great Spanish towns of the Caribbean had begun to prosper once more even as Spain itself continued to lose economic ground, but remained poorly defended militarily because of Spain’s problems and so were sometimes easy prey for pirates and privateers. The English presence continued to expand in the Caribbean as England itself rose to become a preeminent Great Power in Europe. Captured from Spain in 1655, the island of Jamaica had been taken over by England and its chief settlement of Port Royal had become a new English buccaneer haven in the midst of the Spanish Empire. Jamaica was slowly transformed, along with Saint Kitts, into the heart of the English presence in the Caribbean. At the same time the French Lesser Antilles colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique remained the main centers of French power in the Caribbean, as well as among the richest French possessions because of their increasingly profitable sugar plantations. The French also maintained privateering strongholds around western Hispaniola, at their traditional pirate port of Tortuga, and their Hispaniolan capital of Petit Goave. The French further expanded their settlements on the western half of Hispaniola and founded Leogane and Port-de-Paix, even as sugar plantations became the primary industry for the French colonies of the Caribbean. Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in Magny-les-Hameaux, in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... Country Saint Kitts and Nevis Archipelago Leeward Islands Region Caribbean Area 65 sq. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Tortuga (ÃŽle de la Tortue in French) is a Caribbean island that forms part of Haiti, off the northwest coast of Hispaniola. ... Petit Goâve is a coastal town in Ouest Department, Haïti. ... Leogane is a coastal town in Ouest Department, Haïti. ... Port-de-Paix (Pòdepè or Pòdpè in Kréyòl) is a city and the capital of the département of Nord-Ouest in Haïti on the Atlantic coast. ...


At the start of the eighteenth century, Europe remained riven by warfare and constant diplomatic intrigue. France and England (more properly Great Britain after 1707) maneuvered for ultimate supremacy on both the European mainland and in the contest for colonial empires abroad, having emerged as the greatest of the Western Great Powers. But the depredations of the pirates and buccaneers in the Americas in the latter half of the seventeenth century and of similar mercenaries in Germany during the Thirty Years War had taught the rulers and military leaders of Europe that those who fought for profit rather than for King and Country could often ruin the local economy of the region they plundered, in this case the entire Caribbean. At the same time, the constant warfare had led the Great Powers to develop larger standing armies and bigger navies to meet the demands of global colonial warfare. By 1700 the European states had enough troops and ships at their disposal to begin better protecting the important colonies in the West Indies and in the Americas without relying on the aid of privateers. This spelled the doom of privateering and the easy (and nicely legal) life it provided for the buccaneer. Though Spain remained a weak power for the rest of the colonial period, pirates in large numbers generally disappeared after 1720, chased from the seas by a new English Royal Navy squadron based at Port Royal, Jamaica and a smaller group of Spanish privateers sailing from the Spanish Main known as the Costa Garda (Coast Guard in English). With regular military forces now on-station in the West Indies, letters of marque were harder and harder to obtain. The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in Magny-les-Hameaux, in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ...


Economically, the late seventeenth century and the early eighteenth century was a time of growing wealth and trade for all the nations of the Caribbean. Although some piracy would always remain until the mid-eighteenth century, the path to wealth in the Caribbean in the future lay through peaceful trade, the growing of tobacco, rice and sugar and smuggling to avoid the British Navigation Acts and Spanish mercantilist laws. By the eighteenth century the Bahamas had become the new colonial frontier for the English. The port of Nassau became one of the last pirate havens. A small English colony had even sprung up in former Spanish territory at Belize in Honduras that had been founded by an English pirate in 1638. The French’s colonial empire in the Caribbean had not grown substantially by the start of the eighteenth century. The sugar islands of Guadaloupe and Martinique remained the twin economic capitals of the French Lesser Antilles, and were now equal in population and prosperity to the largest of the English's Caribbean colonies. Tortuga had begun to decline in importance, but France's Hispaniolan settlements were becoming major importers of African slaves as French sugar plantations spread across the western coast of that island, forming the nucleus of the modern nation of Haiti. [--168. ...


The End of an Era

The decline of piracy in the Caribbean paralleled the decline of the use of mercenaries and the rise of national armies in Europe. Following the end of the Thirty Years' War the direct power of the state in Europe expanded. Armies were systematized and brought under direct state control; the Western European states' navies were expanded and their mission was expanded to cover combating piracy. The elimination of piracy from European waters expanded to the Caribbean in the 1700s, West Africa and North America by the 1710s and by the 1720s even the Indian Ocean was a difficult location for pirates to operate. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... North American redirects here. ...


After 1720, piracy in the classic sense became extremely rare in the Caribbean as European military and naval forces, especially those of the British Royal Navy, just became too widespread and active for any pirate to pursue an effective career for long. Pirates who were caught were usually hanged as soon as the British returned to port. Piracy saw a brief resurgence between the end of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713 and around 1720, as many unemployed seafarers took to piracy as a way to make ends meet when a surplus of sailors after the war led to a decline in wages and working conditions. At the same time, one of the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht that ended the war gave to Great Britain’s Royal African Company and other British slavers a thirty-year asiento, or contract, to furnish African slaves to the Spanish colonies, providing British merchants and smugglers potential inroads into the traditionally closed Spanish markets in America and leading to an economic revival for the whole region. This revived Caribbean trade provided rich new pickings for a wave of piracy. Also contributing to the increase of Caribbean piracy at this time was Spain's breakup of the English logwood settlement at Campeche and the attractions of a freshly sunken silver fleet off the southern Bahamas in 1715. The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 11 Largest City San Francisco de Campeche Government  - Governor Jorge Carlos Hurtado Valdez (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI:2  - Federal Senators PRI:2 PAN:1 Area Ranked 18th  - State 50,812 km²  (19,618. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


This early 18th century resurgence of piracy lasted only until the Royal Navy and the Spanish Guardacosta’s presence in the Caribbean were enlarged to deal with the threat. Also crucial to the end of this era of piracy was the loss of the pirates' last Caribbean safe haven at Nassau. It is in this period that the popular Pirates of the Caribbean film series produced by the Walt Disney Company is loosely set. For other uses of Nassau, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... Alternate meanings: Disney (disambiguation) The Walt Disney Company (also known as Disney Enterprises, Inc. ...


The famous pirates of the early 18th century were a completely illegal remnant of a golden buccaneering age, and their choices were limited to quick retirement or eventual capture. Contrast this with the earlier example of Henry Morgan, who for his privateering efforts was knighted by the English Crown and appointed the governor of Jamaica. Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ...


Privateering would remain a tool of European states, and even of the newborn United States, until the mid-19th century's Declaration of Paris. But letters of marque were given out much more sparingly by governments and were terminated as soon as conflicts ended. The idea of “no peace beyond the Line” was a relic that had no meaning by the more settled late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Declaration of Paris from April 16, 1856 was issued to abolish privateering. ... A letter of marque and reprisal was an official warrant or commission from a national government authorizing the designated agent to search, seize, or destroy specified assets or personnel belonging to a party which had committed some offense under the laws of nations against the assets or citizens of the...


Famous Caribbean pirates

Blackbeard

Main article: Blackbeard

Perhaps the most famed pirate from this period was known as “Blackbeard.” He was born about 1680 in England as Edward Thatch, Teach, or Drummond, and operated off the east coast of North America in the period of 1714-1718. Noted as much for his outlandish appearance as for his piratical success, in combat Blackbeard placed burning slow-match (a type of slow-burning fuse used to set off cannon) under his hat; with his face wreathed in fire and smoke, his victims claimed he resembled a fiendish apparition from Hell. Blackbeard's ship was the two hundred ton, forty gun frigate he named the Queen Anne's Revenge. For other uses, see Blackbeard (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... The Queen Annes Revenge is haunted, and was the name of the pirate Blackbeards infamous flagship. ...


Blackbeard met his end at the hands of a British fleet specifically sent out to capture him. After an extremely bloody boarding action, the British commanding officer of the fleet, Lieutenant Robert Maynard, killed him with the help of his crew. According to legend, Blackbeard suffered a total of five bullet wounds and twenty slashes with a cutlass before he finally died.


Henry Morgan

Main article: Henry Morgan

Henry Morgan, a Welshman, was one of the most destructive pirate captains of the seventeenth century. Although Morgan always considered himself a privateer rather than a pirate, several of his attacks had no real legal justification and are considered piracy. A bold, ruthless and daring man, Morgan fought England's enemies for thirty years, and became a very wealthy man in the course of his adventures. Morgan’s most famous exploit came in late 1670 when he led 1700 buccaneers up the pestilential Chagres River and then through the Central American jungle to attack and capture the “impregnable” city of Panama. Morgan's men burnt the city to the ground, and the inhabitants were either killed or forced to flee. Although the burning of Panama City did not mean any great financial gain for Morgan, it was a deep blow to Spanish power and pride in the Caribbean and Morgan became the hero of the hour in England (and also lent his name to a popular brand of present-day rum). At the height of his career, Morgan had been made a titled nobleman by the English Crown and lived on an enormous sugar plantation in Jamaica. Morgan died in his bed, rich and respected—something rarely achieved by pirates in his day or any other. Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ... Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ... The Chagres River (Spanish: Río Chagres) is a river in central Panama. ...


Bartholomew Roberts

Main article: Bartholomew Roberts

Less famous than Blackbeard, Bartholomew Roberts was far more successful, capturing and pillaging more than 400 ships. He started his freebooting career in the Gulf of Guinea in 1719 when Howell Davis's pirates captured his ship and he proceeded to join them. Rising to captain, he quickly came to the Caribbean and plagued the area until 1721. He commanded a number of large, powerfully armed ships, all of which he named Fortune, Good Fortune, or Royal Fortune. Efforts by the governors of Barbados and Martinique to capture him only provoked his anger; when he found the governor of Martinique aboard a newly captured vessel, Roberts hanged the man from a yardarm. Roberts returned to Africa in 1721, where he met his death in a naval battle and his crew were captured. Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... Map of the Gulf of Guinea, showing the chain of islands formed by the Cameroon line of volcanoes. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Howell Davis Howell Davis (born c. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Stede Bonnet

Main article: Stede Bonnet

Probably the least qualified pirate captain ever to sail the Caribbean, Bonnet was a sugar planter who knew nothing about sailing. He started his piracies in 1717 by buying an armed sloop on Barbados and recruiting a pirate crew for wages, possibly to escape from his wife. He lost his command to Blackbeard and sailed with him for some time as a guest or prisoner. Although Bonnet briefly regained his captaincy, he was captured and hanged before he could return to the West Indies. Stede Bonnet (1688?-December 10, 1718)[1] was a pirate captain from the English colony of Barbados. ... Stede Bonnet (1688?-December 10, 1718)[1] was a pirate captain from the English colony of Barbados. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ...


Charles Vane

Main article: Charles Vane

Charles Vane, like many early 18th century pirates, operated out of Nassau in the Bahamas. He was the only pirate captain to resist Woodes Rogers when Rogers asserted his governorship over Nassau in 1718, attacking Rogers' squadron with a fire ship and shooting his way out of the harbor rather than accept the new governor's royal pardon. Vane's quartermaster was Calico Jack Rackham, who deposed Vane from the captaincy. Vane started a new pirate crew, but he was captured and hanged in Jamaica in 1720. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of Nassau, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... An old engraving of Capt. ... Year 1718 (MDCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Rackham (died 17 November 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ...


Edward Low

Main article: Edward Low

Edward - or Ned - Low was notorious as one of the most brutal and vicious pirates. Originally from London, he started as a lieutenant to George Lowther, before striking out on his own. His career as a pirate lasted just three years, during which he captured over 100 ships, and he and his crew murdered, tortured and maimed hundreds of people. After his own crew mutinied in 1724 when Low murdered a sleeping subordinate, he was rescued by a French vessel who hanged him on Martinique island. A portrait of Edward Lowe hanging in the National Maritime Museum in London Edward Ned Lowe (or Low, or Loe), often known as Ned Low was a notorious pirate during the Golden Age of Piracy. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Anne Bonny and Mary Read

Main article: Anne Bonny
Main article: Mary Read

Anne Bonny and Mary Read were undoubtedly the most famous pirates never to hold the position of captain; both spent their brief sea-roving careers under the command of Calico Jack Rackham. They are noted chiefly for their gender, highly unusual for pirates, which helped to sensationalize their 1720 trial in Jamaica. They gained further notoriety for their ruthlessness — they are known to have spoken in favor of murdering witnesses in the crew's counsels — and for having resisted far more fiercely than their male crewmates when Rackham's ship was taken. The capstone to their legend is that they alone of all Rackham's crew escaped execution, as both were newly pregnant at their trial and their sentences were commuted to avoid harm to their unborn children. Anne Bonny (c. ... For Mary Karen Read, see List of victims of the Virginia Tech massacre Mary Read (c. ... John Rackham (died 17 November 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ...


Privateers

Main article: Privateer

In the Caribbean the use of privateers was especially popular. The cost of maintaining a fleet to defend the colonies was beyond national governments of the 16th and 17th centuries. Private vessels would be commissioned into a 'navy' with a letter of marque, paid with a substantial share of whatever they could capture from enemy ships and settlements, the rest going to the crown. These ships would operate independently or as a fleet and if successful the rewards could be great — when Francis Drake captured the Spanish Silver Train at Nombre de Dios (Panama's Caribbean port at the time) in 1573 his crews were rich for life. This was repeated by Piet Hein in 1628, who made a profit of 12 million guilders for the Dutch West India Company. This substantial profit made privateering something of a regular line of business; wealthy businessmen or nobles would be quite willing to finance this legitimized piracy in return for a share. The sale of captured goods was a boost to colonial economies as well. For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... For the Patrick OBrian novel, see The Letter of Marque. ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... Nombre de Dios (Spanish: Name of God) is a town on the Atlantic coast of Panama, near the mouth of the Río Chagres. ... Year 1573 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Piet Heyn, 1577-1629 Piet Pieterszoon Hein (also written as Heyn) (November 25, 1577 – June 18, 1629) was a Dutch naval officer and folk hero during the Eighty Years War between the Netherlands and Spain. ... 1628 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The guilder (Dutch gulden), represented by the symbol ƒ, was the name of the currency used in the Netherlands from the 15th century until 1999, when it was replaced by the euro (coins and notes were not introduced until 2002). ... Dutch West India Company (Dutch: West-Indische Compagnie or WIC) was a company of Dutch merchants. ...


Buccaneers

Main article: Buccaneer

Specific to the Caribbean were pirates termed buccaneers. Roughly speaking they arrived in the 1630s and remained until the effective end of piracy in the 1730s. The original buccaneers were escapees from the colonies; forced to survive with little support, they had to be skilled at boat construction, sailing, and hunting. The word "buccaneer" is actually from the French boucaner, meaning "to smoke meat", from the hunters of wild oxen curing meat over an open fire. They transferred the skills which kept them alive into piracy. They operated with the partial support of the non-Spanish colonies and until the 1700s their activities were legal, or partially legal and there were irregular amnesties from all nations. This article refers to the type of pirate. ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... Events and Trends The Great Awakening - A Protestant religious movement active in the British colonies of North America Sextant invented (probably around 1730) independently by John Hadley in Great Britain and Thomas Godfrey in the American colonies World leaders Louis XV King of France (king from 1715 to 1774) George... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ...


Traditionally buccaneers had a number of peculiarities. Their crews operated as a democracy: the captain was elected by the crew and they could vote to replace him. The captain had to be a leader and a fighter—in combat he was expected to be fighting with his men, not directing operations from a distance.


Spoils were evenly divided into shares; when the officers had a greater number of shares, it was because they took greater risks or had special skills. Often the crews would sail without wages—"on account"—and the spoils would be built up over a course of months before being divided. There was a strong esprit de corps among pirates. This allowed them to win sea battles: they typically outmanned trade vessels by a large ratio. There was also for some time a social insurance system, guaranteeing money or gold for battle wounds at a worked-out scale.


One undemocratic aspect of the buccaneers was that sometimes they would force specialists like carpenters or surgeons to sail with them for some time, though they were released when no longer needed (if they had not volunteered to join by that time). Note also that a typical poor man had few other promising career choices at the time apart from joining the pirates. According to reputation, the pirates' egalitarianism led them to liberate slaves when taking over slave ships. However there are several accounts of pirates selling slaves captured on slave ships, sometimes after they had helped man the pirates' own vessels. Slave ships were cargo boats specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly captured African slaves. ...


In combat they were considered ferocious and were reputed to be experts with flintlock weapons (invented in 1615), but these were so unreliable that they were not in widespread military use before the 1670s. Flintlock of an 18th Century hunting rifle, with piece of flint missing. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... Events and Trends Newton and Leibniz independently discover calculus. ...


Boysie Singh — a 20th Century Pirate

John Boysie Singh, usually known as "the Rajah," "Boysie" or "Boysie Singh," was born on 5th April, 1908 in Woodbrook, Port of Spain, Trinidad, and finally hanged in Port of Spain in 1957 for the murder of his niece, Thelma Hayes.


He had a long and successful career as a gangster and gambler before turning to piracy and murder. For almost ten years, from 1947 until 1956 he and his gang terrorized the waters between Trinidad and Venezuela. They were responsible for the deaths of many fishermen — the number has sometimes been put as high as 400. Their technique was generally to board fishing boats, murder their crew, and steal the engine which they would later sell in nearby Venezuela after sinking the boat.


Boysie was well-known to everyone in Trinidad and Tobago. He had successfully beaten two charges of murder before he was finally executed after losing his third case - for the murder of his niece. He was held in awe and dread by most of the population and was frequently seen strolling grandly about Port of Spain in the early 1950s wearing bright, stylish clothes. Mothers and nannies would warn their charges: "Behave yourself, man, or Boysie goyn getchu, oui!"[1] Port of Spain, population 49,000 (2000), is the capital of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys second largest city by population, after San Fernando. ...


See also

Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character N). Many pirates created their own individualized versions. ... The Pirate Code of the Bretheren is a loose Code of Conduct common with Piracy in the Caribbean during the classic age of Piracy set down by the Pirates Henry Morgan and Bartholomew Roberts. ... Piracy in the Strait of Malacca was common in the past, and is currently on the rise again in recent years possibly for terrorism-related reasons. ...

Piracy in popular culture

Films

Main article List of pirate films List of pirate films is is an alphabetical list of films dealing with piracy, primarily during the Golden Age of Piracy in the Caribbean Sea in the 16th century to 18th century. ...

Douglas Fairbanks (May 23, 1883 – December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director and producer, who became noted for his swashbuckling roles in silent movies such as The Mark of Zorro (1920), The Three Musketeers (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief of Bagdad (1924) and The Black Pirate (1926). ... The Black Pirate is a 1926 adventure silent film shot entirely in Technicolor which tells the story of a young nobleman who infiltrates a ship full of pirates to avenge his fathers death. ... Captain Blood is a 1935 swashbuckling film. ... Cutthroat Island is a pirate-themed action film starring Geena Davis and directed by her then-husband Renny Harlin, filmed in various locations around Malta. ... The Pirates of the Caribbean films are a trilogy of pirate adventure films directed by Gore Verbinski, written by Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio and produced by Jerry Bruckheimer. ... Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl is a movie of adventure and romance set in the Caribbean during the seventeenth century. ... Muppet Treasure Island was the fifth feature film to star The Muppets, and the third produced after the death of Muppets creator Jim Henson. ... Region 1 DVD cover for Nate and Hayes. ...

Books

For other uses, see Treasure Island (disambiguation). ... Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... For other uses, see Long John Silver (disambiguation). ... 2007 e-book edition cover Captain Blood is an adventure novel by Rafael Sabatini, originally published in 1922. ... Rafael Sabatini (April 29, 1875 - February 13, 1950) was an Italian/British writer of novels of romance and adventure. ... The Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow the King of England, James II, who became king when his elder brother, Charles II, died on 6 February 1685. ... James II (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Emilio Salgari. ... The 2004 version of the game features a high-end 3D engine, a feature impossible to deliver with the original 1987 release. ... The Cover of Pirates! Celia Rees is a British author of childrens literature, including some horror and fantasy books. ... This article is about the novel. ... William Goldman (born August 12, 1931) is an American novelist, playwright and two-time Academy Award-winning screenwriter. ... On Stranger Tides (Ace Books, 1987, ISBN 0441626831) is a fantasy novel written by Tim Powers. ... Tim Powers at the Israeli ICon 2005 SF&F Convention Timothy Thomas Powers (born February 29, 1952) is an American science fiction and fantasy author. ...

Computer games

The Secret of Monkey Island, CD version. ... This article is about the videogame released in 1987. ... The 2004 version of the game features a high-end 3D engine, a feature impossible to deliver with the original 1987 release. ... Pirates! Gold is a 1993 computer game, a sequel to Sid Meiers 1987 release, Sid Meiers Pirates!. MicroProse developed this 256-color version for MS-DOS, Macintosh, Mega Drive/Genesis, Amiga CD32 and Windows 3. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Yohoho! Puzzle Pirates is a massively multiplayer online game by Three Rings Design. ... The trade winds are a pattern of wind found in bands around Earths equatorial region. ... Sea Dogs is a 2000 computer role-playing game (CRPG) for Windows developed by Akella and published by Bethesda Softworks. ... Tortuga (ÃŽle de la Tortue in French) is a Caribbean island that forms part of Haiti, off the northwest coast of Hispaniola. ... Port Royale 2 is the sequel to the trade simulation game Port Royale. ... Pirates of the Burning Sea (abbreviated PotBS) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) currently under development by Flying Lab Software (FLS). ... Pirates of the Caribbean is a 2003 video game for Xbox and Windows, developed by Akella and published by Bethesda Softworks. ...

Other games

This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Music

  • "Pirate in a Box" by Lemon Demon

Pirates of the Caribbean (2000 CD) was the soundtrack CD released for the for the 33rd anniversary of the Pirates of the Caribbean ride in Disneyland. ... Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl is a movie of adventure and romance set in the Caribbean during the seventeenth century. ... A Pirate Looks At Forty is a song by Jimmy Buffett. ... Jimmy Buffett tours Pearl Harbor with United States Navy Admiral Jonathan Greenert, June 12, 2003 James William Jimmy Buffett (born December 25, 1946) is a singer, songwriter, author, businessman, and recently a film producer best known for his island escapism lifestyle and music including hits such as Margaritaville (No. ... Running Wild is one of a few German heavy metal bands to emerge in the early/mid 1980s (along with Helloween, Gamma Ray, Rage, Blind Guardian, Grave Digger, etc). ... The Queen Annes Revenge is haunted, and was the name of the pirate Blackbeards infamous flagship. ... Flogging Molly is a seven-piece Irish American punk band that formed in Los Angeles and is currently signed under SideOneDummy Records. ...

Other

Pirates of the Caribbean is a dark ride at the Disneyland, Magic Kingdom, Tokyo Disneyland, and Disneyland Paris theme parks. ... One Piece (ワンピース wanpīsu) also known as Drake or Drake and the Search for the Treasure in Greece), is an anime and manga about a crew of pirates led by Monkey D. Luffy who set out in search of the legendary treasure One Piece. ...

References

  1. ^ Derek Bickerton. The Murders of Boysie Singh: Robber, Arsonist, Pirate, Mass-Murderer, Vice and Gambling King of Trinidad. Arthur Barker Limited, London. (1962).

See also

  • Piracy in the British Virgin Islands

Piracy in the British Virgin Islands was prevalent during the so-called golden era of piracy. ...

External links

This article is about maritime piracy. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the type of pirate. ... Look up corsair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Edward_England. ... Piracy in the Strait of Malacca was common in the past, and is currently on the rise again in recent years possibly for terrorism-related reasons. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in Magny-les-Hameaux, in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... Tortuga (Île de la Tortue in French) is a Caribbean island that forms part of Haiti, off the northwest coast of Hispaniola. ... Categories: France geography stubs | Communes of Ille-et-Vilaine ... Libertatia (also known as Libertalia) was a legendary country, or free colony, forged by pirates, under the leadership of Captain Misson in the late 1600s. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ... Jean Bart (October 21, 1651 - April 27, 1702) was a French naval commander of the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Blackbeard (disambiguation). ... Stede Bonnet (1688?-December 10, 1718)[1] was a pirate captain from the English colony of Barbados. ... Anne Bonny (c. ... Roche Braziliano (born c. ... Roberto Cofresí (June 17, 1791-March 29, 1825) born Roberto Cofresí y Ramírez de Arellano in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico, is Puerto Ricos most famous pirate and is better known as El Pirata Cofresí. Monument of Roberto Cofresí // The origin of Cofresís father is unknown and has... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... Henry Every or Avery (born c. ... For the musician, orchestrator, and composer, see William Kidd (composer). ... A portrait of Edward Lowe hanging in the National Maritime Museum in London Edward Ned Lowe (or Low, or Loe), often known as Ned Low was a notorious pirate during the Golden Age of Piracy. ... Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ... An illustration of François lOllonais from a 1684 edition of The History of the Bucaniers of America Jean-David Nau (c. ... The meeting of Grace OMalley and Queen Elizabeth I Gráinne Ní Mháille (c. ... John Rackham (died November 17, 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... For Mary Karen Read, see List of victims of the Virginia Tech massacre Mary Read (c. ... Oruç Reis captures a galley Aruj or Oruc Reis (Turkish: Oruç Reis) (c. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... Statue of Robert Surcouf in Saint-Malo. ... Statue in St Malo René Trouin, Sieur du Gué, usually called Réné Duguay-Trouin, (Saint Malo, 10 June 1673 -- 1736) was a famous French privateer, Lieutenant-Général des armées navales du roi (admiral) and Commander in the Order of Saint-Louis. ... Blackbeards severed head hanging from Maynards bow Robert Maynard was a lieutenant in the British Royal Navy, captain of HMS Pearl, and is most famous for defeating the infamous pirate Blackbeard in battle. ... Sir Chalonor Ogle (1681-1750) was an Admiral of the Fleet in the British navy. ... Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character N). Many pirates created their own individualized versions. ... A painting depicting the era. ... This is a timeline of the history of piracy. ... List of pirate films is is an alphabetical list of films dealing with piracy, primarily during the Golden Age of Piracy in the Caribbean Sea in the 16th century to 18th century. ... This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, and others involved in piracy. ...

 
 

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