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Encyclopedia > Piracy
Pirates fight over treasure in a Howard Pyle illustration from Howard Pyle's Book of Pirates.
Pirates fight over treasure in a Howard Pyle illustration from Howard Pyle's Book of Pirates.
The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack
The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack

Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. Seaborne piracy against transport vessels remains a significant issue (with estimated worldwide losses of US $13[citation needed] to $16 billion per year[2], [3]), particularly in the waters between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, off the Somali coast, and also in the Strait of Malacca and Singapore, which are used by over 50,000 commercial ships a year. A recent[1] surge in piracy off the Somali coast spurred a multi-national effort led by the United States to patrol the waters near the Horn of Africa to combat piracy. While boats off the coasts of North Africa and the Mediterranean Sea are still assailed by pirates, the Royal Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard have nearly eradicated piracy in U.S. waters and in the Caribbean Sea. The Cathach of St. ... Look up pirate, piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Maritime Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1924 × 2884 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1924 × 2884 pixel, file size: 1. ... Howard Pyle (March 5, 1853-November 9, 1911) was an American illustrator and writer, primarily of books for young audiences. ... Image File history File links Pirate_Flag_of_Rack_Rackham. ... Image File history File links Pirate_Flag_of_Rack_Rackham. ... John Rackham (died November 17, 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... For the Patrick OBrian novel, see The Letter of Marque. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... USD redirects here. ... Pacific redirects here. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... The Horn of Africa. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Coast Guard shield The United States Coast Guard is the coast guard of the United States. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ...


The Jolly Roger is the traditional name for the flags of European and American pirates and a symbol for piracy that has been adopted by film-makers and toy manufacturers. Wingdings version of the Jolly Roger (character N). Many pirates created their own individualized versions. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

The English "pirate" is derived from the Latin term pirata, and ultimately from Greek peira (πεῖρα) "attempt, experience", implicitly "to find luck on the sea". The word is also cognate to peril. In 17th and 18th century sources the word is often rendered "pyrate". However, the term does not exclusively relate to robbery committed at the sea, as other similar origins have a broader definition [4]. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


History

Ancient piracy

The earliest documented instances of piracy are the exploits of the Sea Peoples who threatened the Aegean in the 13th century BC. In Classical Antiquity, the Tyrrhenians Greek influence and remained a haven for Thracian pirates. By the 1st century BC, there were pirate states along the Anatolian coast, threatening the commerce of the Roman Empire. The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Tyrrhenians (Attic Greek Turrēnoi) or Tyrsenians (Ionic Tursēnoi, Doric Tursānoi) is an exonym used by Greek authors to refer to a non-Greek people. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


On one voyage across the Aegean Sea in 75 BC,[2] Julius Caesar was kidnapped by Cilician pirates and held prisoner in the Dodecanese islet of Pharmacusa.[3] He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. When the pirates thought to demand a ransom of twenty talents, Caesar is said to have laughed and said "I am worth a hundred!", and the pirates indeed raised the ransom to a hundred. After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them in Pergamon. The governor of Asia refused to execute them as Caesar demanded, preferring to sell them as slaves, but Caesar returned to the coast and had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised to when in captivity – a promise the pirates had taken as a joke. Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... The Dodecanese (Greek Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, Turkish Onikiada, both meaning twelve islands; Italian Dodecaneso) are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ... Farmakos is a small Greek island about 17 nautical miles from Leros. ... A talent is an ancient unit of mass. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ...


The Senate finally invested Pompey with powers to deal with piracy in 67 BC (the Lex Gabinia), and Pompey after three months of naval warfare managed to suppress the threat. In the 3rd century, pirate attacks on Olympus (city in Anatolia) brought impoverishment. Among some of the most famous ancient pirateering peoples were the Illyrians, populating the western Balkan peninsula. Constantly raiding the Adriatic Sea, the Illyrians caused many conflicts with the Roman Republic. It was not until 68 BC that the Romans finally conquered Illyria and made it a province, ending their threat. For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... The Lex Gabinia (Gabiniuss Law) was a law established in ancient Rome in 67 BC. It was passed by the Tribune Aulus Gabinius in 67 BC. General Pompey was granted Pro-Consul powers in any province within 50 miles of the Mediterranean Sea with a fleet of 500 battleships... This article refers to a mountain in Greece. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...


In the Roman province of Britannia, Saint Patrick was captured and enslaved by Irish pirates. For information about the holiday, see: Saint Patricks Day Saint Patrick (Latin: [2], Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Christian missionary and is the patron saint of Ireland along with Brigid of Kildare and Columba. ...


Early Polynesian warriors attacked seaside and riverside villages. They used the sea for their hit-and-run tactics - a safe place to retreat to if the battle turned against them. Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Warriors may refer to Warriors (book series) is a series of fantasy novels written by Kate Cary and Cherith Baldry, under the pen name Erin Hunter. ... Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory, but to inflict damage on a target and immediately exit the area to avoid the enemys defense and/or retaliation. ...


Middle Ages

The most famous and far reaching pirates in medieval Europe were the Vikings, warriors and looters from Scandinavia. They raided the coasts, rivers and inland cities of all Western Europe as far as Seville, attacked by the Norse in 844. Vikings even attacked coasts of North Africa and Italy. They also plundered all the coasts of the Baltic Sea, ascending the rivers of Eastern Europe as far as the Black Sea and Persia. The lack of centralized powers all over Europe during the Middle Ages favoured pirates all over the continent. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


After the Slavic invasions of the Balkan peninsula in the 5th and 6th centuries, a Slavic tribe settled the land of Pagania between Dalmatia and Zachlumia in the first half of the 7th century. These Slavs revived the old Illyrian piratical habits and often raided the Adriatic Sea. By 642 they invaded southern Italy and assaulted Siponte in Benevento. Their raids in the Adriatic increased rapidly, until the whole Sea was no longer safe for travel. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Invasion is a military action consisting of troops entering a foreign land (a nation or territory, or part of that), often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Zahumlje in the 9th century, according to De administrando imperio Zahumlje, also known as the Land of Hum and Chelm, was a medieval principality located in todays Herzegovina (modern day Bosnia and Herzegovina), and southern Dalmatia (modern day Republic of Croatia). ... Benevento is a town and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. ...


The "Narentines," as they were called, took more liberties in their raiding quests while the Venetian Navy was abroad, as when it was campaigning in Sicilian waters in 827-82. As soon as the Venetian fleet would return to the Adriatic, the Narentines temporarily abandoned their habits again, even signing a Treaty in Venice and baptising their Slavic pagan leader into Christianity. In 834 or 835 they broke the treaty and again raided Venetian traders returning from Benevento, and all of Venice's military attempts to punish the Marians in 839 and 840 utterly failed. Later, they raided the Venetians more often, together with the Arabs. In 846 the Narentines broke through to Venice itself and raided its lagoon city of Kaorle. In the middle of March of 870 they kidnapped the Roman Bishop's emissaries that were returning from the Ecclesiastical Council in Constantinople. This caused a Byzantine military action against them that finally brought Christianity to them. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


After the Arab raids on the Adriatic coast c. 872 and the retreat of the Imperial Navy, the Narentines restored their raids of Venetian waters, causing new conflicts with the Italians in 887-888. The Narentine piracy traditions were cherished even while they were in Serbia, serving as the finest Serb warriors. The Venetians futilely continued to fight them throughout the 10th-11th centuries. The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


In 937, Irish pirates sided with the Scots, Vikings, Picts, and Welsh in their invasion of England. Athelstan drove them back. A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ... Athelstan (c. ...


In 12th century the coasts of west Scandinavia were plundered by Slavic pirates from the southwest coast of Baltic Sea. ...


H Thomas Milhorn mentions a certain Englishman named William Maurice, convicted of piracy in 1241, as the first person known to have been hanged, drawn and quartered [4], which would indicate that the then-ruling King Henry III took an especially severe view of this crime. Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ...


The ushkuiniks were Novgorodian pirates who looted the cities on the Volga and Kama Rivers in the 14th century. The ushkuiniks were medieval Novgorodian pirates who led the Viking-like life of fighting, killing, and robbery. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Kama may refer to several things Kama, a Hindu god, the God of Love, son of Lakshmi. ...


As early as Byzantine times, the Maniots - one of Greece's toughest populations - were known as pirates. The Maniots considered piracy as a legitimate response to the fact that their land was poor and it became their main source of income. The main victims of Maniot pirates were the Ottomans but the Maniots also targeted ships of European countries. Byzantine redirects here. ... A map showing Mani. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Piracy on the Kerala Coast

Since the 14th century the Deccan was divided into two entities: on the one side stood the Bahmani Sultanate, and on the other stood the Hindu rajas rallied around the Vijayanagara Empire. Continuous wars demanded frequent resupplies of dead horses, which were imported through sea routes from Persia and Africa. This trade was subjected to frequent raids by thriving bands of pirates based in the coastal cities of Western India. The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ...


Piracy in East Asia

Main article: Wokou

From the 13th century, Japan based Wokou made their debut in East Asia, initiating invasions that would persist for 300 years. Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ... Sixteenth century Japanese pirate raids. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ...


Piracy in South East Asia began with the retreating Mongol Yuan fleet after the betrayal by their Sri Vijayan allies in the war with Majapahit. They preferred the junk, a ship using a more robust sail layout. Marooned navy officers, consisting mostly of Cantonese and Hokkien tribesmen, set up their small gangs near river estuaries, mainly to protect themselves. They recruited locals as common foot-soldiers known as 'lang' (lanun) to set up their fortresses. They survived by utilizing their well trained pugilists, as well as marine and navigation skills, mostly along Sumatran and Javanese estuaries. Their strength and ferocity coincided with the impending trade growth of the maritime silk and spice routes.


However, the most powerful pirate fleets of East Asia were those of Chinese pirates during the mid-Qing dynasty. Pirate fleets grew increasingly powerful throughout the early 19th century. The effects large-scale piracy had on the Chinese economy were immense. They preyed voraciously on China’s junk trade, which flourished in Fujian and Guangdong and was a vital artery of Chinese commerce. Pirate fleets exercised hegemony over villages on the coast, collecting revenue by exacting tribute and running extortion rackets. In 1802, the menacing Zheng Yi inherited the fleet of his cousin, captain Zheng Qi, whose death provided Zheng Yi with considerably more influence in the world of piracy. Zheng Yi and his wife, Zheng Yi Sao (who would eventually inherit the leadership of his pirate confederacy) then formed a pirate coalition that, by 1804, consisted of over ten thousand men. Their military might alone was sufficient to combat the Qing navy. However, a combination of famine, Qing naval opposition, and internal rifts crippled piracy in China around the 1820s, and it has never again reached the same status. The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Hegemony (pronounced [])[1] (Greek: ) is a concept that has been used to describe the existence of dominance of one social group over another, such that the ruling group -- referred to as a hegemon -- acquires some degree of consent from the subordinate, as opposed to dominance purely by force. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... An 1836 drawing of Ching Shih Ching Shih, also know as Zheng Yi Sao (lit. ...


The Bugi sailors of South Sulawesi were infamous as pirates who used to range as far west as Singapore and as far north as the Philippines in search of targets for piracy.[5] The Orang laut pirates controlled shipping in the Straits of Malacca and the waters around Singapore.[6] This article is about ethnic groups of South Sulawesi. ... Map showing South Sulawesi province within Indonesia South Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on Sulawesi island. ... Orang Laut are a group of Malay people living in the Riau Islands of Indonesia. ... Piracy in the Strait of Malacca was common in the past, and is currently on the rise again in recent years possibly for terrorism-related reasons. ...


Piracy in Eastern Europe

One example of a pirate republic in Europe from the 16th through the 18th century was Zaporizhian Sich. Situated in the remote Steppe, it was populated with Ukrainian peasants that had run away from their feudal masters, outlaws of every sort, destitute gentry, run-away slaves from Turkish galleys, etc. The remoteness of the place and the rapids at the Dnepr river effectively guarded the place from invasions of vengeful powers. The main target of the inhabitants of Zaporizhian Sich who called themselves “Cossacks” were rich settlements at the Black Sea shores of Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate.[7] By 1615 and 1625, Zaporozhian Cossacks had even managed to raze townships on the outskirts of Istanbul, forcing the Ottoman Sultan to flee his palace.[8] Don Cossacks under Stenka Razin even ravaged the Persian coasts.[9] Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: ,Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... The Dnieper River (Belarusian: Дняпро/Dnyapro; Russian: Днепр/Dnepr; Ukrainian: Днiпро/Dnipro; Polish: Dniepr; Latin: Borysthenes, Danaper) is a river (2290 km length) which flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. ... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: ,Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The Osmanli Dynasty, also the House of Osman, ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... Stepan (Stenka) Timofeyevich Razin (Степан (Стенька) Тимофеевич Разин in Russian) (1630 - 6. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty...


Piracy in North Africa

Main article: Barbary pirates

The Barbary pirates were pirates and privateers that operated from North African (the "Barbary coast") ports of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salé and ports in Morocco, preying on shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea from the time of the Crusades as well as on ships on their way to Asia around Africa until the early 19th century. The coastal villages and towns of Italy, Spain and Mediterranean islands were frequently attacked by them and long stretches of the Italian and Spanish coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants; after 1600 Barbary pirates occasionally entered the Atlantic and struck as far north as Iceland . According to Robert Davis[10] [11] between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries. The most famous corsairs were the Ottoman Barbarossa ("Redbeard"), and his older brother Oruç, Turgut Reis (known as Dragut in the West), Kurtoğlu (known as Curtogoli in the West), Kemal Reis, Salih Reis and Koca Murat Reis. Many of the Barbary pirates, including Jan Janszoon and John Ward, were renegade Christians who had converted to Islam. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the concept in naval history. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Salé (from the Berber word asla, meaning rock) is the twin city to Rabat, capital of Morocco. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This is a list of islands in the Mediterranean Sea: // == Australia is the biggest island!! == This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... Baba Aruj Aruj, turkish Oruç (c. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... Dragut (1514-1565) Ottoman, Turkish admiral known in Turkey as Torgut Reis. ... KurtoÄŸlu Muslihiddin Reis (1487-1535 ca. ... KurtoÄŸlu Muslihiddin Reis (1487-1535 ca. ... Göke (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (circa 1451-1511) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ... Salih Reis (1488 ca. ... Murat Reis Mosque in Rhodes Murat Reis the Older (Turkish: ) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ... Jan Janszoon van Haarlem (circa 1570 - post 1641) was a Dutch pirate also known as Murat Reis the Younger. ... John Ward [Warde], also known as Jack Ward and under his Muslim name Yusuf Reis, was a notorious English pirate around the turn of the 17th century who later became a Barbary Corsair operating out of Tunis during the early 1600s. ...


According to recent legal analysis by the U.S. Supreme Court, the United States treated captured Barbary corsairs as prisoners of war, indicating that they were considered as legitimate privateers by at least some of their opponents, as well as by their home countries. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Piracy in the Caribbean

The great or classic era of piracy in the Caribbean extends from around 1560 up until the mid 1720s. The period during which pirates were most successful was from 1700 until the 1730s. Many pirates came to the Caribbean after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession. Many people stayed in the Caribbean and became pirates shortly after that. Caribbean piracy arose out of, and mirrored on a smaller scale, the conflicts over trade and colonization among the rival European powers of the time, including England, Spain, Dutch United Provinces, Portuguese Empire and France. Most of these pirates were of Dutch, French and English origin. Due to the fact that Spain controlled most of the Caribbean, most of the attacked cities and ships belonged to the Spanish Empire and along the East coast of America and the West coast of Africa. Some of the best-known pirate bases were New Providence, in the Bahamas from 1715 to 1725, Tortuga established in the 1640s and Port Royal after 1655. Among the most famous Caribbean pirates are Edward Teach or "Blackbeard" and Henry Morgan. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Tortuga (ÃŽle de la Tortue in French) is a Caribbean island that forms part of Haiti, off the northwest coast of Hispaniola. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in Magny-les-Hameaux, in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... Blackbeard (1680? – November 22, 1718) was the nickname of Edward Teach alias Edward Thatch, a notorious English pirate who had a short reign of terror in the Caribbean Sea between 1716 and 1718. ... Sir Henry Morgan (Hari Morgan in Welsh), (ca. ...


Life as a pirate

In the popular modern imagination, pirates of the classical period were rebellious, clever teams who operated outside the restricting bureaucracy of modern life. In reality, many pirates ate poorly, did not become fabulously wealthy, and died young. Unlike traditional Western societies of the time, many pirate clans operated as limited democracies, demanding the right to elect and replace their leaders. The captain of a pirate ship was often a fierce fighter in whom the men could place their trust, rather than a more traditional authority figure sanctioned by an elite. However, when not in battle, the ship's quartermaster usually had the real authority. Many groups of pirates shared in whatever they seized; pirates injured in battle might be afforded special compensation. Often all of these terms were agreed upon and written down by the pirates, but these articles could also be used as incriminating proof that they were outlaws. Pirates readily accepted outcasts from traditional societies, perhaps easily recognizing kindred spirits, and they were known to welcome them into the pirate fold. Such practices within a pirate crew were tenuous, however, and did little to mitigate the brutality of the pirate's way of life. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Quartermaster is a term usually referring to a military unit which specializes in supplying and provisioning troops, or to an individual who does the same. ... The Pirate Code of the Bretheren is a loose Code of Conduct common with Piracy in the Caribbean during the classic age of Piracy set down by the Pirates Henry Morgan and Bartholomew Roberts. ...


The classical age of piracy coexisted with a rise in British imperialism which required merchant vessels to transport goods and warships to protect the trade ships from pirates and privateers. Living conditions on the warships were horrible even by 17th-century standards; sailors were often fed rotten, maggot-infested food, frequently suffered from scurvy or other nutritional disorders, and could be counted lucky to escape their service without a crippling injury. British captains were known to have been extremely brutal; the captain held a nearly sovereign power aboard his ship and many were unafraid to abuse that power. To fill the warships, officers would forcibly pressgang boys and young men to replace lost crew. The horrid living conditions, constant threat to life, and brutality of the captain and his officers pushed many men over the edge. Possessing seafaring skill, a learned intolerance for absolute authority, and a disdain for the motherland they might have believed abandoned them, many crews would simply mutiny during an attack and offer themselves and their ship as a new pirate vessel and crew. Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Look up Impressment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) are legally obliged to obey. ...


Famous historical pirates/privateers

Main article: List of pirates

This is a list of known pirates, buccaneers, corsairs, privateers, and others involved in piracy. ... Thomas Anstis (d. ... Louis-Michel Aury was a French pirate operating in the Gulf of Mexico during the early 19th century. ... Samuel Bellamy (c. ... Stede Bonnet (1688?-December 10, 1718)[1] was a pirate captain from the English colony of Barbados. ... Anne Bonny (c. ... Roche Braziliano (born c. ... Nathaniel Butler (1578-16??) was an English privateer who later served as the colonial governor of Bermuda during the early 17th-century. ... Jacob Collaart (fl. ... Simon de Danser (Simon The Dancer) (1579 ?, Dort - 1611 ?; conflicting dates are reported) was a Dutch privateer and pirate of the Barbary Coast. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sir Francis Drake, c. ... Sir Richard Hawkins (c. ... Jan Janszoon van Haarlem (circa 1570 - post 1641) was a Dutch pirate also known as Murat Reis the Younger. ... For the musician, orchestrator, and composer, see William Kidd (composer). ... Jean Lafitte (1776 - 1854?), was a famous pirate in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 19th century. ... A portrait of Edward Lowe hanging in the National Maritime Museum in London Edward Ned Lowe (or Low, or Loe), often known as Ned Low was a notorious pirate during the Golden Age of Piracy. ... An illustration of François lOllonais from a 1684 edition of The History of the Bucaniers of America Jean-David Nau (c. ... The meeting of Grace OMalley and Queen Elizabeth I Gráinne Ní Mháille (c. ... Sir Henry Morgan (c. ... Christopher Newport (c. ... John Rackham (died November 17, 1720), also known as Calico Jack Rackham or Calico Jack, was an English pirate captain during the early 18th century. ... Mary Read (c. ... Göke (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (circa 1451-1511) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... Born John Roberts (May 17, 1682 - February 10, 1722), Bartholomew Roberts, also known as Bart Roberts, was a Welsh pirate who raided shipping off the Americas and West Africa between 1719 and 1722. ... An 1836 drawing of Ching Shih Ching Shih, also know as Zheng Yi Sao (lit. ... Statue of Robert Surcouf in Saint-Malo. ... A flag often attributed to Blackbeard. ... Zheng Zhilong [Cheng Chih-lung] (d. ...

Privateers

Main article: Privateer

A privateer or corsair used similar methods to a pirate, but acted while in possession of a commission or letter of marque from a government or monarch authorizing the capture of merchant ships belonging to an enemy nation. For example, the United States Constitution of 1787 specifically authorized Congress to issue letters of marque and reprisal. The letter of marque was recognized by international convention and meant that a privateer could not technically be charged with piracy while attacking the targets named in his commission. This nicety of law did not always save the individuals concerned, however, as whether one was considered a pirate or a legally operating privateer often depended on whose custody the individual found himself in--that of the country that had issued the commission, or that of the object of attack. Spanish authorities were known to execute foreign privateers with their letters of marque hung around their necks to emphasize Spain's rejection of such defenses. Furthermore, many privateers exceeded the bounds of their letters of marque by attacking nations with which their sovereign was at peace (Thomas Tew and William Kidd are notable examples), and thus made themselves liable to conviction for piracy. However, a letter of marque did provide some cover for such pirates, as plunder seized from neutral or friendly shipping could be passed off later as taken from enemy merchants. For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... For the Patrick OBrian novel, see The Letter of Marque. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The flag of Thomas Tew Thomas Tew aka the Rhode Island Pirate. ... For the musician, orchestrator, and composer, see William Kidd (composer). ...


The famous Barbary Corsairs of the Mediterranean were privateers, as were the Maltese Corsairs, who were authorized by the Knights of St. John, and the Dunkirkers in the service of the Spanish Empire. One famous privateer was Sir Francis Drake. His patron was Queen Elizabeth I, and their relationship ultimately proved to be quite profitable for England. [12] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080... During the Dutch Revolt (1568 - 1648) the Dunkirkers or Dunkirk Privateers were privateers in the service of the Spanish Empire operating from the ports of the Flemish coast: Nieuwpoort, Ostend, and in particular Dunkirk. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Sir Francis Drake, c. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Under the Declaration of Paris of 1854, seven nations agreed to suspend the use of the letter of marque, and others followed in the 1907 Hague Convention. The Declaration of Paris from April 16, 1856 was issued to abolish privateering. ... The longtime status of Netherlands as a largely neutral nation in international conflicts and the corresponding ascendance of The Hague as a primary location for diplomatic and international conferences has led to several negotiated conventions over the years being termed the Hague Convention: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907...


Commerce raiders

A wartime activity similar to piracy involves disguised warships called commerce raiders or merchant raiders, which attack enemy shipping commerce, approaching by stealth and then opening fire. Commerce raiders operated successfully during the American Revolution. During the American Civil War, the Confederacy sent out several commerce raiders, the most famous of which was the CSS Alabama. During World War I and World War II, Germany also made use of these tactics, both in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Since commissioned naval vessels were openly used, these commerce raiders should not be considered even privateers, much less pirates - although the opposing combatants were vocal in denouncing them as such. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Commerce raiding or guerre de course is a naval strategy of attacking an opponents commercial shipping rather than contending for control of the seas with its naval forces. ... Merchant raiders are ships which disguise themselves as noncombatant merchant vessels, whilst actually being armed and intending to atttack enemy vessels. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... For other ships named Alabama, see USS Alabama. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ...


Modern piracy


Modern pirates favor small boats and taking advantage of the small crew numbers on modern cargo vessels. Modern pirates prey on cargo ships which must slow their speed to navigate narrow straits, making them vulnerable to be overtaken and boarded by small motorboats. Small ships are also capable of disguising themselves as fishing vessels or cargo vessels when not carrying out piracy in order to avoid or deceive inspectors. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Over-Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... A 1962 Rebel. A wooden speedboat with an outboard engine. ...


Also, pirates often operate in regions of developing or struggling countries with smaller navies and large trade routes. Pirates sometimes evade pursuers by sailing into waters controlled by their enemies. With the end of the Cold War, navies have decreased size and patrol, and trade has increased, making organized piracy far easier. Modern pirates are sometimes linked with organized-crime syndicates, but often are parts of small individual groups. Pirate attack crews may consist of 4 to 10 sailors for going after a ship's safe (raiding) or up to 70 (depending entirely on the ships and the ships crew size) if the plan is to seize the whole vessel. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


The International Maritime Bureau (IMB) maintains statistics regarding pirate attacks dating back to 1995. Their records indicate hostage-taking overwhelmingly dominates the types of violence against seafarers. For example in 2006, there were 239 attacks, 77 crew members were kidnapped and 188 taken hostage but only 15 of the pirate attacks resulted in murder [13] The International Maritime Bureau is a specialised bureau of the International Chamber of Commerce. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


IMB's 2006 annual report[citation needed] on piracy notes that more than half of the reported attacks occurred while the vessels were at anchor.[5] Furthermore bulk carriers continued to be the targets of nearly a quarter of all attacks.[citation needed]


In some cases, modern pirates are not interested in the cargo and are mainly interested in taking the personal belongings of the crew and the contents of the ship's safe, which might contain large amounts of cash needed for payroll and port fees. In other cases, the pirates force the crew off the ship and then sail it to a port to be repainted and given a new identity through false papers often purchased from corrupt or complicit officials. [14][citation needed]


Modern pirates can be successful because a large amount of international commerce occurs via shipping. For commercial reasons, many cargo ships move through narrow bodies of water such as the Suez Canal, the Panama Canal, and the Strait of Malacca. As usage increases, many of these ships have to lower cruising speeds to allow for navigation and traffic control, making them prime targets for piracy. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks The Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ...


Modern piracy can also take place in conditions of political unrest. For example, following the US withdrawal from Vietnam, Thai piracy was aimed at the many Vietnamese who took to boats to escape. Further, following the disintegration of the government of Somalia, warlords in the region have attacked ships delivering UN food aid.[15] A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


The attack against the U.S. cruise ship the Seabourn Spirit offshore of Somalia in November 2005 is an example of the sophisticated pirates mariners face. The pirates carried out their attack more than 100 miles offshore with speedboats launched from a larger mother ship. The attackers were armed with automatic firearms and an RPG.[16] Tonnage: 10,000 Length: 440 feet Width: 63 feet Draft: 16. ... Ongoing events • Abramoff-Reed gambling scandal • Al Jazeera bombing memo • Avian influenza (H5N1) outbreak • Black sites scandal • Conservative leadership race (UK) • Fuel prices • Irans nuclear program • Jilin chemical plant explosions • Kashmir earthquake • Malawi food crisis • Malaysian prisoner abuse scandal • New Delhi bombings investigation • Niger food crisis • North Indian cyclone... A rocket propelled grenade (RPG) is a man-portable, shoulder-launched weapon capable of firing an explosive device longer distances than an otherwise unassisted soldier could throw. ...


Many nations forbid ships to enter their territorial waters or ports if the crew of the ships are armed in an effort to restrict possible piracy.[17] Shipping companies sometimes hire private security guards.


Modern definitions of piracy include the following acts:

In modern times, ships and airplanes are hijacked for political reasons as well. The perpetrators of these acts could be described as pirates (for instance, the French for "plane hijacker" is pirate de l'air, literally "air pirate"), but in English are usually termed "hijackers". An example is the hijacking of the Italian civilian passenger ship Achille Lauro, which is generally regarded as an act of piracy. The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... The Willem Ruys The Achille Lauro The Achille Lauro, formerly the Willem Ruys, was a passenger liner. ...


Modern pirates also use a great deal of technology. It has been reported that crimes of piracy have involved the use of mobile phones, modern speedboats, assault rifles, shotguns, pistols, mounted machine guns, and even RPGs & grenade launchers. However, more primitive weapons such as knives, batons, or boat-hooks are also often used.[citation needed] Categories: Stub | Boat types ... The AK is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ... A grenade launcher is weapon that fires or launches a grenade to longer distances than a soldier could throw by hand. ... This article is about the tool. ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ...


Trends

A U.S. merchant seaman takes aim during training to repel pirates in the Strait of Malacca, 1984.
A U.S. merchant seaman takes aim during training to repel pirates in the Strait of Malacca, 1984.

Reports of piracy attacks were declining worldwide since 2004, but seems to have bottomed out in 2007.[18] Figures reported by the International Maritime Bureau indicate incident reporting fell for the third year in a row in 2006. Ships reported 239 incidents to the IMB during the year 2006, down from 276 in 2005, and 329 in 2004.[19] But the piracy rose by 14 percent in the first nine months of 2007.[18] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (608x913, 449 KB) // Photographer: Randy C. Bunney Date: 1984 Location: Straits of Malacca A merchant seaman aboard the fleet oiler USNS Passumpsic target practices with a 12 gauge shotgun as part of training to repel pirates during a transit of the... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (608x913, 449 KB) // Photographer: Randy C. Bunney Date: 1984 Location: Straits of Malacca A merchant seaman aboard the fleet oiler USNS Passumpsic target practices with a 12 gauge shotgun as part of training to repel pirates during a transit of the... A close-up map showing the Strait of Malacca separating peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... This article is about the year. ...


The maritime watchdog group points to better awareness of the magnitude of piracy and subsequent involvement by governments in combating piracy as factors in the decline.[20]


Yet hotspots remain. They include Indonesia, still the world’s most dangerous piracy region, Nigeria, Somalia, and the ports of Chittagong in Bangladesh and Santos in Brazil, according to the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) 2006 Annual Report. Furthermore, experts caution that local problem areas can emerge quickly, despite a worldwide down trend in pirate attacks. This article is about Chittagong as a city in Bangladesh. ... Santos, originally Portuguese or Spanish for Saints (singular Santo), may mean a great number of different things: // Santos is a common surname in Spanish, as well as Portuguese. ... The International Maritime Bureau is a specialised bureau of the International Chamber of Commerce. ...


"When attacks hit a peak in 2000, at that time Somalia was just a blip on the radar screen," said the secretary-general of the Shipping Federation during an interview with the London Financial Times. "Then it becomes a big problem. Piracy tends to be a feature of areas where there is either lawlessness or real economic deprivation and it's very difficult to eradicate."[21] Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


The recent downward trend in piracy worldwide follows a period when attacks tripled between 1993 and 2003. The first half of 2003 was the worst 6-month period on record, with 234 pirate attacks, 16 deaths, and 52 people injured worldwide. There were also 193 crew members held hostage during this period [6] [7]. In the first 6 months of 2004, 182 reported cases of piracy turned up worldwide, 50 of which occurring in Indonesian waters [8].


The Piracy Reporting Centre of the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) stated in 2004 that more pirate attacks in that year occurred in Indonesian waters (70 of 251 reported attacks) than in the waters of any other country. Of these attacks, a majority occurred in the Straits of Malacca. They also stated that of the attacks in 2004, oil and gas tankers and bulk carriers were the most popular targets with 67 attacks on tankers and 52 on bulk carriers. The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq. ... Main article: Merchant ship A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship used to transport unpackaged bulk cargo such as cereals, coal, ore, and cement. ...


Modern victims

  • The Environmentalist and yachtsman Sir Peter Blake was killed by Brazilian pirates in 2001[9]. Sir Peter Blake was a New Zealander.
  • The American luxury liner The Seabourn Spirit was attacked by pirates in November 2005 off the Somalian coast. There was one injury to a crewmember; he was hit by shrapnel.
  • A Netherlands-based motor tanker attacked outside the port of All Saints Bay in Argentina in November 1998. Multiple injuries.[citation needed]
  • The cargo ship Chang Song boarded and taken over by pirates posing as customs officials in the South China Sea in 1998. Entire crew of 23 was killed and their bodies thrown overboard. Six bodies were eventually recovered in fishing nets. A crackdown by the Chinese government resulted in the arrest of 38 pirates and the group's leader, a corrupt customs official, and 11 other pirates who were then publicly executed by firing squad.[citation needed]
  • A collision between the container ship Ocean Blessing and the hijacked tanker Nagasaki Spirit occurred in the Malacca Straits at about 23:20 on 19 September 1992. Pirates had boarded the Nagasaki Spirit, removed its captain from command, set the ship on autopilot and left with the ship's master for a ransom. The ship was left going at full speed with no one at the wheel. The collision and resulting fire took the lives of all the sailors of Ocean Blessing; from Nagasaki Spirit there were only 2 survivors. The fire on the Nagasaki Spirit lasted for six days; the fire aboard the Ocean Blessing burned for six weeks.[22]
  • In October of 1985, the cruise ship Achille Lauro was hijacked off the coast of Egypt by terrorists from the Palestine Liberation Organization. The terrorists demanded the release of PLO operatives imprisoned in Israel. Following the Israelis' refusal, the terrorists shot a disabled Jewish American tourist named Leon Klinghoffer and dumped his body overboard.
  • Pirates boarded the supertanker Dewi Madrim in March 2003 in the Malacca Strait. Articles like those written by the Economist indicate the pirates did not focus on robbing the crew or cargo, but instead focused on learning how to steer the ship and stole only manuals and technical information. However, the original incident report submitted to the IMO by the IMB would indicate these articles are incorrect and misleading. See also: Letter to the Editor of Foreign Affairs.
  • Authorities estimate that only between 50%[10][11] to as low as 10%[12] of pirate attacks are actually reported (so as not to increase insurance premiums).
  • Pirates boarded the Danish bulk carrier Danica White in June 2007 near the coast of Somalia. USS Carter Hall (LSD-50) tried to rescue the crew by firing several warning shots but wasn’t able to follow the ship into Somali waters

For the British pop artist, see Sir Peter Thomas Blake Sir Peter Blake, KBE (October 1, 1948–December 6, 2001) was a New Zealand yachtsman who led his country to two successive America’s Cup victories. ... Tonnage: 10,000 Length: 440 feet Width: 63 feet Draft: 16. ... ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Willem Ruys The Achille Lauro The Achille Lauro, formerly the Willem Ruys, was a passenger liner. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Leon Klinghoffer (September 24, 1916 – October 8, 1985) was a retired appliance manufacturer from New York who was disabled (from a stroke) and used a wheelchair for mobility. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit. ... USS Carter Hall (LSD-50) is a Harpers Ferry-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy. ...

Piracy in international law

Effects on international boundaries

During the 18th century, the British and the Dutch controlled opposite sides of the Straits of Malacca. Some pirates carried on activities similar to armed rebellion with the aim of resisting the colonisers[citation needed]. In order to put a stop to this, the British and the Dutch drew a line separating the Straits into two halves. The agreement was that each party would be responsible for combating piracy in their respective half. Eventually this line became the border between Malaysia and Indonesia in the Straits. The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ...


International law

Piracy is of note in international law as it is commonly held to represent the earliest invocation of the concept of universal jurisdiction. The crime of piracy is considered a breach of jus cogens, a conventional peremptory international norm that states must uphold. Those committing thefts on the high seas, inhibiting trade, and endangering maritime communication are considered by sovereign states to be hostis humani generis (enemies of humanity).[citation needed] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Universal jurisdiction or universality principle is a controversial principle in international law whereby states claim criminal jurisdiction over persons whose alleged crimes were committed outside the boundaries of the prosecuting state, regardless of nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting country. ... A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens, Latin for compelling law) is a fundamental principle of international law considered to have acceptance among the international community of states as a whole. ... The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Hostis Humani Generis is an international law term meaning, enemy of mankind. ... Map of countries by population —showing the population of the Peoples Republic of China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion. ...


In English admiralty law, piracy was defined as petit treason during the medieval period, and offenders were accordingly liable to be drawn and quartered on conviction. Piracy was redefined as a felony during the reign of Henry VIII. In either case, piracy cases were cognizable in the courts of the Lord High Admiral. English admiralty vice-admiralty judges emphasized that "neither Faith nor Oath is to be kept" with pirates; i.e. contracts with pirates and oaths sworn to them were not legally binding. Pirates were legally subject to summary execution by their captors if captured in battle. In practice, instances of summary justice and annulment of oaths and contracts involving pirates do not appear to have been common. Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ...


Since piracy of takes place outside the territorial waters of any state, the prosecution of pirates by sovereign states represents a complex legal situation. The prosecution of pirates on the high seas contravenes the conventional freedom of the high seas. However, because of universal jurisdiction, action can be taken against pirates without objection from the flag state of the pirate vessel. This represents an exception to the principle extra territorium jus dicenti impune non paretur (the judgment of one who is exceeding his territorial jurisdiction may be disobeyed with impunity).[23] Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ...


UNCLOS Article 101: Definition of Piracy

  • Piracy consists of any of the following acts:

(a) any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft, and directed:


(i) on the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft;


(ii) against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State;


(b) any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft;


(c) any act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an act described in subparagraph (a) or (b).[24]


IMB Definition of Piracy

  • Piracy is the act of boarding any vessel with an intent to commit theft or any other crime, and with an intent or capacity to use force in furtherance of that act.[25]

The International Maritime Bureau is a specialised bureau of the International Chamber of Commerce. ...

Piracy in popular culture and fiction

This image shows many of the characteristics commonly associated with a stereotypical pirate in popular culture, such as a parrot, peg leg, hook, cutlass, bicorne hat, skull and cross-bones, British navy jacket, bad teeth, maniacal grin, earrings, beard, and eye patch.
This image shows many of the characteristics commonly associated with a stereotypical pirate in popular culture, such as a parrot, peg leg, hook, cutlass, bicorne hat, skull and cross-bones, British navy jacket, bad teeth, maniacal grin, earrings, beard, and eye patch.

Pirates are a frequent topic in fiction and are associated with certain stereotypical manners of speaking and dress. Some inventions of pirate culture such as "walking the plank" were popularized by Peter Pan, where Captain Hook's pirates helped define the fictional pirate archetype.[26] Robert Newton's portrayal of Long John Silver in Disney's 1950 film adaptation of Treasure Island also helped define the modern rendition of a pirate.[27] The recent Pirates of the Caribbean films have helped kindle modern interest in piracy and have succeeded quite handsomely in box office grosses. Due to modern piracy's status as basically robbery mixed with violence, filmmakers do not commonly depict modern pirates in movies (with Piraty XX veka and The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou being rare exceptions). Image File history File links Piratey,_vector_version. ... Image File history File links Piratey,_vector_version. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... Pegleg of Gen. ... a prosthetic hook is a primitive artificial hand, often stereotyped as being fitted to pirates. ... French naval cutlass of the 19th Century A cutlass is a short, thick saber or slashing sword, with a straight or slightly curved blade sharpened on the cutting edge, and a hilt often featuring a solid cupped or basket-shaped guard. ... Napoléon Bonaparte in his trademark bicorne hat The bicorne or bicorn (two-cornered) is an archaic form of hat associated with the late 18th and early 19th centuries. ... EU standard toxic symbol, as defined by Directive 67/548/EEC. A skull and crossbones (☠) is a symbol consisting of a human skull and two bones crossed together under the skull. ... The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... An eyepatch is a small cloth patch, usually black, that is worn in front of one eye. ... A LEGO Pirate In popular culture, the modern pirate stereotype owes its tradition mostly to depictions of Captain Hook and his crew in theatrical and film versions of Peter Pan, as well as Robert Newtons portrayal of Long John Silver in the film Treasure Island. ... Walking the plank is a form of execution popularly (but incorrectly) believed to have been widely practiced by pirates. ... This article is about the play by J.M. Barrie. ... Gerald du Maurier as Captain Hook Captain James Hook is the villain of J. M. Barries play and novel Peter Pan. ... Robert Newton as Long John Silver. ... For other uses, see Long John Silver (disambiguation). ... Old logo from 1985-2006 Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner, was established as a designation in 1983, prior to which Disney films since the death of Walt Disney were released under the name of the... Treasure Island is a 1950 Disney film based on Robert Louis Stevensons novel Treasure Island. ... For other uses, see Treasure Island (disambiguation). ... This article is about the franchise. ... The Pirates of the Caribbean films are a trilogy of pirate adventure films directed by Gore Verbinski, written by Ted Elliott and Terry Rossio and produced by Jerry Bruckheimer. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... Piraty XX veka (Pirates of 20th Century, Пираты 20 века), 1979, is a Soviet adventure film about modern piracy. ... The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou is Wes Andersons fourth feature length film and was released in the U.S. on December 25, 2004. ...


The classic Gilbert and Sullivan operetta The Pirates of Penzance focuses on The Pirate King and his hopeless band of pirates on the South coast of England. The Pirate King is often believed to be inspiration for Jack Sparrow. W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... Drawing of the Act I finale The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... Jack Sparrow is a fictional character from the Pirates of the Caribbean universe who is portrayed by Johnny Depp. ...


Running Wild a long running Speed Metal/Power Metal act from Germany have utilized a piracy gimmick since the late 1980s, releasing albums and songs with names such as "Under Jolly Roger", "Port Royal", "Treasure Island", "Calico Jack", "Jennings' Revenge" (about the hugely successful 1715 pirate raid by Henry Jennings) and "Rogues en Vogue". Running Wild is one of a few German heavy metal bands to emerge in the early/mid 1980s (along with Helloween, Gamma Ray, Rage, Blind Guardian, Grave Digger, etc). ... Speed metal is a sub-genre of heavy metal that spawned in the early 1980s and was the direct musical progenitor of thrash metal[1] [2]. When Speed metal first emerged as a genre, it innovatively increased the tempo of the music template set forth by Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin... Power metal is a style of heavy metal music typically with the aim of evoking an epic feel, combining characteristics of traditional metal with thrash metal or speed metal, often within symphonic context. ... Henry Jennings (fl. ...


Pirate Master is a CBS reality show which premiered on May 31, 2007. Pirate Master is about a modern day pirate crew searching for lost treasure. Pirate Master was a CBS reality television show created by Mark Burnett following 16 modern-day pirates on their quest for gold, which totaled US$1,000,000. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Various variants on the pirate idea exist, notably "space pirates" in science fiction that imagine future space shipping subject to similar pressures as shipping in the Age of Exploration. Pirates are also common mascots and names of sports teams. Space Pirates are pirates from outer space. ...


Dressing and acting like a stereotypical pirate is encouraged by the parody religion of The Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, and also by International Talk Like a Pirate Day. Niklas Janssons adaptation of Michelangelos The Creation of Adam depicts the Flying Spaghetti Monster in its typical guise as a clump of tangled spaghetti with two eyestalks, two meatballs, and many noodly appendages. The Flying Spaghetti Monster is the deity of a parody religion called the Church of... International Talk Like a Pirate Day (ITLAPD) is a parodic holiday invented in 1995 by John Baur (Ol Chumbucket) and Mark Summers (Capn Slappy), of the United States, who proclaimed September 19 each year as the day when everyone in the world should talk like a pirate. ...


Famous fictional pirates

Gerald du Maurier as Captain Hook Captain James Hook is the villain of J. M. Barries play and novel Peter Pan. ... 2007 e-book edition cover Captain Blood is an adventure novel by Rafael Sabatini, originally published in 1922. ... Captain Jack Sparrow is a fictional pirate and one of the primary characters of the Pirates of the Caribbean film trilogy: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003), Dead Mans Chest (2006), and the as-of-yet unreleased third installment, At Worlds End (2007). ... For other uses, see Long John Silver (disambiguation). ... Screenshot Captain Pugwash is a fictional pirate character in a series of British childrens comic strips, books and animated films created by John Ryan. ... Elaine Marley in Curse of Monkey Island Elaine Marley is one of the primary characters in the Monkey Island series of adventure games developed by LucasArts. ... Guybrush Threepwood is the main character of the Monkey Island series of computer adventure games by LucasArts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Hector Barbossa is a fictional character in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy, being the primary antagonist in the first film of the series Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl. ... Drawing of the Act I finale The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... The Dread Pirate Roberts was a fictional pirate in the novel and movie, The Princess Bride. ... Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ... Monkey D. Luffy ) is a fictional character and leading protagonist in the anime and manga series One Piece by Eiichiro Oda. ...

See also

Piracy Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Piracy

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious Pyrates is a 1724 book containing biographies of contemporary pirates. ... Maritime Security Regime Maritime Security Regimes are codes and conventions of behaviour agreed upon by coastal states to provide a degree of security in territorial waters and on the high seas. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Piracy in the Strait of Malacca was common in the past, and is currently on the rise again in recent years possibly for terrorism-related reasons. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... From Howard Pyles Book of Pirates The pirate game is a simple mathematical game. ... Pirate utopias were described by historian Peter Lamborn Wilson in his eponymous 1995 book. ... Raiding may refer to: The present participle of the verb raid, a word which itself has several meanings The small market town of Raiding in Austria This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A treasure fleet is being loaded with riches. ... The Successful Pyrate is a play by Charles Johnson, first performed 1712, published 1713, dealing with the life of the pirate Henry Avery. ... The Moorish ambassador of the Barbary States to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... For other uses, see Treasure Island (disambiguation). ... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty, is a Gilbert and Sullivan comic operetta in two acts. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ...

References

  1. ^ U.S. Navy warships exchange gunfire with suspected pirates off Somali coast. Retrieved on January 18, 2007.
  2. ^ Again, according to Suetonius's chronology (Julius 4). Plutarch (Caesar 1.8-2) says this happened earlier, on his return from Nicomedes's court. Velleius Paterculus (Roman History 2:41.3-42 says merely that it happened when he was a young man.
  3. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 1-2
  4. ^ H Thomas Milhorn, Crime: Computer Viruses to Twin Towers, Universal Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1-58112-489-9
  5. ^ The Buginese of Sulawesi
  6. ^ Pirates of the East
  7. ^ Places which had been raided or besieged by the Cossacks
  8. ^ Cossack Navy 16th - 17th Centuries
  9. ^ The History of Maritime Piracy - Stepan Razin
  10. ^ When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed
  11. ^ Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800.[1]
  12. ^ Kelsey, Harry, Sir Francis Drake; The Queen's Pirate, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1998, ISBN 0-300-07182-5
  13. ^ [Security Management:Piracy on the high seas|http://www.securitymanagement.com/article/eastern-inscrutability-piracy-high-seas| accessdate=Ocober 23 2007 ]
  14. ^ "Anarchy at Sea" Atlantic Monthly. September, 2003.
  15. ^ Pirates Open Fire on Cruise Ship off Somalia. Retrieved on November 14, 2005.
  16. ^ "Piracy is still troubling the shipping industry: report; Industry fears revival of attacks though current situation has improved," The Business Times Singapore. August 14, 2006.
  17. ^ Maritimesecurity.com article, Guns On Board
  18. ^ a b Pirate Attacks Up Worldwide, Associated PRess, Oct 16, 2007
  19. ^ Piracy down 3rd year in row: IMB report," Journal of Commerce Online; January 23, 2007.
  20. ^ "Optimism as piracy attacks fall for third year in a row" The ICC International Maritime Bureau (IMB) is a specialized division of the International Chamber Of Commerce (ICC).
  21. ^ "Piracy is still troubling the shipping industry: report; Industry fears revival of attacks though current situation has improved," The Business Times Singapore. August 14, 2006.
  22. ^ Law Lords Department (1997-02-06). House of Lords - Semco Salvage & Marine Pte. Ltd. v. Lancer Navigation (HTML) (English) pp.1. The Stationery Office Ltd. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  23. ^ Black's Law Dictionary
  24. ^ United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 10 December 1982, Part VII: High Seas, Article 101
  25. ^ cargolaw.com
  26. ^ http://www.slate.com/id/2167567/?GT1=10135
  27. ^ http://www.slate.com/id/2167567/?GT1=10135
  • Beal, Clifford (2007). Quelch's Gold: Piracy, Greed, and Betrayal in Colonial New England. Praeger, 243. ISBN 0-275-99407-4. 
  • Burnett, John (2002). Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas. Plume, 346. ISBN 0-452-28413-9. 
  • Menefee, Samuel (1996). Trends in Maritime Violence. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-1403-9. 
  • Cawthorne, Nigel (2004). History of Pirates: Blood and Thunder on the High Seas. Book Sales. ISBN 0-7858-1856-1. 
  • Cordingly, David (1997). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. Harvest Books. ISBN 0-15-600549-2. 
  • Girard, Geoffrey (2006). Tales of the Atlantic Pirates. Middle Atlantic Press. ISBN 0-9754419-5-7. 
  • Langewiesche, William (2004). The Outlaw Sea: A World of Freedom, Chaos, and Crime. North Point Press. ISBN 0-86547-581-4. 
  • Rediker, Marcus (1987). Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700-1750. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37983-0. 
  • Kimball, Steve (2006). The Pyrates Way Magazine. The Pyrates Way, LLC, 64. 

is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Piracy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3289 words)
Piracy is robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation.
Seaborne piracy against transport vessels remains a significant issue (with estimated worldwide losses of US$13 to $16 billion per year[1]), particularly in the waters between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, off the Somali coast, and in the Strait of Malacca and Singapore, which are used by over 50,000 commercial ships a year.
Piracy is of note in international law as it is commonly held to represent the earliest invocation of the concept of universal jurisdiction.
piracy - HighBeam Encyclopedia (976 words)
As the line between privateering and piracy is often hard to draw, any act of doubtful legality committed on the seas is apt to be characterized as piracy.
Pompey swept piracy from the Mediterranean, but with the decline of the Roman empire it revived there and was prevalent until modern times.
Emerging in the 13th cent., the Hanseatic League succeeded in curbing the piracy of its era.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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