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Encyclopedia > Piracetam
Piracetam
IUPAC name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide
Identifiers
CAS number [7491-74-9]
PubChem 4843
ATC code N06BX03
SMILES C1 cc(=O)N(C1)CC(=O)N
Properties
Molecular formula C6H10N2O2
Molar mass 142.16 g mol-1
Appearance Fine white crystalline powder
Pharmacology
Bioavailability ~100%
Routes of
administration
Oral and parenteral
Elimination
half-life
4 - 5 hr
Excretion Urinary
Legal status

POM(UK) Piracetam structure (C6H10N2O2). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System containing Psychoanaleptics. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ...

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Piracetam (brand name: Nootropil, Qropi, Myocalm, Dinagen, Synaptine) is a nootropic. It is a dietary supplement which is claimed to enhance cognition and memory, slow down brain aging, increase blood flow and oxygen to the brain, aid stroke recovery, and improve Alzheimer's, Down syndrome, dementia, and dyslexia, among others.[1] Piracetam's chemical name is 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide; it shares the same 2-oxo-pyrrolidone base structure with 2-oxo-pyrrolidine carboxylic acid (pyroglutamate). Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA. It is one of the racetams. Piracetam is prescribed by doctors for some conditions, mainly myoclonus,1 but is used off-label for a much wider range of applications. However, some treat it as a food supplement rather than a drug.[citation needed] The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, smart nutrients, cognitive enhancers and brain enhancers, are substances which claim to boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Pyroglutamic acid is an uncommon amino acid found in many proteins including bacteriorhodopsin. ... Pyroglutamate is an uncommon amino acid found in bacteriorhodopsin. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... Racetams are a class of nootropic drugs that share a pyrrolidine nucleus. ... Myoclonus is brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ...

Contents

Effects

Several meta-reviews of literature on piracetam indicate that piracetam increases performance on a variety of cognitive tasks among dyslexic children, though this may reflect its enhancement of cross-hemispheric communication and of cognitive function in general, rather than a specific improvement in whatever causes dyslexia. Piracetam also seems to inhibit brain damage caused by a variety of factors including hypoxia and excessive alcohol consumption.[2][3] Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ...


Piracetam has been studied in an extensive number of clinical experiments, and has shown positive results in the treatment of post-stroke aphasia, epilepsy, cognitive decline following heart and brain surgery, dementia,[4] and myoclonus.[5][6] For other uses, see Aphasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ...


Piracetam appears to increase communication between the two hemispheres of the brain, and increases activity of the corpus callosum.[7][8][9] The corpus callosum is a structure of the mammalian brain in the longitudal fissure that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. ...


Mechanisms of action

Pack of piracetam
Pack of piracetam

The mechanism of action of piracetam is not known, although it is hypothesized to act on ion channels or ion carriers, thus leading to non-specific increased neuron excitability, while explaining its lack of agonistic or inhibitory effect on synaptic action (quite unlike most neurotransmitters), and its low toxicity.[10] It has been found to increase blood flow and oxygen consumption in parts of the brain.[11] Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Agonists An agonist is a molecule that selectively binds to a specific receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential is commonly abbreviated to Impulses are transmitted from neuron to neuron by the release of a chemical transmitter across synaptic clefts from the synaptic vesicles along the axon to the postsynaptic receptors of another neuron. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ...


Piracetam improves the function of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine via muscarinic cholinergic (ACh) receptors which are implicated in memory processes.[12] Furthermore, Piracetam may have an effect on NMDA glutamate receptors which are involved with learning and memory processes. Piracetam is thought to increase cell membrane permeability.[12][13] Piracetam may exert its global effect on brain neurotransmission via modulation of ion channels (i.e., Na+, K+).[10] It has been found to increase oxygen consumption in the brain, apparently in connection to ATP metabolism, and increases the activity of adenylate kinase in rat brain.[14][15] Piracetam appears to increase the synthesis of cytochrome b5,[16] which is a part of the electron transport mechanism in mitochondria. It also increases the permeability of the mitochondria of some intermediaries of the Krebs cycle.[17] Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) in many organisms including humans. ... Muscarinic receptors are those membrane bound acetylcholine receptors that are more sensitive to muscarine than to nicotine. ... A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) is an amino acid derivative acting as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor, and therefore mimics the action of the neurotransmitter glutamate on that receptor. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Adenylate kinase (also known as ADK) is a phosphotransferase enzyme (EC 2. ... Cytochromes b5 are ubiquitous electron transport hemoproteins found in animals, plants, fungi and purple phototrophic bacteria. ... The electron transfer chain (also called the electron transport chain, or simply electron transport), is a series of protein complexers and lipid messengers spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane that accepts electrons from electron donors such as NADH or succinate, shuttles these electrons from within the mitochondrial matrix across the inner... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration. ...


History

Piracetam was first synthesized in 1964 by scientists at the Belgian pharmaceutical company UCB led by Dr Corneliu E. Giurgea. The drug was the first of the so-called nootropics ("smart drugs" or "cognitive enhancers"), that is, substances which purportedly enhance mental performance. The term nootropic was coined by Giurgea. Nootropil was launched clinically by UCB in the early 1970s and remains an important product of that company in Europe. UCB (Euronext: UCB ) is a Belgian biopharmaceutical manufacturer headquartered in Brussels. ... Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, smart nutrients, cognitive enhancers and brain enhancers, are substances which claim to boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ...


Approval and usage

Piracetam is primarily used in Europe, Asia, South America and the US. Piracetam is legal to import into the United Kingdom and the United States for personal use with or without prescription[citation needed]. As of June 2006, piracetam is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement. It has become popular as a cognitive enhancement drug among students, who often buy it in bulk as a powder and then consume it with orange or grapefruit juice to mask the strong, bitter taste. A two week regimen of piracetam was found to enhance verbal memory in healthy college students in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.[18] It is used by parents as a treatment for childhood autism, though no study has yet produced results which would support such a use. Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ...


Aging

Piracetam appears to reverse the effects of aging in the brains of mice.[19][20]


Piracetam appears to reduce levels of lipofuscin in the rat brain.[21] (Lipofuscin accumulation is a common symptom of aging and alcoholism). Lipofuscin is the name given to brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion. ...


Alcoholism

Piracetam appears to be effective in treating alcoholism or its symptoms.[22][23][24][25][26][27] Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...


Alzheimer's and senile dementia

Piracetam appears to be effective for improving cognition in Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia patients.[28][29][30][31][32] Dementia (from Latin demens) is progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the brain beyond what might be expected from normal aging. ...


Clotting, coagulation, vasospastic disorders

Piracetam is useful as a long term treatment for clotting, coagulation, and vasospastic disorders such as Raynaud's phenomenon[33] and deep vein thrombosis[12][34] It is an extremely safe anti-thrombotic agent which operates through the novel mechanism of inhibiting platelet aggregation and enhancing blood cell deformability.[12] Because traditional anti-thrombotic drugs operate through the separate mechanism of inhibiting clotting factors, co-adminsitration of piracetam has been shown to highly complement the efficacy and safety of traditional Warfarin/Heparin anti-coagulation therapy.[35] The most effective treatment range for this use is a daily dose of 4.8 to 9.6 grams divided into three daily doses at 8 hours apart.[34] Piracetam is currently being investigated as a complement or alternative to Warfarin as a safe and effective long term treatment for recurring deep vein thrombosis.[34] Raynauds phenomenon (RAY-noz), in medicine, is a vasospastic disorder causing discoloration of the fingers, toes, and occasionally other extremities, named for French physician Maurice Raynaud (1834 - 1881). ... This article is about Deep-vein thrombosis. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ... This article is about Deep-vein thrombosis. ...


Stroke, ischemia and symptoms

Piracetam has been found to improve cognition after stroke, and reduce symptoms, such as aphasia.[36] It also improves cognition in cases of chronic ischemia.[37][38] For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aphasia (disambiguation). ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ...


Dyspraxia and Dysgraphia

Due to its supposed effect on nerves and muscles it is sometimes prescribed as an aid to muscle or dexterity training, particularly in cases of dysgraphia and dyspraxia. There has not been a specific study as to whether it is beneficial in this aspect. Vinpocetine, another purported nootropic with which piracetam is indirectly synergesic, is confirmed to help with these conditions to a certain degree. Dysgraphia (or agraphia) is a deficiency in the ability to write, regardless of the ability to read, not due to intellectual impairment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Apraxia. ... Vinpocetine (brand names: Cavinton, Intelectol; chemical name: ethyl apovincaminate) is a semisynthetic derivative of vincamine, which is extracted from the periwinkle plant. ... Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, smart nutrients, cognitive enhancers and brain enhancers, are substances which claim to boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ...


Schizophrenia

Piracetam improves cognitive performance of schizophrenics as it does with non-schizophrenics, but does not improve or worsen the chronic schizophrenia disease state.[1]


Brand names

Nootropil, Qropi, Myocalm, Dinagen, Oikamid, Synaptine


Dosage

Piracetam is usually supplied in 800 mg tablets or capsules. Some bulk or nutritional suppliers supply it in a powder form. The recommended dosage varies based on the indication, usually ranging from 1.6-9.6 grams daily (2-12 pills daily). Some people report faster results when taking 1-2 pills every hour for 4-6 hours or taking 4-8 pills at once for the first few days to notice an effect.[citation needed]


For blood coagulation, clotting, and vasospastic disorders such as Raynaud's phenomenon or deep vein thrombosis, the most effective treatment range is a daily dose of 4.8 to 9.6 grams divided into three daily doses at 8 hours apart.[33][12][34] Raynauds phenomenon (RAY-noz), in medicine, is a vasospastic disorder causing discoloration of the fingers, toes, and occasionally other extremities, named for French physician Maurice Raynaud (1834 - 1881). ... This article is about Deep-vein thrombosis. ...


The LD-50 for oral consumption in humans has not been determined.[10] In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ...


Contraindications

Piracetam is contra-indicated in patients with severe renal impairment (renal creatinine clearance of less than 20 ml per minute), hepatic (liver) impairment and to those under 16 years of age. It is also contraindicated in patients with cerebral haemorrhage and in those with hypersensitivity to piracetam, other pyrrolidone derivatives or any of the excipients.


Special warnings and precautions

Due to the effect of piracetam on platelet aggregation, caution is recommended in patients with underlying disorders of hemostasis, major surgery or severe hemorrhage. A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Hemostasis refers to a process whereby bleeding is halted in most animals with a closed circulatory system. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Abrupt discontinuation of treatment should be avoided as this may induce myoclonic or generalised seizures in some myoclonic patients. Myoclonus is brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...


As piracetam is almost exclusively excreted by the kidneys caution should be exercised in treating patients with known renal impairment. In renally impaired and elderly patients, an increase in terminal half-life is directly related to renal function as measured by creatinine clearance. Dosage adjustment is therefore required in those with mild to moderate renal impairment and elderly patients with diminished renal function. Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Creatinine clearance is a method that estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys. ...


Side effects

Piracetam has been found to have very few side effects, and those it has are typically "few, mild, and transient."[39] A large-scale, 12-week trial of high-dose piracetam found no adverse effects occurred in the group taking piracetam as compared to the placebo group.[40] Many other studies have likewise found piracetam to be well-tolerated.[41][42][39] For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ...


Symptoms of general excitability, including anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headache, agitation, nervousness, and tremor, are occasionally reported.[43][44] Such symptoms seem more likely reported in connection with caffeine consumption (coffee), or with monosodium glutamate (a common additive in many processed foods). Effects can be reduced with magnesium supplements. Headache from use of piracetam may be alleviated by coadministration of an acetylcholine biosynthetic precursor, or a drug with cholinergic effects, such as choline bitartrate, choline citrate, lecithin, cyprodenate or centrophenoxine.[45][46] Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components[1]. These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as anger and known as fear, apprehension, or worry. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Irritability is an excessive response to stimuli. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Agitation may have the following special meanings Agitation, an emotional state Agitation, putting into motion (by shaking or stirring) Agitation, a term from the lexicon of Communists: political activities aimed at urging people to do something This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Anxiety is a complex combination of the feeling of fear, apprehension and worry often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... For the film, see Tremors (film). ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... -1... The chemical compound acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) in many organisms including humans. ... A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... Lecithin is any of a group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, and in egg yolk, composed of phosphoric acid, choline, fatty acids, glycerol, glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e. ... Cyprodenate (Actebral) is a stimulant drug. ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Nootropics ...


Notes

  1. ^ James South, "Piracetam - the original nootropic", International Antiaging Systems
  2. ^ "Can nootropic drugs be effective against the impact of ethanol teratogenicity on cognitive performance?" Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001 Feb;11(1):33-40.
  3. ^ "Piracetam and vinpocetine exert cytoprotective activity and prevent apoptosis of astrocytes in vitro in hypoxia and reoxygenation." Neurotoxicology. 2002 May;23(1):19-31.
  4. ^ "Clinical efficacy of piracetam in cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis." Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2002;13(4):217-24.
  5. ^ "Long-term efficacy and safety of piracetam in the treatment of progressive myoclonus epilepsy." Arch Neurol. 2001 May;58(5):781-6.
  6. ^ "Effectiveness of piracetam in cortical myoclonus." Mov Disord. 1993;8(1):63-8.
  7. ^ Giurgea, C. & Moyersoons, F., "The pharmacology of corticol evoked potentials" Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 199, (1972) pp.67-78.
  8. ^ Buresova, 0. & Bures, J., "Piracetam induced facilitation of interhemispheric transfer of visual information in rats", Psychopharmacologia 46, (1976) pp.93-102.
  9. ^ Okuyama, S. & Aihara, H., "Actions of nootropic drugs on transcallosal response of rats", Neuropharmacol 27, (1988) pp.67-72.
  10. ^ a b c AH Gouliaev, A Senning, "Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics" Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 1994 May;19(2):180-222.
  11. ^ "Cerebral blood flow effects of piracetam, pentifylline, and nicotinic acid in the baboon model compared with the known effect of acetazolamide." Arzneimittelforschung. 1996 Sep;46(9):844-7.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Piracetam--an old drug with novel properties?" Acta Pol Pharm. 2005 Sep-Oct;62(5):405-9.
  13. ^ "Piracetam: novelty in a unique mode of action." Pharmacopsychiatry. 1999 Mar;32 Suppl 1:2-9.
  14. ^ Grau, M. et al, "Effect of Piracetam on electrocorticogram and local cerebral glucose utilization in the rat", Gen Pharmac 18 (1987) pp.205-211.
  15. ^ Nickolson, V. & Wolthuis, 0., "Effect of the acquisition - enhancing drug Piracetam on rat cerebral energy metabolism", Biochem Pharmacol 25, (1976) pp.2241-2244.
  16. ^ Tacconi, M. & Wurtman, R. "Piracetam: physiological disposition and mechanism of action" in Advances in Neurology, vol. 43 (1986) S. Fahn et al, ed. Raven Press: NY.
  17. ^ Grau, M. et al, "Effect of Piracetam on electrocorticogram and local cerebral glucose utilization in the rat", Gen Pharmac 18 (1987), pp. 205-211
  18. ^ Dimond SJ, Brouwers EM. "Increase in the Power of Human Memory in Normal Man through the Use of Drugs" Psychopharmacology 49.3: 307-309 (1976).
  19. ^ Pilch, H. & Mueller, W. "Piracetam elevates muscarinic cholinergic receptor density in the frontal cortex of aged by not of young mice", Psychopharmacol 94,(1988) pp.74-78.
  20. ^ Stoll, L. et al,"Age-related deficits of central muscarinic cholinergic receptor function in the mouse: partial restoration by chronic Piracetam treatment", Neurobiol Aging 13, (1991) pp. 39-44.
  21. ^ Paula-Barbosa, M. et al, "The effects of Piracetam on lipofuscin of the rat cerebellar and hippocampa; neurons after long-term alcohol treatment and withdrawal", Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 15, (1991) pp. 834-838.
  22. ^ Skondia, V. & Kabes, J., "Piracetam in alcoholic psychoses: a double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled study", J Int Med Res 13, (1985) pp.185-187.
  23. ^ Buranji I, Skocilic Z, Kozaric-Kovacic D. "Cognitive function in alcoholics in a double-blind study of piracetam, Lijec Vjesn 1990 Mar-Apr;112(3-4):111-4.
  24. ^ S Kalmár, Adjuvant therapy with parenteral piracetam in alcohol withdrawal delirium, Orv Hetil (2003) 144: pp.927-30.
  25. ^ Dencker SJ, Wilhelmson G, Carlsson E, Bereen FJ. "Piracetam and chlormethiazole in acute alcohol withdrawal: a controlled clinical trial." J Int Med Res 1978;6(5):395-400.
  26. ^ Meyer JG, Forst R, Meyer-Wahl L. "Course of alcoholic predelirium during treatment with piracetam: results of serial psychometric tests (author's transl)", Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1979 June 22;104(25):911-4
  27. ^ Binder S, Doddabela P. "The efficacy of Piracetam on the mental functional capacity of chronic alcoholics (author's transl)", Med Klin 1976 April 23;71(17):711-6
  28. ^ Croisile, B., et al, "Long-term and high dose treatment of Alzheimer's disease", Neurol 43', (1993) pp.301-305.
  29. ^ DeBerdt, W., "Interaction between psychological and pharmacological treatment in cognitive impairment", Life Sci 55, (1994) pp.2057-2066.
  30. ^ Ferns, S. et al, "Combination choline/Piracetam treatment of senile dementia" Psychopharmacol Bull 18 (1982), pp. 96-98.
  31. ^ Smith, R. et al "Comparison of therapeutic response to long-term treatment with lecithin versus Piracetam plus lecithin in patients with Alzheimer's disease" Psychopharacol Bull 20 (1984), pp. 542-545.
  32. ^ Branconnier, R. "The efficacy of the cerebral metabolic enhancers in the treatment of senile dementia", Psychopharmacol Bull 19, (1983), pp.212-19.
  33. ^ a b "Treatment of the Raynaud's phenomenon with piracetam." Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 May;43(5):526-35.
  34. ^ a b c d "Platelet anti-aggregant and rheological properties of piracetam. A pharmacodynamic study in normal subjects." Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Feb;43(2):110-8.
  35. ^ "The treatment of severe or recurrent deep venous thrombosis. Beneficial effect of the co-administration of antiplatelet agents with or without rheological effects, and anticoagulants." Thromb Res. 1995 June 15;78(6):469-82.
  36. ^ DeBerdt, W., "Interaction between psychological and pharmacological treatment in cognitive impairment", Life Sci 55, (1994) pp. 2057-2066.
  37. ^ Herrschaft, H., "Effects and therapeutic efficacy of nootropic drugs in acute and chronic cerebral ischaemia in man", in Pharmacology of Cerebral Ischemia. (1989) J. Kriegelstein, ed. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.
  38. ^ Platt, D. et al, "On the efficacy of Piracetam in geriatric patients with acute cerebral ischaemia: a clinically controlled double blind study", Arch Gerontal Geriatrics 16, (1993) pp.149-164.
  39. ^ a b "Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo." Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998 Mar;64(3):344-8.
  40. ^ "The clinical safety of high-dose piracetam--its use in the treatment of acute stroke." Pharmacopsychiatry. 1999 Mar;32 Suppl 1:33-7.
  41. ^ Giurgea, C. & Salama, M. "Nootropic drugs", Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacolgy 1, (1977) pp. 235-247.
  42. ^ "Long-term efficacy and safety of piracetam in the treatment of progressive myoclonus epilepsy." Arch Neurol. 2001 May;58(5):781-6.
  43. ^ Chouinard, G. et al, "Piracetam in elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment", Psychopharmacol 81, (1983) pp.100-106.
  44. ^ Hakkrainen, H. & Hakamies, L., "Piracetam in the treatment of post-concussional syndrome", Eur Neurol 17, (1978) pp.50-55.
  45. ^ Chouinard, G. et al, "Piracetam in elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment", Psychopharmacol 81, (1983) pp.100-106.
  46. ^ Hakkrainen, H. & Hakamies, L., "Piracetam in the treatment of post-concussional syndrome", Eur Neurol 17, (1978) pp.50-55.

References

  • UCB Pharma Limited (2005). Nootropil 800 mg & 1200 mg Tablets and Solution. electronic Medicines Compendium. Datapharm Communications. Retrieved on 8 December 2005.

See also

  • Hydergine - piracetam is synergistic with hydergine
  • Other Racetams

Hydergine should not be confused with Hydrazine, which is a rocket fuel Ergoloid mesylates (Chemical name: Dihydroergotoxine mesylate) are dihydrogenated ergot alkaloids used to combat decreased mental function as a result of senility or multiple small strokes. ... Racetams are a class of nootropic drugs that share a pyrrolidine nucleus. ...

External links

Racetams are a class of nootropic drugs that share a pyrrolidine nucleus. ... Aniracetam (Draganon®, Sarpul®, Ampamet®) is a nootropic drug of the racetam family. ... Brivaracetam is a racetam derivative with anticonvulsant properties. ... Coluracetam is a nootropic. ... Categories: Stub | Substances of the piracetam group ... Levetiracetam (INN) (pronounced ) is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy. ... Categories: Stub | Substances of the piracetam group ... Categories: Stub | Substances of the piracetam group ... Categories: Stub | Substances of the piracetam group ... Oxiracetam (2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide) is a nootropic. ... Carphedon (C12H14N2O2, 2-(4-phenyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide) is a derivative of the nootropic drug piracetam. ... Pramiracetam (amacetam, CI 879) is a nootropic derived from piracetam, but is more potent (lower dosage is used). ... Rolipram is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. ... Categories: Stub | Substances of the piracetam group ... Seletracetam is a nootropic drug of the racetam family. ... In pharmacology, a psychoanaleptic is a medication which produces an arousing effect upon the patient. ... A psychostimulant is a substance that enhances locomotor behavior. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, smart nutrients, cognitive enhancers and brain enhancers, are substances which claim to boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System containing Psychoanaleptics. ... Sympathomimetics are a class of drugs whose properties mimic those of a stimulated sympathetic nervous system. ... Amphetamine is a prescription CNS stimulant commonly used to treat attention-deficit disorder (ADD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Amphetaminil is a cental nervous system stimulant. ... Atomoxetine is the first non-stimulant drug approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Fencamfamine (Glucoenergan, Reactivan) is a stimulant which was developed in the 1960s as an appetite supressant, but was later withdrawn for this application due to problems with dependence and abuse. ... Fenozolone is a centrally acting sympathomimetic. ... Fenethylline (Captagon) is a synthetic stimulant drug. ... Vitamin R redirects here. ... Mesocarb (Sidnocarb, Sydnocarb) is a stimulant drug which was developed in the USSR in the 1970s. ... Pemoline is a medication for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... Pipradrol (Meretran) is a mild CNS stimulant which is no longer widely used in most countries due to concerns about its abuse potential, although this is less of a problem than with other stimulants that still are in current use such as methylphenidate. ... Prolintane is a central nervous system simulant. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... Propentofylline is a xanthine derivative and phosphodiesterase inhibitor with purported neuroprotective effects. ... Racetams are a class of nootropic drugs that share a pyrrolidine nucleus. ... Aniracetam (Draganon®, Sarpul®, Ampamet®) is a nootropic drug of the racetam family. ... Oxiracetam (2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide) is a nootropic. ... Carphedon (C12H14N2O2, 2-(4-phenyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide) is a derivative of the nootropic drug piracetam. ... Pramiracetam (amacetam, CI 879) is a nootropic derived from piracetam, but is more potent (lower dosage is used). ... Ampakines are a new class of modified benzamide compounds known to enhance attention span and alertness. ... CX516 is an ampakine compound that works as an AMPA modulator and is being devolped by a collaboration of Cortex and Shire and Servier. ... Adrafinil chemical structure Adrafinil is a mild central nervous system stimulant drug used to relieve excessive sleepiness and inattention in elderly patients. ... Armodafinil (Nuvigil®) is a drug produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon, currently in the process of receiving FDA approval. ... Modafinil is a eugeroic drug generally prescribed to treat narcolepsy, made by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon Inc. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and, to a lesser extent, the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and control histamine turnover[1] by feedback inhibition of... Acetyl-L-carnitine or ALCAR, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine. ... Citicoline (INN, also known as cytidine diphosphate choline and cytidine 5-diphosphocholine) is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Cyprodenate (Actebral) is a stimulant drug. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dimethylethanolamine is a nitrogen organic compound. ... Dimebon (Dimebolin) is an antihistamine drug which has been used clinically in Russia since 1983. ... Fipexide is a piperazine derivative drug invented in Italy in 1983. ... Linopirdine is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Nootropics ... Nizofenone is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Pirisudanol (or pyrisuccideanol) is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Nootropics are drugs that are used to enhance mental performance in healthy individuals. ... Sulbutiamine (brand name: Arcalion®) is a precursor to thiamine (i. ... Vinpocetine (brand names: Cavinton, Intelectol; chemical name: ethyl apovincaminate) is a semisynthetic derivative of vincamine, which is extracted from the periwinkle plant. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Erowid Piracetam Vault : FAQ : Frequently Asked Questions v0.7 (2141 words)
Piracetam is a member of the class of drugs known as nootropics or 'smart drugs'.
Piracetam is similar in molecular structure to the amino acid pyroglutamate.
Piracetam is said to increase the effects of alcohol and amphetamines.
Piracetam Supplement Profile (3396 words)
Piracetam was the first compound discovered to have all of these properties, and became the prototypical nootropic which serves as the reference drug for newer nootropics.
Piracetam improves the degree and speed of recovery from post-stroke aphasia (speech impairment) [6, 16]; this may indicate that piracetam facilitates the transference of abilities from one brain region to another.
Piracetam also has been used to treat some conditions of peripheral origin; this could be due to altered membrane kinetics, antihypoxic effects, or an increase in general resistance to stress.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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