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Encyclopedia > Pipe organ
Pipe organ Portal

The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. The size of pipe organs varies greatly: the smallest portable organs may have only a few dozen pipes, while the largest organs may feature tens of thousands. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750[1] (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... Roskilde Cathedral Roskilde Cathedral (Danish: Roskilde Domkirke), in the city of Roskilde on the Island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark was the first Gothic cathedral to be built of brick and its construction encouraged the spread of this Brick Gothic style throughout Northern Europe. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The choir division of the organ at St. ...


Organ pipes sound when a key is depressed on a keyboard, allowing the wind to pass through one or more pipes from a chest beneath them. Because of its continuous supply of wind, the organ is capable of sustaining sound for as long as a key is depressed, unlike other keyboard instruments such as the piano and harpsichord, whose sound begins to decay immediately after the key is struck. Modern organs usually include one or more keyboards playable by the hands and one keyboard playable by the feet. Large organs commonly have four or five keyboards, and a few of the very largest have six or seven.[1] The layout of a typical musical keyboard A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers on a musical instrument which cause the instrument to produce sounds. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ...


The pipe organ has been described as one of the oldest musical instruments—its origins can be traced back to Ancient Greece in the third century BC.[2] The wind supply was originally created with water pressure (hence the name "water organ"); later, the wind was supplied from bellows. Early portable organs were used to accompany both sacred and secular music.[3] Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Hydraulis is an early type of pipe organ that operated by converting the dynamic energy of water (hydor) into air pressure to drive the pipes. ... A large bellows creates a mushroom cloud at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California. ... In Wichita linguistics, the term portative refers to a verb affix which turns a verb of motion into a verb of carrying. ... Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


During the Renaissance, the organ developed from these simple forms toward a complex instrument capable of producing several different timbres, meant to mimic existing instruments and used to replace them when they were unavailable (and later for artistic expression and coloration). By the end of the seventeenth century, the organ was recognisably akin to the instruments we see today.[4][5] Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ...


Pipe organs are found in churches and synagogues, as well as secular town halls and arts buildings, where they are used in the performance of classical music. The organ boasts a substantial repertoire of both sacred and secular music spanning a period of more than 400 years.[6] For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... The organ repertoire consists of music written for the organ. ...

Contents

Construction

Pipes

Main article: Organ pipe
A set of flue pipes of a diapason rank in the Schuke organ in Sofia, Bulgaria
A set of flue pipes of a diapason rank in the Schuke organ in Sofia, Bulgaria
Pipe organ, St. Elisabethschurch in Grave, The Netherlands
Pipe organ, St. Elisabethschurch in Grave, The Netherlands

Organ pipes are made from either wood or metal and produce sound when wind is allowed to pass through. Because each pipe can produce only one pitch, many pipes are necessary to achieve the instrument’s full range of pitches. The pipes are arranged by timbre and pitch into rows called ranks, mounted vertically onto a windchest; multiple ranks can be supplied by a single windchest.[7] These ranks are activated via stops, and the stops are grouped into divisions. The choir division of the organ at St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... National Theatre, Sofia Alexander Nevski Cathedral The city of Sofia (Bulgarian: София), at the foot of the Vitosha mountain, has a population of 1,208,930 (2003), and is the capital of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 870 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 870 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ...


Organ pipes are divided into two main families, according to their design and the kind of timbre that they consequently produce: flue pipes, which produce sound by forcing air through a fipple (like a recorder), and reed pipes, which contain a beating reed (like a clarinet).[8] In a pipe organ, a flue pipe is any pipe that is sounded by a fipple, similar to that in a whistle or a flute a bec, rather than by a beating reed, see reed pipe. ... A fipple mouthpiece uses a narrow windway and a blade-like edge to channel and vibrate air blown into it. ... Various recorders The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument of the family known as fipple flutes or internal duct flutes — whistle-like instruments which include the tin whistle and ocarina. ... Diagram of typical reed pipe A Reed pipe is a type of pipe found in pipe organs qualified by the use of a vibrating metal strip instead of the simple vibration of air. ... Alto and tenor saxophone reeds. ... Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ...


For a given pipe to sound, two conditions must be met: the stop governing the rank to which the pipe belongs must be engaged, and a key corresponding to its pitch must be depressed.


Action and Wind system

The action of the organ is the mechanism that admits the wind into each pipe when a key is depressed. The two main types of action are mechanical action and electro-pneumatic action.[7] Mechanical action (also called tracker action) requires a physical connection between the keys and the windchests, achieved through a series of wooden or metal rods called trackers. When the organist depresses the keys, the trackers move, allowing wind to enter the pipes.[9] In organs with a mechanical stop action, each stop knob is also physically connected to a rank of pipes. When the organist pulls (or "draws") a stop knob towards himself, the action allows wind to flow into the selected rank.[7] Tracker action is a term used in reference to pipe organs to indicate a mechanical linkage between the key pressed by the organist and the valve that allows air to flow into pipe(s) of the corresponding note. ... electro-pneumatic action The electro-pneumatic action is a control system for pipe organs, whereby air pressure, controlled by an electric current and operated by the keys of an organ console, opens and closes valves within wind chests, allowing the pipes to speak. ...

The organ of St Raphael's Cathedral in Dubuque, Iowa, showing some pipes, the interior of the case, and part of the wind system
The organ of St Raphael's Cathedral in Dubuque, Iowa, showing some pipes, the interior of the case, and part of the wind system

Electro-pneumatic actions use electric current and air pressure to control the mechanisms at the windchest. Electrical wiring connects the keys and stop knobs to the windchest, while a pneumatic system opens and closes the valves in the windchest, allowing the pipes to speak. Because the only contact required between the console and windchest is wiring, this system allows the console to be separate from the rest of the instrument.[10] However, because the key and stop actions are exclusive, organs can feature a mechanical key action along with an electric stop action. Some electro-pneumatic organs use rocker-tab switches, which activate the stops using a pneumatic system with electrical contacts, instead of stop knobs. Image File history File linksMetadata StRaphaelOrganRearView. ... Image File history File linksMetadata StRaphaelOrganRearView. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Iowa Coordinates: , Country United States State Iowa County Dubuque Incorporated 1833 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Roy D. Buol  - City manager Michael C. Van Milligen Area  - City 71. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ...


The pressure of wind supplied to a pipe organ is measured by a manometer. In the United States and United Kingdom this employs the units "inches of water"; in other countries, the metric "millimetres of water" is often used instead. Although the phrase is strictly speaking scientifically incorrect, pipe organs are said to be "on x inches (of wind)".[11][12] A manometer is a pressure measuring instrument, often also called pressure gauge. ... Inches of water, inAq, Aq or inH20 is a non-SI unit for pressure. ...


The wind supply is stored in one or more reservoirs to maintain a constant wind pressure.[13] The pressure depends on the design of the organ and the source of the wind supply. An Italian or Iberian organ from the Renaissance period may feature a wind pressure of only 2.2 inches (56 mm),[14] while certain stops in a large twentieth-century organ can be on pressures as high as 100 inches (2540 mm).[15] The wind flows from the bellows to the separate divisions of the organ through one or more large tubes known as wind trunks and is then stored in windchests before the action allows it to flow through the pipes.[7] Steel Pressure Vessel A pressure vessel is a closed, rigid container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure different from the ambient pressure. ...


The original form of wind production was mechanical. When signalled by the organist (often by a small bell), a calcant began to pump the bellows, supplying them with air.[16] Playing the organ before electricity therefore required at least one person to operate the bellows. Because paying calcants was expensive, organists would usually practice on smaller instruments such as the clavichord or harpsichord that required no external energy source.[17] From the late nineteenth century, however, electric motors called blowers were used to fill the bellows with air. This made it possible for organists to practice regularly on the organ. Although most organs, new and historic, now make use of electric blowers, some organs can still be mechanically pumped, and modern instruments have been built with this capability. Large five-octave unfretted clavichord by Paul Maurici, after J.A. Haas The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. ...


Stops

Main article: Organ stop

Each stop usually controls one rank of pipes, although Mixtures and Célestes employ two or more ranks.[18] The name of a stop gives a broad indication of the sound it produces, although the names are not standardised; many stops that produce identical sounds will vary in name from organ to organ, while stops of the same name may produce somewhat different sounds. The choir division of the organ at St. ... A mixture is a multi-rank organ stop most commonly of principal, or diapason, tone quality. ... Literally, heavenly voice in French, this is an Organ stop that is intentionally tuned slightly off-pitch. ...


The choice of name reflects not only the timbre and construction of the stop, but also the style of the organ in which it resides. For example, the names on an organ built in the German Baroque style will generally be derived from the German language, while the names of similar stops on an organ in the French Romantic style will come from the French tradition. Most countries tend to use only their own languages for stop nomenclature.[19] English-speaking nations are more receptive to foreign nomenclature, as is Japan (which historically has had no indigenous organ-building culture).


Not all stops sound at unison pitch (the written pitch, identical to a pianoforte): when a key is depressed some stops produce higher pitches, and some lower. A stop that is at unison pitch is referred to as being at 8′ (pronounced "eight-foot") pitch. This is because the length of the longest (and lowest-sounding) pipe in that stop is eight feet. A stop that sounds an octave higher is at 4′ pitch, and one that sounds two octaves higher is at 2′ pitch; a stop that sounds an octave lower than unison pitch is at 16′ pitch, and one that sounds two octaves lower is at 32′ pitch.[18] For other uses, see Unison (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ...

Stop knobs of the Baroque Gabler organ in Weingarten, Germany. The names are visible above the knobs, rather than engraved onto them.
Stop knobs of the Baroque Gabler organ in Weingarten, Germany. The names are visible above the knobs, rather than engraved onto them.

Traditionally, the label on a stop knob or rocker-tab indicates the stop’s name and either its pitch level expressed in feet or, in the case of those few stops that control more than one rank, a Roman numeral indicating the number of ranks. Thus, a stop labelled "8′ Chimney flute" is a single-rank flute stop sounding at 8′ pitch. A stop labelled "Mixture V" is a five-rank mixture. Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 931 KB) Weingarten (Württemberg), Germany: Basilika St. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 931 KB) Weingarten (Württemberg), Germany: Basilika St. ... Weingarten, Basilica of St. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...


When a rank of pipes is available as part of more than one stop, the rank is said to be unified (or borrowed). Ranks can be borrowed within a single division or between divisions. For example, an "8′ Diapason" rank may also be made available as a "4′ Octave". When both of these stops are selected and a key (for example, c′ cha)[20] is pressed, two pipes of the same rank will sound: the pipe normally corresponding to the key played (c′), and the pipe one octave above that (c″). The 4′ octave stop could also be drawn alone, in which case only the higher pitch would be heard.


Borrowing ranks in this way may necessitate the addition of extra pipes, however. In the above example, there are no pipes in the original 8′ rank to sound the top octave of the keyboard at 4′ pitch. The most common solution is to provide an extra octave of pipes used only for the borrowed 4′ stop. The full rank of pipes is now an octave longer than the keyboard and is called an extended rank. An organ that includes many extended ranks is called an extension organ. An extension organ is a pipe organ that uses one or more ranks of pipes longer then the length of its keyboards to serve several different organ stops at different pitches. ...


Some organs feature stops producing unusual aural effects that do not employ pipes in the normal way, or even dispense with them altogether: these include the "Zimbelstern" (a revolving, star-shaped wheel of bells), the "Nightingale" (a stop that blows wind through a whistle submerged in a small pool of water, creating the sound of a bird warbling), and the "Effet d'orage" (a device that sounds many of the large bass pipes simultaneously, creating the effect of thunder). Other orchestral percussion stops include the "Drum", "Chimes", "Celesta", and "Harp". Another editor has suggested that this article might be improved by more material on its significance. ... Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion group that can be large, technically classified as a membranophone. ... Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are musical instruments in the percussion family. ... French type, four-octave Celesta The Celesta (IPA ) is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ...


Organ stops are the origin of the phrase "to pull out all the stops", meaning to make every effort or "to give it all you've got".[21]

Console

Main article: Organ console
The five-manual organ console at the United States Naval Academy Chapel
The five-manual organ console at the United States Naval Academy Chapel

All the controls available to the organist, including the keyboards, expression pedals, stop controls, registration aids and couplers, are accessed from the console. If the console is attached to the organ case (as it is with many mechanical-action organs), it may also be called the keydesk. The console of the Wanamaker Organ in the Macys (formerly Lord and Taylor) department store in Philadelphia, featuring six manuals and color-coded stop tabs. ... Image File history File links Usnaconsole. ... Image File history File links Usnaconsole. ... Naval Academy Chapel The United States Naval Academy Chapel is one of two houses of worship on the grounds of the Navys service academy. ...


A few organs in large buildings such as cathedrals have more than one console, so that the organ can be played from different parts of the building, and some consoles are movable.


Keyboards

The console contains the keyboards played by the organist. Keyboards played by the hands are called manuals (from the Latin manus, meaning "hand"), while that played by the feet is called a pedalboard. All organs have at least one manual, and most have a pedalboard. A manual is a keyboard designed to be played with the hands on a pipe organ, harpsichord, clavichord, electronic organ, or synthesizer. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The 30-note pedalboard of a Rieger organ with expression pedal and coupler switches. ...


The range of the keyboards has varied widely across time and between countries. Most current specifications call for manuals with sixty-one notes (five octaves, from C to c″″) and a pedalboard with thirty or thirty-two notes (two and a half octaves, from C to f′ or g′).[20][22] These ranges apply to the notes in a musical score; depending on the stops available, the actual range of sound produced by the instrument may be much greater.


Usually, each division is controlled by one keyboard. When an organ contains more divisions than it does keyboards, the extra divisions are referred to as floating and are played by "coupling" them to another keyboard.


Couplers

A coupler allows the stops of one division to be played using the keyboard of another division. For example, a coupler labelled "Swell to Great" allows the stops drawn in the Swell division to be played on the Great manual. Thus, new tonal effects can be created by combining stops from different divisions, or all the stops can be played simultaneously on one manual or pedalboard. On a mechanical-action organ, a coupler may physically connect one manual to the other, so that the keys on all the coupled manuals are depressed, even though the organist is only in contact with one of them.[23]


The Swell to Great coupler described above is a unison coupler: it causes the pipes of the Swell division to sound at the same pitch as the keys played on the Great manual. Some organs also feature octave couplers, which add the pipes an octave above ("super-octave") or below ("sub-octave") each note that is played. Octave couplers may operate on one division only (for example, the "Swell super octave," which adds the octave above what is being played on the Swell to itself), or they may act as a coupler to another keyboard (for example, the "Swell super-octave to Great," which adds to the Great the ranks of the Swell division an octave above what is being played on the Great manual). Octave couplers may also be used in conjunction with the respective unison coupler.[23]


In addition, some organs feature "unison off" couplers, which prevent the stops pulled in a particular division from sounding at their normal pitch. Unison off couplers can be used in combination with octave couplers to create innovative aural effects, and can also be used to effectively rearrange the order of the manuals to make specific pieces easier to play.[23]


Enclosure and expression pedals

Main article: Expression pedal

The term enclosure refers to a system that allows for the control of volume without requiring the addition or subtraction of stops. The pipes of an enclosed division are surrounded by a box-like structure generally called the "swell box". At least one side of the box, usually that facing the likely location of its audience, is constructed from horizontal palettes known as swell shades or louvres (much like Venetian blinds), which can be opened or closed, fully or partially, from the console. When the box is "open", more sound is heard than when it is "closed". In a two-manual organ with Great and Swell divisions, the Swell division will be enclosed (which is why the division is named Swell).[24] In larger organs, often part or all of the Choir and Solo divisions will be enclosed as well. The console of the Salemer Münster organ in Salem, Germany, built from 1900 to 1901. ... In music, dynamics normally refers to the softness or loudness of a sound or note, but also to every aspect of the execution of a given piece, either stylistic (staccato, legato etc. ... Front and side view of Venetian or horizontal blinds. ...


The most common way of controlling the movement of the swell shades is the balanced expression pedal. This device is usually placed above the centre of the pedalboard and is configured to rotate away from the organist from a near-horizontal ("open") to a near-vertical ("closed") position.[25] In addition to an expression pedal, an organ may have a similar-looking crescendo pedal, found alongside any expression pedals. "Opening" the crescendo pedal cumulatively activates all the stops in the organ, starting with the softest and ending with the loudest; "closing" it reverses the process.[26] The console of the Salemer Münster organ in Salem, Germany, built from 1900 to 1901. ... A crescendo pedal is a large pedal commonly found on medium-sized and larger pipe organs (as well as digital organs), either partially or fully recessed within the organ console. ...


Combination action

Main article: Combination action

By combining stops, many different sounds can be produced. A specific combination of stops is called a registration. A combination action can be used to instantly switch from one registration to another, much more quickly than the organist could change the stops by hand. The most common combination action features pistons, buttons that can be pressed by the organist. Pistons are generally located beneath the keys of each manual ("thumb pistons") or above the pedalboard ("toe studs/pistons"). Most large organs feature both permanent and programmable pistons. Combination actions are usually electric, though it is possible to construct rudimentary mechanical combination actions.[23] A combination action is a system designed to capture specific organ registrations to be recalled instantaneously by the player while he is playing. ...


Casing

The organ of the Severikirche in Erfurt, Germany, features a highly decorative case with ornate carvings and cherubs.
The organ of the Severikirche in Erfurt, Germany, features a highly decorative case with ornate carvings and cherubs.

The pipes, action, and wind system of a pipe organ are contained in an organ case, the design of which may also incorporate the console. The organ case may be either freestanding or integrated with the building that houses the organ. The case is often designed to complement the architectural style of the building and may contain ornamental features such as wooden carvings and decorative pipework. The visible, "front" portion of the organ's case is called the façade, and often includes either playable or decorative pipes. If the façade pipes are playable, they are usually part of the main Principal rank of the organ. The metal may be plain, burnished, or highly coloured and gilded. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 582 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (926 × 954 pixel, file size: 359 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)   Beschreibung: Orgel der Severikirche in Erfurt, Germany Fotograf: Oliver Kurmis Quelle: selbst fotografiert, Erfurt Datum: 23. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 582 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (926 × 954 pixel, file size: 359 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)   Beschreibung: Orgel der Severikirche in Erfurt, Germany Fotograf: Oliver Kurmis Quelle: selbst fotografiert, Erfurt Datum: 23. ... The cathedral Mariendom at night. ... Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by using rubbing or a chemical action. ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ...


Some organs feature a few ranks of pipes protruding horizontally from the case in the manner of a row of trumpets. These are referred to as pipes en chamade and are particularly common in organs of the Iberian peninsula and large modern instruments.[27] The trumpet is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... En Chamade (French: to sound a parley) refers to powerfully voiced reed stops in a pipe organ that are mounted horizontally rather than vertically in the front of the organ case, projecting out into the church. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


Many organs, particularly those built in the early twentieth century, are contained not in a case but in one or more rooms called organ chambers. Because these chambers do not allow for projection of sound beyond them as easily as does a freestanding organ case, enchambered organs may sound muffled and distant.[28] In the 1940s and 1950s, E. Power Biggs was one of a number of organists requesting a return to the freestanding cases and mechanical actions of the Baroque and Classical periods.[29] Edward George Power Biggs (March 29, 1906 - March 10, 1977), more familiarly known as E. Power Biggs, was a prominent concert organist and recording artist of the twentieth century. ...

History and development

A reconstruction of Hero of Alexandria's wind-powered organ (first century AD)
A reconstruction of Hero of Alexandria's wind-powered organ (first century AD)

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 601 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1805 × 1801 pixel, file size: 346 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Windmill Hero of Alexandria Pipe... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 601 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1805 × 1801 pixel, file size: 346 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Windmill Hero of Alexandria Pipe... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ...

Antiquity

The organ is one of the oldest instruments still used in European classical music, its earliest predecessors dating from the third century BC.[2] The word organ originates from the Latin "organum", an instrument used in ancient Roman circus games, similar to a portative organ.[30] For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... An organum is any one of a number of musical instruments which were the forerunners of the organ. ... A portative organ (or portatif organ) was a small medieval organ carried by the performer, who manipulated the bellows with one hand and fingered the keys with the other. ...


The Greek engineer Ctesibius of Alexandria is credited as the inventor of the organ. He created a water organ known as the hydraulis in the third century BC.[2] The hydraulis was common in the Roman Empire, where its extremely loud tone was heard during games, circuses, and processions. Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (Greek Κτησίβιος) (flourished 285–222 BC) was a Greek[1] inventor and mathematician in Alexandria. ... Hydraulis is an early type of pipe organ that operated by converting the dynamic energy of water (hydor) into air pressure to drive the pipes. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Characteristics of the hydraulis have been inferred from mosaics, paintings, literary references, and partial remains. In 1931, the remains of a hydraulis were discovered in Hungary, with an inscription dating it to 228 AD. The leather and wood of the instrument had decomposed, but the surviving metal parts made it possible to reconstruct a working replica now in the Aquincum Museum in Budapest.[31], [32] The exact mechanism of wind production is debated, and almost nothing is known about the music played on the hydraulis, but the tone of the pipes can be studied.[33], [34] The Praetorian guard kill Ulpian, Praetorian prefect, who had wanted to reduce their privileges. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ...

A painting of Saint Cecilia playing a portative with a set of hand-pumped bellows (Meister des Bartholomäus-Altars, 1501)
A painting of Saint Cecilia playing a portative with a set of hand-pumped bellows (Meister des Bartholomäus-Altars, 1501)

The pumps and water regulators of the hydraulis were replaced by bellows in the second century AD, and the organ was further developed in the Byzantine Empire before its use ceased during the Decline of the Roman Empire.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 535 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (604 × 677 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I pulled this from http://de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 535 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (604 × 677 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I pulled this from http://de. ... Saint Cecilia Saint Cecilia in the Catholic Church the patron saint of music and of the blind. ... A portative organ (or portatif organ) was a small medieval organ carried by the performer, who manipulated the bellows with one hand and fingered the keys with the other. ... ( 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors ( 96– 180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ...


Portable organs (the portative and the positive organ) were invented in the Middle Ages. Towards the middle of the 13th century, the portatives represented in the miniatures of illuminated manuscripts appear to have real keyboards with balanced keys, as in the Cantigas de Santa Maria.[35] Because of its portability, the portative was used for the accompaniment of both sacred and secular music in a variety of settings. A positive organ (or portable organ) was a medieval chamber organ that could be carried from place to place without being taken to pieces. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The word miniature, derived from the Latin minium, red lead, is a picture in an ancient or medieval manuscript; the simple decoration of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Music stubs | Illuminated manuscripts ...


In 1361, the first documented 'permanent' organ was installed in Halberstadt, Germany.[36] The chromatic keyboard, such as we see today, was used for the first time; the organ had three manuals and a pedalboard, although the keys were wider than on modern instruments.[37] The organ had 20 bellows worked by 10 men, and the wind pressure was so strong that the player had to use the full power of his arm to hold down a key.[36] It had no stop controls; each manual controlled several ranks at multiple pitches, called the Blockwerk.[37] This organ is commemorated in John Cage's Organ²/ASLSP. In the fourteenth century, the composer Guillaume de Machaut named the organ the "king of instruments", a description still frequently applied.[38] Liebfrauenkirche Halberstadt is a city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Sankt-Burchardi-Church Organ²/ASLSP (As SLow aS Possible) is a musical piece composed by John Cage. ... Guillaume de Machaut (around 1300 – 1377), was a French composer and poet of the late Medieval era. ...


Around 1450, controls were designed that split the Blockwerk into individual ranks. These devices were the forerunners of modern stop actions.[39] Some of the higher-pitched ranks remained grouped together under a single stop control, and these stops developed into the mixtures found in later organs.[40]

Renaissance and Baroque periods

The Baroque organ of the Oude Kerk in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

During the Renaissance and Baroque periods, the tonal colours available to the organist became more varied, including both imitative timbres and those unique to the organ. The development of pipe organs diverged across Europe, partly because of changing political climates.[41] In northern Europe, the organ became a large instrument with several divisions. Independent pedal divisions were increasingly common, and string-scale flue pipes were used in German organs by builders such as the Silbermann family.[42] The divisions of the organ were clearly grouped into sections and readily discernible from the case design. Twentieth-century musicologists labelled this style the Werkprinzip.[43] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2565x1915, 742 KB) The main organ of the church Oude Kerk in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2565x1915, 742 KB) The main organ of the church Oude Kerk in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... Oude Kerk, Amsterdam The Oude Kerk (Dutch for old church) is Amsterdam’s oldest parish church. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750[1] (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... Gottfried Silbermann (January 14, 1683-August 4, 1753) was an influential German constructor of keyboard instruments. ...


In France, the Classical style of organ building was articulated by Dom Bédos de Celles in his treatise L'art du facteur d'orgues (The Art of Organ Building).[44] In England, there was some destruction of pipe organs during the English Reformation of the sixteenth century and much more during the seventeenth-century Commonwealth period; it was not until the Restoration that many organ builders (particularly Renatus Harris and Bernard Smith) returned from mainland Europe with new ideas. English organs evolved from small one- or two-manual instruments to three or more divisions disposed in the French manner and including grander reeds and mixtures.[45] The echo division began to be enclosed in the early eighteenth century, and in 1712 Abraham Jordan claimed his "swelling organ" at St Magnus-the-Martyr to be a new invention. The swell box became common in English organs of the eighteenth century, but did not spread to the European mainland until the nineteenth century.[46] By contrast, pedals – long employed elsewhere in Europe – did not appear in England until the eighteenth century. François Lamathe Bédos de Celles de Salelles, known as Dom Bédos de Celles, (born in Caux, Hérault near Béziers, France January 24, 1709) was a Benedictine monk best known for being a master pipe organ builder. ... King Henry VIII of England. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Renatus Harris (c 1652 - 1724) was a master organ maker in England in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ... Father Bernard Smith (c 1630 - 1708) was a German-born master organ maker in England in the late 17th century. ... St Magnus-the-Martyr is an Anglican church in the City of London, located on Lower Thames Street near the modern London Bridge. ...


Romantic period

In parallel with changing styles of musical composition during the Romantic period, the organ metamorphosed from a polyphonic to a symphonic instrument, capable of creating a gradual crescendo from the softest stops to "full organ" (the state in which all the stops are engaged). New technologies and the work of organ builders such as Aristide Cavaillé-Coll and Henry Willis led to larger organs, with more stops, more variation in their sound and texture, and more divisions.[47] Image File history File links EwellPCorgan-03. ... Image File history File links EwellPCorgan-03. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... The church of St. ... Note that Temple Ewell is in Kent Ewell is a town in the borough of Epsom and Ewell in Surrey, close to the southern boundary of Greater London. ... This article is about the English county. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... Aristide Cavaillé-Coll His grave in Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris Aristide Cavaillé-Coll (February 4, 1811–October 13, 1899) was a French organ builder. ... Reading Town Hall Organ, built by Willis in 1864, extended in 1882 and rebuilt by Harrison & Harrison in 1999 Henry Willis & Sons is a firm of pipe organ builders in the UK, examples of whose work can also be found in other countries. ...


The desire for louder, grander organs required some stops, notably the reeds, to be voiced on a higher wind pressure than before. This necessitated a change in the action mechanism, as the physical force required to overcome the wind pressure and depress the keys using purely mechanical action was too great for an organist to exert. Cavaillé-Coll configured the English "Barker lever" to use the organ's own wind supply to assist in operating the action.[47] Combination actions were invented to assist the organist with the multitude of registration changes that were necessary to play Romantic music, and the stop knobs were set at an angle in order to make them easier to manipulate.[47]


Organs were also built in concert halls (such as the organ at the Palais du Trocadéro in Paris), and composers such as Camille Saint-Saëns and Gustav Mahler used the organ in their orchestral works. The Trocadéro is an area of Paris, in the 16th arrondissement, across the Seine from the Eiffel Tower. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns () (9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist, known especially for his orchestral works The Carnival of the Animals, Danse Macabre, and Symphony No. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ...

Modern development

The 2006 Rembrandt Digital organ is an example of a large pipeless organ that could be used in a church.
The 2006 Rembrandt Digital organ is an example of a large pipeless organ that could be used in a church.

The development of pneumatic, electro-pneumatic, and electric key actions in the late nineteenth century made it possible to locate the console independently of the pipes, ushering in a revolution in organ design. Electrically-controlled stop actions were also developed, facilitating sophisticated combination actions.[48] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 287 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Modèle dorgue numérique - Orgue Johannus Rembrandt 4090 (construit en 2006) Digital organ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 287 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Modèle dorgue numérique - Orgue Johannus Rembrandt 4090 (construit en 2006) Digital organ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to...


In the mid-twentieth century, many organ builders subscribing to the tenets of the Orgelbewegung ("organ reform movement") began to build historically inspired instruments modelled on Baroque organs, returning to mechanical key action in order to regain the subtle, nuanced control it gives the performer.[49] The historically informed performance, period performance, or authentic performance movement is an approach by musicians and scholars to research and perform works of classical music in ways similar to how they may have been performed when they were originally written. ...


The technology of pipeless electronic organs developed throughout the century, and many pipe organs in churches and other locations were replaced by these instruments, with their lower purchase price, smaller size and minimal maintenance requirements. Classic Hammond B-3 organ. ...


Some components of pipeless organs are being incorporated into pipe organs, allowing simpler and more reliable actions and combination systems, as well as recording and playback of an organist’s performance via the MIDI protocol. Although the sound of a pipe organ cannot yet be completely replicated by a pipeless organ, it is also increasingly common for builders of new pipe organs to use digital stops instead of pipes for the very lowest pedal notes. Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ...

Repertoire

The development of organ repertoire has progressed along with the development of the organ itself, leading to distinctive national styles of composition. There is a large repertoire of sacred music, because organs are commonly found in churches and some Reform and Conservative synagogues, where they are used to accompany the musical portions of the service, such as choral anthems, congregational hymns, and elements of the liturgy. Solo organ music may also be played before and after the service. The organ repertoire consists of music written for the organ. ... The following is a list of organ composers. ... Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ...


The "age of transcription" in the nineteenth century saw many pipe organs constructed in secular venues such as town halls and arts centres, and these "concert hall" instruments encouraged composers to write secular music.[50] Much of this repertoire is based on the Romantic symphony; both transcriptions and original repertoire thus required the organ to perform as, effectively, a substitute for an orchestra.[51] In music, transcription is the act of notating a piece or a sound which was previously unnotated. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Later, in the era of silent films, large theatre organs were installed in many theatres. A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... Console of the 3/13 Barton Theater Pipe Organ at Ann Arbors Michigan Theater A theatre organ is a pipe organ originally designed specifically for imitation of an orchestra, but in latter years new designs have tended to be around some of the sounds and blends unique to the... A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, United States). ...


Significant composers

The organ music of Johann Sebastian Bach forms the core of the instrument's repertoire (portrait by Elias Gottlob Haussmann, c.1748).
The organ music of Johann Sebastian Bach forms the core of the instrument's repertoire (portrait by Elias Gottlob Haussmann, c.1748).

Although most countries whose music falls into the Western tradition have contributed to the organ repertoire, France and Germany in particular have produced exceptional composers of organ music. There is also extensive repertoire from the Netherlands, England, and the United States. source: http://www. ... source: http://www. ... Elias Gottlob Haussmann (1695 - 1774) was a German painter in the late Baroque era. ...


The majority of the organ repertoire comes from the Renaissance, Baroque, and Romantic periods. Johann Sebastian Bach composed approximately 250 works for organ (BWV 525–771) including transcriptions of other composers’ work; early Baroque contemporaries adding to the repertoire included Johann Jakob Froberger, Dieterich Buxtehude, and Johann Pachelbel. “Bach” redirects here. ... Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (Bach Works Catalogue) is the numbering system used to identify musical works by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... Johann Jakob Froberger (baptized May 19, 1616 – May 7, 1667) was a German Baroque composer, keyboard virtuoso, and organist. ... The only surviving portrait of Buxtehude, from a 1674 painting by Johannes Voorhout. ... Johann Pachelbel (IPA: [], [] or [][2]) (baptized September 1, 1653 – March 3, 1706) was a German Baroque composer, organist and teacher who brought the south German organ tradition to its peak. ...


French organ music developed in the French Classical period through the music of François Couperin and Nicolas de Grigny. In the Romantic era, many French organist-composers such as César Franck, Charles-Marie Widor, Louis Vierne, and Charles Tournemire pushed the genre of organ music into the symphonic realm, as did German composers such as Felix Mendelssohn, Josef Rheinberger, and Max Reger. François Couperin (born Paris November 10, 1668 – September 12, 1733 in Paris) was an esteemed French composer in the Baroque style. ... Nicolas de Grigny (baptised September 8, 1672 - November 30, 1703) was a French organist and composer. ... César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (December 10, 1822 – November 8, 1890), a composer, organist and music teacher of Belgian origin who lived in France, was one of the great figures in classical music in the second half of the 19th century. ... Charles-Marie Jean Albert Widor (February 21, 1844 – March 12, 1937) was a French organist, composer and teacher. ... Louis Victor Jules Vierne, (October 8, 1870–June 2, 1937) was a French organist and composer. ... Charles Tournemire (Bordeaux, January 22, 1870 – Arcachon, November 3, 1939), was a French composer and organist, most famous for his improvisations. ... Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Josef Gabriel Rheinberger (March 17, 1839, in Vaduz - November 25, 1901, in Munich) was a Liechtensteinian composer. ... Johann Baptist Joseph Maximilian Reger (March 19, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German composer, organist, pianist and teacher. ...


In the twentieth century, Olivier Messiaen redefined many of the traditional notions of organ registration and technique in order to realize his musical concepts, influenced by natural phenomena such as birdsong and by his Catholic faith, and regarding the timbral possibilities presented by the organ much as a painter might consider the colour spectrum.[52] Other twentieth-century composers such as Marcel Dupré, Jean Langlais, Maurice Duruflé, Herbert Howells, and Petr Eben have also made significant contributions to the organ literature. Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... Marcel Dupré Marcel Dupré (May 3, 1886–May 30, 1971), was a French organist, pianist, composer, and pedagogue. ... Jean Langlais (15 February 1907 – May 8, 1991) was a French composer of modern classical music, organist, and improviser. ... Maurice Duruflé (January 11, 1902 – June 16, 1986) was a French composer, organist, and pedagogue. ... Herbert Norman Howells CH (17 October 1892 – 23 February 1983) was an English composer, organist, and teacher. ... Petr Eben (b. ...


The organ is sometimes used as an orchestral instrument, for example in Saint-Saëns' Organ Symphony, Joseph Jongen's Symphonie Concertante for Organ & Orchestra, and Francis Poulenc's Concerto for Organ, Strings and Tympani. The earliest concerti for organ were composed and improvised by George Frideric Handel.[53] Other composers who have used the organ prominently in orchestral music include Gustav Holst, Richard Strauss, Ottorino Respighi, Gustav Mahler, Anton Bruckner, and Ralph Vaughan Williams.[54] The Symphony No. ... Joseph Jongen (December 14, 1873–July 12, 1953) was a Belgian organist, composer, and music educator. ... Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (IPA: ) (January 7, 1899 - January 30, 1963) was a French composer and a member of the French group Les Six. ... The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... Gustav Holst Gustav Holst (September 21, 1874, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - May 25, 1934, London) [1] [2] was an English composer and was a music teacher for over 20 years. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Elsa and Ottorino Respighi in the 1920s Ottorino Respighi (Bologna, July 9, 1879 - Rome, April 18, 1936) was an Italian composer, musicologist, pianist, violist and violinist. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... “Bruckner” redirects here. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ...


See also

Orgab tablature can refer to any of a number of different schemes for noting music for the organ, mostly used prior to 1600 and mainly distinguished from each other as Italian, Spanish, etc. ... This is a list and brief description of notable pipe organs in the world, with links to corresponding articles that exist. ... This is a list of notable pipe organ and electronic organ builders. ... The following is a list of organ repertoire, pieces that are commonly played by organists who have studied the Western tradition of pipe organ music. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Sacred Classics, "The Top 20 - The World's Largest Pipe Organs". Retrieved on 2007-05-10.
  2. ^ a b c d Cook, "Origin".
  3. ^ Cook, "The Middle Ages".
  4. ^ Cook, "The Fifteenth Century".
  5. ^ Cook, "The Sixteenth Century".
  6. ^ Thomas, Steve (2003). "Pipe organs 101: an introduction to pipe organ basics". Retrieved on 2007-05-06.
  7. ^ a b c d Bicknell, "Organ construction," 20.
  8. ^ Bicknell, "Organ construction," 27.
  9. ^ Bicknell, "Organ construction," 22–23.
  10. ^ Bicknell, "Organ construction," 23–24.
  11. ^ Piedmont Theatre Organ Society, 2005 "PTOS Glossary". Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  12. ^ Cole-Palmer Technical Library. "Cole-Palmer Pressure Conversion". Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  13. ^ Bicknell, "Organ construction," 18–20.
  14. ^ Dalton, 168.
  15. ^ The Boardwalk Hall Auditorium Organ in Atlantic City has four stops on 100′′ of wind and ten on 50′′. Atlantic City Convention Hall Organ, Oddmusic. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.
  16. ^ Bicknell, "Organ construction," 18.
  17. ^ Koopman, Ton (1991). "Dietrich Buxtehude's Organworks: A Practical Help" in The Musical Times, Vol. 123, No. 1777. (subscription access, although relevant reference viewable in preview). Retrieved 2007-05-22.
  18. ^ a b Bicknell, "Organ construction," 26–27.
  19. ^ Bicknell, "Organ construction," pp27–28.
  20. ^ a b This article uses the Helmholtz pitch notation to indicate individual pitches.
  21. ^ "Pull out all the stops", American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992. Answers.com. Retrieved 2007-05-06.
  22. ^ Pitches Available on the Organ, American Guild of Organists. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  23. ^ a b c d "A brief tour of a pipe organ". Crumhorn-labs. Retrieved 2007-06-16.
  24. ^ Wicks, Swell Division / Swell Shades
  25. ^ Wicks, Expression pedals
  26. ^ Wicks, Crescendo pedal
  27. ^ Bicknell, "The organ case", pp66–67.
  28. ^ Wicks, Organ Chamber.
  29. ^ Owen, Barbara (1987). E. Power Biggs, Concert Organist. Bloomington, Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253318017.
  30. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-07-06.
  31. ^ Walcker-Mayer, Werner (1972), The Roman Organ of Aquincum, Ludwigsburg, Muiskwissenschaftliche Verlag.
  32. ^ Zoltán, Horváth. "Aquincum Museum". Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  33. ^ Hutchinson, John "New pipe organ at Cumming First United Methodist Church". Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  34. ^ Pettigrew, Richard (2002) "About the Ancient Hydraulis". Retrieved on 2007-05-07
  35. ^ Riaño, 119-127.
  36. ^ a b Kennedy, Michael, ed. (2002). "Organ" in The Oxford Dictionary of Music, p644. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  37. ^ a b The history of the organ to 1800, Encyclopedia Britannica.com, 2007. Retrieved on 15 August 2007.
  38. ^ Sumner, "The Organ," 39.
  39. ^ Thistlethwaite, 5.
  40. ^ Phelps, Lawrence (1973) "A brief look at the French Classical Organ, its origins, and German counterpart". Retrieved on 2007-05-07
  41. ^ Cook, The Seventeenth-Century: Introduction.
  42. ^ Cook, "Eighteenth-Century Germany: Silbermann".
  43. ^ Bicknell, "The organ case," pp66–71.
  44. ^ (French) Bédos de Celles, Dom François (1766) "extraits de l'Art du facteur d'orgues". Retrieved on 2007-05-07. English translation as Ferguson (1977).
  45. ^ Cook, "The Seventeenth Century: England."
  46. ^ Cook, "The Eighteenth Century: England."
  47. ^ a b c Cook, "The Nineteenth Century."
  48. ^ Thistlethwaite, pp14–15.
  49. ^ Bicknell, "Organ building today," 82ff.
  50. ^ Glück, Sebastian Matthäus (2003). "Literature-Based Reed Assignment in Organ Design", PIPORG-L. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  51. ^ Ochse, 1975:334. Quoted in James Edward Lozenz (2006). "Organ Transcriptions and the Late Romantic Period" in An Organ Transcription of the Messe in C, Op.169 by Josef Gabriel Rheinberger, Florida State University College of Music. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  52. ^ Galuska, Andrew R (2001). "Messiaen's Organ Registration". Moore's School of Music: University of Houston. Retrieved on 2007-06-19.
  53. ^ Lang, Paul Henry (1971). "Michael Haydn: Duo Concertante for viola and organ. Joseph Haydn: Organ Concerto in C major". In The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 57, No.1. Retrieved on 2007-07-10.
  54. ^ Barone, Michael (2004) "Pipe organs are popping up in concert halls nationwide. Now—what to play on them?", in Symphony magazine, Nov–Dec 2004. Retrieved on 2007-05-07

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boardwalk Hall Auditorium Organ is the pipe organ in the Main Auditorium of the Boardwalk Hall (formerly known as the Atlantic City Convention Hall) in Atlantic City, New Jersey, built by the Midmer-Losh Organ Company. ... Alternate meanings: See Atlantic City (disambiguation) Atlantic City is a city located in USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 40,517. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The naming of individual Cs using the Helmholtz system Helmholtz pitch notation is a musical system for naming notes of the Western chromatic scale. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Guild of Organists, or AGO, is a national organization of church and concert organists in the USA. It is divided into regions and chapters and publishes a monthly magazine, The American Organist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bicknell, Stephen (1999) "Organ building today" in Thistlethwaite, Nicholas and Webber, Geoffrey, (eds.) The Cambridge Companion to the Organ. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bicknell, Stephen (1999) "Organ construction" in Thistlethwaite, Nicholas and Webber, Geoffrey, (eds.) The Cambridge Companion to the Organ. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bicknell, Stephen (1999) "The organ case" in Thistlethwaite, Nicholas and Webber, Geoffrey, (eds.) The Cambridge Companion to the Organ. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bridgemann-Sutton, David (2002) "Musings and Amusings". Accessed 23 May, 2007.
  • Cook, James H. (1999). "Organ History". Accessed 6 May, 2007.
  • Dalton, James (1999) "Iberian organ music before 1700" in Thistlethwaite, Nicholas and Webber, Geoffrey, (eds.) The Cambridge Companion to the Organ. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ferguson, Charles (trans.) (1977) "The Organ-Builder". Translation of Dom François Bédos de Celles L'art du facteur d'orgues 1766–68. Raleigh, NC: Sunbury Press.
  • Ochse, Orpha (1975). "The History of the Organ in the United States." Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Riaño, J.F (1887) Critical and Bibliographical Notes on Early Spanish Music. London: Quaritch. ISBN 0-306-70193-6
  • Sumner, William Leslie (1973) The Organ: Its Evolution, Principles of Construction and Use. London: Macdonald. SBN 356-04162-X
  • Thistlethwaite, Nicholas (1999) "Origins and development of the organ" in Thistlethwaite, Nicholas and Webber, Geoffrey, (eds.) The Cambridge Companion to the Organ. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wicks Organ Company Glossary of Organ Terms. Accessed 23 May 2007.

Bibliography

  • Thistlethwaite, Nicholas and Webber, Geoffrey, (eds) (1999) The Cambridge Companion to the Organ. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57584-2
  • Williams, Peter (1966) The European Organ, 1458–1850. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-32083-6

External links

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