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Encyclopedia > Pinyin
Chinese romanization
Mandarin for Standard Mandarin
    Hanyu Pinyin (ISO official)
    EFEO
    Gwoyeu Romatzyh
        Spelling conventions
    Latinxua Sin Wenz
    Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II
    Chinese Postal Map Romanization
    Tongyong Pinyin
    Wade-Giles
    Yale
    Legge romanization
    Comparison chart
Cantonese for Standard Cantonese
    Guangdong Romanization
    Hong Kong Government
    Jyutping
    Meyer-Wempe
    Sidney Lau
    S. L. Wong (phonetic symbols)
    S. L. Wong (romanisation)
    Standard Cantonese Pinyin
    Standard Romanization
    Yale
Wu
    Long-short (romanization)
Min Nan
for Taiwanese, Xiamen, and related
    Pe̍h-oē-jī
For Hainanese
    Hainanhua Pinyin Fang'an
For Teochew
    Peng'im
Min Dong for Fuzhou dialect
    Foochow Romanized
Hakka for Moiyan dialect
    Kejiahua Pinyin Fang'an
For Siyen dialect
    Phak-fa-s
See also:
   General Chinese (Chao Yuenren)
   Cyrillization
   Xiao'erjing
   Zhuyin
   Romanisation in Singapore
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Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. Hanyu means the Chinese language, pin means "spell" and yin means "sound". It is also known as scheme of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn fāng'àn). The romanization of Chinese language is the use of Latin alphabet to write the Chinese language. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... // In French speaking world, the system of École française dExtrême-Orient (EFEO) was the most used phonetic transcription of Chinese until the middle of the XXth century. ... The four tones of guo as written in characters, simplified on left, traditional on right and Gwoyeu Romatzyh. ... The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh (GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones. ... Latinxua Sinwenz (拉丁化新文字; also known as Sin Wenz, Latinxua Sinwenz, Zhongguo Latinxua Sin Wenz, Beifangxua Latinxua Sin Wenz or Latinxua) is a little-used romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. ... Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (國語注音符號第二式), abbreviated MPS II, is a romanization system formerly used in the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Chinese Postal Map Romanization (Traditional Chinese: 郵政式拼音; Pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì PÄ«nyÄ«n) refers to the system of romanization for Chinese place names which came into use in the late Qing dynasty and was officially sanctioned by the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference (帝國郵電聯席會議), which was held in Shanghai in the... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pÄ«nyÄ«n; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ... Legge romanization is a transliteration system for Mandarin Chinese, used by the prolific 19th Century sinologist James Legge. ... Below is a table which compares the different romanizations of Standard Mandarin. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating the Standard Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese spoken varieties of Chinese. ... The Hong Kong Government Cantonese Romanisation (not an official name) is the more or less consistent way for romanising Cantonese proper nouns employed by the Hong Kong Government departments and many non-governmental organisations in Hong Kong. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... The Meyer-Wempe romanisation system was developed by two Catholic missionaries in Hong Kong, Bernhard F. Meyer and Theodore F. Wempe, during the 1920s and 1930s. ... Sidney Lau is a system of romanisation for Standard Cantonese, developed by Sidney Lau for teaching Cantonese. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Wong Shik Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) published a romanisation scheme accompanying a set of phonetic symbol for Standard Cantonese based on International Phonetics Alphabet (IPA) in the book A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced according to the Dialect of Canton. ... Standard Cantonese Pinyin is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Yu Bingzhao (ch. ... Standard Romanization is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by Christian missionaries in South China in 1888. ... The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ... Wu (吳方言 pinyin wú fāng yán; 吳語 pinyin wú yǔ) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... Northern Wu Romanization Scheme. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a variant of Amoy Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Hainanese is a dialect of the Min Nan group spoken in the southern Chinese province of Hainan. ... Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating the Standard Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese spoken varieties of Chinese. ... The Teochew dialect (Guangdong romanization: Dio7 Ziu1; Missionary romanization: Tiô-chiu-oē, Chinese:潮州话, Hanyu Pinyin: Cháozhōuhuà, Teochiu or Tiuchiu), is a Chinese language and dialect of Minnan spoken in a region of eastern Guangdong referred to as Chaoshan. ... Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating the Standard Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese spoken varieties of Chinese. ... Min Dong Language (or Eastern Min Language, Chinese: 閩東語, SLC: Mỉng Tòyng ngỹ) is the language mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province (Chinese: 福建, SLC: Huk Kyŏng). ... Fuzhou dialect (Chinese characters: 福州話, Foochow Romanized: Hók-ciÅ­-uâ), also known as Foochow, Foochow dialect or Foochowese, is considered the standard dialect of Min Dong, which is a branch of Chinese mainly spoken in the Eastern part of Fujian Province. ... (Chinese characters: 平話字), also known as Foochow Romanized, is a romanized orthography for the Fuzhou dialect adopted in the middle of 19th century by Western missionaries. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... Meixian (梅縣; Hakka: Moi-yen or Moi-yan) is a county in north eastern Guangdong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating the Standard Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese spoken varieties of Chinese. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... General Chinese (GC) is a phonetic system invented by Yuen Ren Chao to represent the pronunciations of all major Chinese dialects. ... Cyrillization of Chinese from Pinyin It is known as the Palladiy system and is the official Cyrillization of Chinese language in Russia. ... A Chinese-Arabic-Xiaoerjing dictionary from the early days of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... The romanisation of the Chinese language in Singapore is not dictated by a single policy, nor is policy implimentation consistent, as the local Chinese community is composed of a myriad of dialect groups. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ...


Pinyin uses the Latin alphabet to represent sounds in Standard Mandarin. The way these letters represent sounds in Standard Mandarin differ from other languages that use the Roman alphabet. For example, the sounds indicated in pinyin by b and g correspond more closely to the sounds indicated by p and k in some Western uses of the Latin script, e.g., French. Other letters, like j, q, x or zh, indicate sounds that do not correspond to any exact sound in English. Some of the transcriptions in pinyin, such as the ang ending, do not correspond to English pronunciations, either. However, as with any foreign spellings, it also means that a person who has not studied Chinese or the pinyin system is likely to severely mispronounce some words if they were to attempt to pronounce pinyin according to their own language spellings. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...

Contents

History

Hanyu Pinyin was approved in 1958 and adopted in 1979 by the government in the People's Republic of China. It superseded older romanization systems such as Wade-Giles (1859; modified 1892) and Chinese Postal Map Romanization, and replaced Zhuyin as the method of Chinese phonetic instruction in mainland China. Hanyu Pinyin was adopted in 1979 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as the standard romanization for modern Chinese (ISO-7098:1991). It has also been accepted by the Government of Singapore, the Library of Congress, the American Library Association, and many other international institutions. It has also become a useful tool for entering Chinese language text into computers. Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Chinese Postal Map Romanization (Traditional Chinese: 郵政式拼音; Pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì Pīnyīn) refers to the system of romanization for Chinese place names which came into use in the late Qing dynasty and was officially sanctioned by the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference (帝國郵電聯席會議), which was held in Shanghai in the... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Government of Singapore is formed by the political party which gains a 50% majority in the general elections held in Singapore at least once every five years. ... The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. ... ALA Logo The American Library Association (ALA) is a group based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. ... Since the Chinese language uses a logographic script — that is, a script where one or two characters corresponds roughly to one word or meaning — there are vastly more characters, or glyphs, than there are keys on a standard computer keyboard. ...


Pronunciation

The primary purpose of pinyin in Chinese schools is to teach Standard Mandarin pronunciation. For those Chinese who speak Standard Mandarin at home, pinyin is used to help children associate characters with spoken words which they already know; however, for the many Chinese who do not use Standard Mandarin at home, pinyin is used to teach them the Standard Mandarin pronunciation of words when they learn them in elementary school. A student practices writing Chinese characters In Western countries like the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom, a Chinese school is a school established explicitly for the purpose of teaching the Chinese language (of the various Chinese dialects, nowadays Mandarin Chinese or Cantonese Chinese is almost always the... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ...


Pinyin vowels are pronounced similarly to vowels in Romance languages, and most consonants are similar to English. A pitfall for English-speaking novices is, however, the unusual pronunciation of x, q, c, zh, and z (and sometimes -i) and the unvoiced pronunciation of d, b, g, and j. More information on the pronunciation of all pinyin letters in terms of English approximations is given further below. Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... See also consonance in music. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The pronunciation of Chinese is generally given in terms of initials and finals, which represent the segmental phonemic portion of the language. Initials are initial consonants, while finals are all possible combinations of medials (semivowels coming before the vowel), the nucleus vowel, and coda (final vowel or consonant). The initial, also called the onset, or in Chinese shengmu (PY: shēngmǔ, TC: 聲母, SC: 声母), is an important concept in the phonological study of Chinese languages. ... The final, also called the rhyme, or in Chinese yunmu (PY: yùnmǔ, TC: 韻母, SC: 韵母), is an important concept in the phonological study of Chinese languages. ... In linguistics, medial may refer to the following: The glide that occurs before before the main vowel of a syllable, especially in Chinese phonology (see syllable rime) A voiced stop consonant A medial clause in a clause chain This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... In phonetics and phonology, the nucleus is the central part of the syllable, mostly commonly a vowel. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


For a complete table of all pinyin syllables, see pinyin table. This pinyin table is a complete listing of all Hanyu Pinyin syllables used in Standard Mandarin. ...


Initials

In each cell below, the first line indicates IPA, the second indicates pinyin. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Co-
articulated
Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-
palatal
Palatal Velar
Plosive [p]
b
[pʰ]
p
[t]
d
[tʰ]
t
[k]
g
[kʰ]
k
Nasal [m]
m
[n]
n
Lateral approximant [l]
l
Affricate [ts]
z
[tsʰ]
c
[ʈʂ]
zh
[ʈʂʰ]
ch
[tɕ]
j
[tɕʰ]
q
Fricative   [f]
f
[s]
s
[ʂ]
sh
[ʐ] 1
r
[ɕ]
x
[x]
h
Approximant     [w]2
w
  [ɻ] 1
r
[j] 3
y

1 /ɻ/ may phonetically be /ʐ/ (a voiced retroflex fricative). This pronunciation varies among different speakers, and is not two different phonemes.
2 the letter "w" may be considered as an initial or a final, and may be pronounced as /w/ or /u/
3 the letter "y" may be considered as an initial or a final, and may be pronounced as /j/ or /i/
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Co-articulated consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Sagittal section of alveolo-palatal fricative In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants are palatalized postalveolar fricatives, articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... The voiced retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


Conventional order (excluding w and y), derived from the Zhuyin system, is: Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the...

b p m f d t n l g k h j q x zh ch sh r z c s

Finals

In each cell below, the first line indicates IPA, the second indicates pinyin for a standalone (no-initial) form, and the third indicates pinyin for a combination with an initial. Other than finals modified by an -r, which are omitted, the following is an exhaustive table of all possible finals. 1


The only syllable-final consonants in standard Mandarin are -n and -ng, and -r which is attached as a grammatical suffix. Chinese syllables ending with any other consonant is either from a non-Mandarin language (southern Chinese languages such as Cantonese, or minority languages of China), or it indicates the use of a non-pinyin Romanization system (where final consonants may be used to indicate tones).

Nucleus Coda Medial
Ø i u y
a Ø [a]
a
-a
[ia]
ya
-ia
[ua]
wa
-ua
i [aɪ]
ai
-ai
[uaɪ]
wai
-uai
u [aʊ]
ao
-ao
[iaʊ]
yao
-iao
n [an]
an
-an
[iɛn]
yan
-ian
[uan]
wan
-uan
[yɛn]
yuan
-üan 2
ŋ [ɑŋ]
ang
-ang
[iɑŋ]
yang
-iang
[uɑŋ]
wang
-uang
ə Ø [ɤ]
e
-e
[iɛ]
ye
-ie
[uɔ]
wo
-uo/-o 3
[yɛ]
yue
-üe 2
i [eɪ]
ei
-ei
[ueɪ]
wei
-ui
u [ɤʊ]
ou
-ou
[iɤʊ]
you
-iu
n [ən]
en
-en
[in]
yin
-in
[uən]
wen
-un
[yn]
yun
-ün 2
ŋ [ɤŋ]
eng
-eng
[iɤŋ]
ying
-ing
[uɤŋ] 4
weng
-ong
[yʊŋ]
yong
-iong
Ø [z̩]

-i
[i]
yi
-i
[u]
wu
-u
[y]
yu
2

1 /ər/ (而, 二, etc.) is written as er. For other finals formed by the suffix -r, pinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends -r to the final that it is added to, without regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way. For information on sound changes related to final -r, please see Standard Mandarin.
2 "ü" is written as "u" after j, q, x, or y.
3 "uo" is written as "o" after b, p, m, or f.
4 It is pronounced [ʊŋ] when it follows an initial, and pinyin reflects this difference.
Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ...


In addition, ê [ɛ] is used to represent certain interjections. An interjection is a part of speech that usually has no grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker, although most interjections have clear definitions. ...


Rules given in terms of English pronunciation

All rules given here in terms of English pronunciation are approximate, as several of these sounds do not correspond directly to sounds in English.


Pronunciation of initials

Pinyin IPA Explanation
b [p] unaspirated p, as in spit
p [pʰ] aspirated p, as in pit
m [m] as in English
f [f] as in English
d [t] unaspirated t, as in stop
t [tʰ] aspirated t, as in top
n [n] as in English
l [l] something between the l in English and the continental r
g [k] unaspirated k, as in skill
k [kʰ] aspirated k, as in kill
h [x] like the English h if followed by "a"; otherwise it is pronounced more roughly (not unlike the Scots ch)
j [tɕ] like q, but unaspirated. (To get this sound, first take the sound halfway between joke and check, and then slowly pass it backwards along the tongue until it is entirely clear of the tongue tip.) While this exact sound is not used in English, the closest match is the j in ajar, not the s in Asia; this means that "Beijing" is pronounced like "bay-jing", not like "beige-ing".
q [tɕʰ] like church; pass it backwards along the tongue until it is free of the tongue tip
x [ɕ] like sh, but take the sound and pass it backwards along the tongue until it is clear of the tongue tip; very similar to the final sound in German ich, Portuguese enxada, luxo, xícara, puxa, and to huge or Hugh in some English dialects
zh [ʈʂ] ch with no aspiration (take the sound halfway between joke and church and curl it upwards); very similar to merger in American English, but not voiced
ch [ʈʂʰ] as in chin, but with the tongue curled upwards; very similar to nurture or tree in American English, but strongly aspirated
sh [ʂ] as in shinbone, but with the tongue curled upwards; very similar to undershirt in American English
r [ʐ] or [ɻ] similar to the English r in rank, but with the lips spread and with the tongue curled upwards
z [ts] unaspirated c (halfway between beds and bets) (more common example is suds)
c [tsʰ] like ts, aspirated (more common example is cats)
s [s] as in sun
w [w] or [u] may be considered as an initial or a final, and may be pronounced as w or u as in English
y [j] or [i] may be considered as an initial or a final, and may be pronounced as y or i as in English

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ...

Pronunciation of finals

The following is an exhaustive list of all finals in Standard Mandarin. Those ending with a final -r are listed at the end. Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ...


To find a given final:

  1. Remove the initial consonant. For zh-, ch-, sh-, both letters should be removed, they are single consonants spelt with two letters.
  2. Although y- and w- are consonants nevertheless they may be considered as part of finals and do not remove those.
    1. Syllables beginning with y- and w- may be considered as standalone forms of finals "i, u, ü" and finals beginning with "i-, u-, ü-".
  3. If a syllable begins with j-, q-, x-, or y-, and the final is -u or starts with -u-, then change -u or -u- to -ü or -ü-.
Pinyin IPA Final-only form Explanation
-i [z̩], [ʐ̩] n/a Displayed as an "i" after: "zh", "ch", "sh", "r", "z", "c" or "s". After "z", "c" or "s", sounds like a prolonged "zzz" sound. After "zh", "ch", "sh" or "r", sounds like a prolonged American "r" sound. In some dialects, pronounced slightly more open, allowing a clear-sounding vowel to pass through (a high, central, unrounded vowel, something like IPA /ɨ/; say 'zzz' and lower the tongue just enough for the buzzing to go away).
a [ɑ] a as in "father"
o [uɔ] o starts with English "oo" and ends with a plain continental "o".
e [ɤ], [ə] e a back, unrounded vowel, which can be formed by first pronouncing a plain continental "o" (AuE and NZE law) and then spreading the lips without changing the position of the tongue. That same sound is also similar to English "duh", but not as open. Many unstressed syllables in Chinese use the schwa (idea), and this is also written as e.
ê [ɛ] (n/a) as in "bet". Only used in certain interjections.
ai [aɪ] ai like English "eye", but a bit lighter
ei [ei] ei as in "hey"
ao [ɑʊ] ao approximately as in "cow"; the a is much more audible than the o
ou [ou̯] ou as in "so"
an [an] an starts with plain continental "a" (AuE and NZE bud) and ends with "n"
en [ən] en as in "taken"
ang [ɑŋ] ang as in German Angst, including the English loan word angst (starts with the vowel sound in father and ends in the velar nasal; like song in American English)
eng [ɤŋ] eng like e above but with ng added to it at the back
ong [ʊŋ] n/a starts with the vowel sound in b'ook and ends with the velar nasal sound in sing
er [ɑɻ] er like English "are" (exists only on its own, or as the last part of a final in combination with others - see bottom of this list)
Finals beginning with i- (y-)
i [i] yi like English "ee", except when preceded by "c", "ch", "r", "s", "sh", "z" or "zh"
ia [iɑ] ya as i + a; like English "yard"
io [iɔ] yo as i + plain continental "o". Only used in certain interjections.
ie [iɛ] ye as i + ê; but is very short; e (pronounced like ê) is pronounced longer and carries the main stress (similar to the initial sound ye in yet)
iao [iɑʊ] yao as i + ao
iu [iou̯] you as i + ou
ian [iɛn] yan as i + ê + n; like English yen
in [in] yin as i + n
iang [iɑŋ] yang as i + ang
ing [iŋ] ying as i but with ng added to it at the back
iong [iʊŋ] yong as i + ong;
Finals beginning with u- (w-)
u [u] wu like English "oo"
ua [ua] wa as u + a
uo [uɔ] wo as u + o; the o is pronounced shorter and lighter than in the o final
uai [uaɪ] wai as u + ai
ui [ueɪ] wei as u + ei; here, the i is pronounced like ei
uan [uan] wan as u + an
un [uən] wen as u + en; like the on in the English won
uang [uɑŋ] wang as u + ang; like the ang in English angst or anger
n/a [uɤŋ] weng as u + eng
Finals beginning with ü- (yu-)
ü [y] yu as in German "üben" or French "lune" (To get this sound, say "ee" with rounded lips)
ue [yɛ] yue as ü + ê; the ü is short and light
üan [yɛn] yuan as ü + ê+ n;
ün [yn] yun as ü + n;
Finals that are a combination of finals above + r final
Pinyin IPA Explanation
ar [ɑɻ] like ar in American English "art"
er [ɤɻ] as e + r; not to be confused with er final on its own- this form only exists with an initial character before it
or [uɔɻ] as o + r
air [ɑɻ] as ar
eir [ɝ] as schwa + r
aor [ɑʊɻ] as ao + r
our [ou̯ɻ] as ou + r
anr [ɑɻ] as ar
enr [ɝ] as schwa + r
angr [ɑ̃ɻ] as ang + r, with ng removed and the vowel nasalized
engr [ɤ̃ɻ] as eng + r, with ng removed and the vowel nasalized
ongr [ʊ̃ɻ] as ong + r, with ng removed and the vowel nasalized
ir [iɝ] as i + schwa + r
ir [ɝ] after "c", "ch", "r", "s", "sh", "z", "zh": as schwa + r.
iar [iɑɻ] as i + ar
ier [iɛɻ] as ie + r
iaor [iɑʊɻ] as iao + r
iur [iou̯ɻ] as iou + r
ianr [iɑɻ] as i + ar
inr [iɝ] as ir
iangr [iɑ̃ɻ] as i + angr
ingr [iɤ̃ɻ] as i + engr
iongr [iʊ̃ɻ] as i + ongr
ur [uɻ] as u + r
uar [uɑɻ] as u + ar
uor [uɔɻ] as uo + r
uair [uɑɻ] as u + ar
uir [uɝ] as u + schwa + r
uanr [uɑɻ] as u + ar
unr [uɝ] as u + schwa + r
uangr [uɑ̃ɻ] as u + angr
ür [yɝ] as ü + schwa + r
uer [yɛɻ] as ue + r
üanr [yɑɻ] as ü + ar
ünr [yɝ] as ü + schwa + r

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Orthography

Letters

Pinyin differs from other romanizations in several aspects, such as the following:

  • Syllables starting with u are written as w in place of u (e.g. ueng is written as weng). Standalone u is written as wu.
  • Syllables starting with i are written as y in place of i (e.g. iou is written as you). Standalone i is written as yi.
  • Syllables starting with ü are written as yu in place of ü (e.g. üe is written as yue).
  • ü is written as u when there is no ambiguity (such as ju, qu, and xu), but written as ü when there are corresponding u syllables (such as and ). In such situations where there are corresponding u syllables, it is often replaced with v on a computer, making it easier to type on a standard keyboard.
  • When preceded by a consonant, iou, uei, and uen are simplified as iu, ui, and un (which do not represent the actual pronunciation).
  • As in zhuyin, what are actually pronounced as buo, puo, muo, and fuo are given a separate representation: bo, po, mo, and fo.
  • The apostrophe (') is used before a, o, and e to separate syllables in a word where ambiguity could arise, e.g., pi'ao (Simplified Chinese: 皮袄; Traditional Chinese: 皮襖) vs. piao (票), and Xi'an (西安) vs. xian (先).
  • Eh alone is written as ê; elsewhere as e. Schwa is always written as e.
  • zh, ch, and sh can be abbreviated as , ĉ, and ŝ (z, c, s with a circumflex). However, the shorthands are rarely used due to difficulty of entering them on computers.
  • ng has the uncommon shorthand of ŋ.

Most of the above are used to avoid ambiguity when writing words of more than one syllable in pinyin. For example uenian is written as wenyan because it is not clear which syllables make up uenian; uen-ian, uen-i-an and u-en-i-an are all possible combinations whereas wenyan is unambiguous because we, nya, etc. do not exist in pinyin. A summary of possible pinyin syllables (not including tones), can be reviewed at: pinyin table Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Xian (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsi-An; Postal System Pinyin: Sian), is the capital of Shaanxi province in China and a sub-provincial city. ... Look up eh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The eng is a letter: ÅŠ (capital), Å‹ (small). ... This pinyin table is a complete listing of all Hanyu Pinyin syllables used in Standard Mandarin. ...


Capitalization & word formation

Although Chinese characters represent single syllables, Mandarin Chinese is a polysyllabic language. Spacing in Hanyu Pinyin is based on whole words, not single syllables. However, there are often ambiguities in partitioning a word. Orthographic rules were put into effect in 1988 by the National Educational Commission (国家教育委员会) and the National Language Commission (国家语言文字工作委员会). A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ...

  1. General
    1. Single meaning: Words with a single meaning, which are usually set up of two characters (sometimes one, seldom three), are written together and not capitalized: rén; péngyou, qiǎokèlì (person; friend; chocolate)
    2. Combined meaning (2 characters): Same goes for words combined of two words to one meaning: hǎifēng; wèndá, quánguó (sea breeze; Q&A; 'pan-national')
    3. Combined meaning (4 or more characters): Words with four or more characters having one meaning are split up with their original meaning if possible: wúfèng gāngguǎn; huánjìng bǎohù guīhuà (seamless steel-tube; environmental protection planning)
  2. Duplicated words (AA and ABAB)
    1. AA: Duplicated characters (AA) are written together: rénrén; kànkàn; niánnián (everybody; to have a look; annual)
    2. ABAB: two characters duplicated (ABAB) are written separated: yánjiū yánjiū; xuěbái xuěbái (try again; snow-white)
    3. AABB: A hyphen is used with the schema AABB: láilái-wǎngwǎng; qiānqiān-wànwàn(go back and forth; numerous)
  3. Nouns (míngcí): Nouns are written in one: zhuōzi, mùtou (table, wood)
    1. Even if accompanied by a prefix and suffix: fùbùzhǎng (vice minister), chéngwùyuán (conductor), háizimen (children)
    2. Word of position are separated: mén wài (outdoor), hé li (in the river), huǒchē shàngmian (on the train), Huáng Hé yǐnán (south of the Yellow River)
      1. Exceptions are words traditionally connected: tiānshang (at the sky), dìxia (on the floor), kōngzhōng (in the air), hǎiwài (overseas)
    3. Chinese names are separated from the given name which will be written as one: Lǐ Huá, Wáng Jiàngguó, Zhāng Sān.
      1. Titles following the name are separated and are not capitalized: Wáng bùzhǎng (Minister Wang), Lǐ xiānsheng (Mr. Li), Tián zhǔrèn (Director Tian), Zhào tóngzhì (Comrade Zhao).
      2. The forms of address, Lǎo, Xiǎo, Dà and A, are capitalized: Xiǎo Liú (Young Mr. Liu), Dà Lǐ (Great Li), A Sān (Ah San), Lǎo Qián (Senior Qian), Wú Lǎo (Senior Wu)
        1. Exceptions are: Kǒngzǐ (Master Confucius), Bāogōng (Judge Bao), Xīshī (historical person), Mèngchángjūn (historical person)
    4. Geographical names of China:: Běijīng Shì (City of Beijing), Héběi Shěng (Province of Hebei), Yālù Jiāng (Yalu River), Tài Shān (Mt. Taishan), Dòngtíng Hú (Lake Donting), Táiwān Hǎixiá (Taiwan strait)
    5. Non-Chinese names translated back from Chinese will be written by their original writing: Marx, Einstein, London, Tokyo
  4. Verbs: Verbs and their suffixes (-zhe, -le and -guo) are written as one: kànzhe/kànle/kànguo (to see/saw/seen), jìngxíngzhe (to implement). Le as it appears in the end of a sentence is separated though: Huǒchē dào le (The train arrived).
    1. Verbs and their objects are separated: kàn xìn (read a letter), chī yú (eat fish), kāi wánxiào (to be kidding).
    2. If verbs and their complements are each monosyllabic, they are written together, if not, separated: gǎohuài ("to make broken"), dǎsǐ (hit to death), huàwéi ("to become damp"), zhěnglǐ hǎo (to straighten out), gǎixiě wéi (rewrite a screenplay)
  5. Adjectives (xíngróngcí): A monosyllabic adjective and its reduplication are written as one: mēngmēnglìang (dim), lìangtāngtāng (shining bright)
    1. Complements of size or degree (as xiē, yīxiē, diǎnr, yīdiǎnr) are written separated: dà xiē (a little bigger), kuài yīdiānr (a bit faster)
  6. Pronouns (dàicí)
    1. The plural suffix -men directly follows up: wǒmen (we), tāmen (they)
    2. The demonstrative pronoun zhè (this), nà (that) and the question pronoun nǎ (which) are separated: zhè rén (this person), nà cì huìyì (that meeting), nǎ zhāng bàozhǐ (which newspaper)
      1. Exceptions are: nàli (there), zhèbian (over here), zhège (this piece), zhème (so), zhèmeyàng (that way)... and similar ones.
    3. Words like gè/měi (every, each), mǒu (any), běn (that), gāi (that), wǒ (mine, our), are separated from the measure words following them: gè guó (every nation), gè gè (everyone), měi nián (every year), mǒu gōngchǎng (a certain factory), wǒ xiào (our school).
  7. Numerals and measure words (shùcí hé liàngcí)
  8. Functional words
  9. Proverbs
  10. Capitalization
  11. Separation in the end of a text row

Tones

Relative pitch changes of the four tones
Relative pitch changes of the four tones

The pinyin system also incorporates suprasegmental graphemes to represent the four tones of Mandarin. Each tone is indicated by a diacritical mark above a non-medial vowel. Many books printed in China mix fonts, with vowels and tone marks rendered in a different font than the surrounding text, tends to give such pinyin texts a typographically ungainly appearance. This style, most likely rooted in early technical limitations, has led many to believe that pinyin's rules call for this practice and also for the use of "ɑ" (with no curl over the top) rather than the standard style of the letter "a" found in most fonts. The official rules of Hanyu Pinyin, however, specify no such practice. Note that tone marks can also appear on consonants in certain vowelless exclamations. Image File history File links Pinyin_Tone_Chart. ... Image File history File links Pinyin_Tone_Chart. ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation and vocal stress in speech. ... In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

  1. The first tone (Flat or High Level Tone) is represented by a macron (ˉ) added to the pinyin vowel:

    (ɑ̄) ā ē ī ō ū ǖ Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū Ǖ
  2. The second tone (Rising or High-Rising Tone) is denoted by an acute accent (ˊ):

    (ɑ́) á é í ó ú ǘ Á É Í Ó Ú Ǘ
  3. The third tone (Falling-Rising or Low Tone) is symbolized by a caron/háček ( ˇ ). Note, it is officially not a breve ( ˘ ), lacking a downward angle, although this misuse is somewhat common on the Internet.

    (ɑ̌) ǎ ě ǐ ǒ ǔ ǚ Ǎ Ě Ǐ Ǒ Ǔ Ǚ
  4. The fourth tone (Falling or High-Falling Tone) is represented by a grave accent (ˋ):

    (ɑ̀) à è ì ò ù ǜ À È Ì Ò Ù Ǜ
  5. The fifth or neutral tone (Neutral Tone) is represented by a normal vowel without any accent mark:

    (ɑ) a e i o u ü A E I O U Ü
(In some cases, this is also written with a dot before the syllable; for example, ·ma.)

These tone marks normally are only used in Mandarin textbooks or in foreign learning texts, but they are essential for correct pronunciation of Mandarin syllables, as exemplified by the following classic example of five characters whose pronunciations differ only in their tones: A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... ∠, the angle symbol. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ...


Traditional characters:

() () () () (·ma)

  • mā má mǎ mà ( file info) — play in browser (beta)
    • A sound sample of the four tones
    • Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Simplified characters: Zh-pinyin tones with ma. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ...

() () () () (·ma)

  • mā má mǎ mà ( file info) — play in browser (beta)
    • A sound sample of the four tones
    • Problems listening to the file? See media help.

The words are "mother", "hemp", "horse", "admonish" and a question particle, respectively. Zh-pinyin tones with ma. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ...


Numbers in place of tone marks

Since most computer fonts do not contain the macron or caron accents, a common convention is to add a digit representing the tone to the end of individual syllables. For example, "tóng" (tong with the rising tone) is written "tong2". The number used for each tone is as the order listed above (except the "fifth tone", which, in addition to being numbered 5, is also sometimes not numbered or numbered zero, as in ma0 (吗/嗎, an interrogative marker). A question is any of several kinds of linguistic expressions normally used by a questioner to request the presentation of information back to the questioner, in the form of an answer, by the audience. ...

Tone Tone Mark Number added to end of syllable
in place of tone mark
Example using
tone mark
Example using
number
IPA
First macron ( ˉ ) 1 ma1 mɑ˥˥
Second acute accent ( ˊ ) 2 ma2 mɑ˧˥
Third caron ( ˇ ) 3 ma3 mɑ˨˩˦
Fourth grave accent ( ˋ ) 4 ma4 mɑ˥˩
"Neutral" or "Fifth" No mark
or dot before syllable (·)
no number
5
0
ma
·ma
ma
ma5
ma0

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ...

Rules for placing the tone mark

The rules for determining on which vowel the tone mark appears are as follows:

  1. If there is more than one vowel and the first vowel is i, u, or ü, then the tone mark appears on the second vowel.[citation needed]
  2. In all other cases, the tone mark appears on the first vowel.

(y and w are not considered vowels for these rules.)


The reasoning behind these rules is in the case of diphthongs and triphthongs, i, u, and ü (and their orthographic equivalents y and w when there is no initial consonant) are considered medial glides rather than part of the syllable nucleus in Chinese phonology. The rules ensure that the tone mark always appears on the nucleus of a syllable. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In phonetics, a triphthong (Greek τρίφθογγος, triphthongos, literally with three sounds, or with three tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another that passes over a third one. ... In linguistics, medial may refer to the following: The glide that occurs before before the main vowel of a syllable, especially in Chinese phonology (see syllable rime) A voiced stop consonant A medial clause in a clause chain This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... In phonetics and phonology, the nucleus is the central part of the syllable, mostly commonly a vowel. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...


Another algorithm for determining the vowel on which the tone mark appears is as follows:

  1. First, look for an "a" or an "e". If either vowel appears, it takes the tone mark. There are no possible pinyin syllables that contain both an "a" and an "e".
  2. If there is no "a" or "e", look for an "ou". If "ou" appears, then the "o" takes the tone mark.
  3. If none of the above cases hold, then the last vowel in the syllable takes the tone mark.

The character "ü"

An umlaut is placed over the letter u when it occurs after the initials l and n in order to represent the sound [y]. This is necessary in order to distinguish the front high rounded vowel in (e.g. 驴/驢 donkey) from the back high rounded vowel in lu (e.g. 炉/爐 oven). Tonal markers are added on top of the umlaut, as in . The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ...


However, the ü is not used in other contexts where it represents a front high rounded vowel, namely after the letters j, q, x and y. For example, the sound of the word 鱼/魚 (fish) is transcribed in pinyin simply as , not as . This practice is opposed to Wade-Giles, which always uses ü, and Tongyong Pinyin, which always uses yu. Whereas Wade-Giles needs to use the umlaut to distinguish between chü (pinyin ju) and chu (pinyin zhu), this ambiguity cannot arise with pinyin, so the more convenient form ju is used instead of . Genuine ambiguities only happen with nu/ and lu/, which are then distinguished by an umlaut diacritic. Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pÄ«nyÄ«n; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ...


Many fonts or output methods do not support an umlaut for ü or cannot place tone marks on top of ü. Likewise, using ü in input methods is difficult because it is not present as a simple key on many keyboard layouts. For these reasons v is sometimes used instead by convention. Occasionally, uu (double u), u: (u followed by a colon) or U (capital u) is used in its place.


Comparison chart

Vowels
IPA ɑ ɔ ɤ ɑʊ ɤʊ an ən ɑŋ ɤŋ ɑɻ ʊŋ i iɤʊ iɛn iɪn jiŋ
Pinyin a o e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng er ong yi ye you yan yin ying
Tongyong Pinyin a o e ai ei ao ou an en ang eng er ong yi ye you yan yin ying
Wade-Giles a o o/ê ai ei ao ou an ên ang êng êrh ung i yeh yu yen yin ying
Zhuyin ㄨㄥ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄥ
example
Vowels
IPA u ueɪ uan uən uʊn uɤŋ uʊŋ y yɛn yn yʊŋ
Pinyin wu wo wei wan wen weng yu yue yuan yun yong
Tongyong Pinyin wu wo wei wan wun wong yu yue yuan yun yong
Wade-Giles wu wo wei wan wên wêng yüeh yüan yün yung
Zhuyin ㄨㄛ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄢ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄥ ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ ㄩㄥ
example
Consonants
IPA p m fəŋ fʊŋ tiou tuei ny ly kəɻ tɕiɛn tɕyʊŋ tɕʰɪn ɕyɛn
Pinyin b p m feng diu dui t ger k he jian jiong qin xuan
Tongyong Pinyin b p m fong diou duei t nyu lyu ger k he jian jyong cin syuan
Wade-Giles p p' m fêng tiu tui t' kêrh k' ho chien chiung ch'in hsüan
Zhuyin ㄈㄥ ㄉㄧㄡ ㄉㄨㄟ ㄋㄩ ㄌㄩ ㄍㄜㄦ ㄏㄜ ㄐㄧㄢ ㄐㄩㄥ ㄑㄧㄣ ㄒㄩㄢ
example 歌儿
Consonants
IPA ʈʂə ʈʂɚ ʈʂʰə ʈʂʰɚ ʂə ʂɚ ɻə ɻɚ tsə tsuɔ tsɨ tsʰə tsʰɨ
Pinyin zhe zhi che chi she shi re ri ze zuo zi ce ci se si
Tongyong Pinyin jhe jhih che chih she shih re rih ze zuo zih ce cih se sih
Wade-Giles chê chih ch'ê ch'ih shê shih jih tsê tso tzŭ ts'ê tz'ŭ szŭ
Zhuyin ㄓㄜ ㄔㄜ ㄕㄜ ㄖㄜ ㄗㄜ ㄗㄨㄛ ㄘㄜ ㄙㄜ
example
Tones
IPA ma˥˥ ma˧˥ ma˨˩˦ ma˥˩
Pinyin
Tongyong Pinyin ma maˊ maˇ maˋ
Wade-Giles ma1 ma2 ma3 ma4
Zhuyin ㄇㄚ ㄇㄚˊ ㄇㄚˇ ㄇㄚˋ
example (traditional/simplfied) 媽/妈 麻/麻 馬/马 罵/骂

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pīnyīn; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pīnyīn; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pīnyīn; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pīnyīn; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pīnyīn; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Pinyin in Taiwan

Taiwan has adopted Tongyong Pinyin on the national level since October 2002. Tongyong Pinyin is a modified version of Hanyu Pinyin. The adoption of Tongyong Pinyin has also resulted in political controversy. Much of the controversy centered on issues of national identity, with proponents of Chinese reunification favoring the Hanyu Pinyin system which is used on the People's Republic of China, and proponents of Taiwanese independence favoring the use of Tongyong Pinyin.[citation needed] Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pīnyīn; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... Chinese (re)unification (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a goal of Chinese nationalism that refers to the reunification of all of Greater China under a single political entity. ...


Localities with governments controlled by the Kuomintang, most notably Taipei City, have overridden the 2002 administrative order and converted to Hanyu Pinyin (although with a slightly different capitalization convention than the Mainland). As a result, the use of romanization on signage in Taiwan is inconsistent, with many places using Tongyong Pinyin but some using Hanyu Pinyin, and still others not yet having had the resources to replace older Wade-Giles or MPS2 signage. This has resulted in the odd situation in Taipei City in which inconsistent pinyin are shown in freeway directions, with freeway signs, which are under the control of the national government, using one pinyin, but surface street signs, which are under the control of the city government, using the other.[citation needed] The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Alternative meaning: Taipei County City nickname: the City of Azaleas Capital District Xinyi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (國語注音符號第二式), abbreviated MPS II, is a romanization system formerly used in the Republic of China (Taiwan). ...


Primary education continues to teach pronunciation using the zhuyin system in Taiwan. Although the ROC government has stated the desire to use romanization rather than zhuyin in education, the lack of agreement on which form of pinyin to use and the huge logistical challenge of teacher training has stalled these efforts.[citation needed] Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the...


Other languages

Pinyin-like systems have been devised for other variants of Chinese. Guangdong Romanization is a set of romanizations devised by the government of Guangdong province for Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka (Moiyen dialect), and Hainanese. All of these are designed to use Latin letters in a similar way to pinyin. Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating the Standard Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese spoken varieties of Chinese. ... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... The Teochew dialect (Guangdong romanization: Dio7 Ziu1; Missionary romanization: Tiô-chiu-oē, Chinese:潮州话, Hanyu Pinyin: Cháozhōuhuà, Teochiu or Tiuchiu), is a Chinese language and dialect of Minnan spoken in a region of eastern Guangdong referred to as Chaoshan. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... Hainanese or Qiong Wen is a variant of the Min Nan group of Chinese spoken in the southern Chinese island province of Hainan. ...


In addition, in accordance to the Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages (少数民族语地名汉语拼音字母音译转写法) promulgated in 1976, place names in non-Chinese languages like Mongol, Uyghur, and Tibetan are also officially transcribed using pinyin. The pinyin letters (26 Roman letters, ü, ê) are used to approximate the non-Chinese language in question as closely as possible. This results in spellings that are different from both the customary spelling of the place name, and the pinyin spelling of the name in Chinese: The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in Central Asia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ...

Customary Official (Pinyin for local name) Chinese name Pinyin for Chinese name
Shigatse Xigazê 日喀则 Rìkāzé
Urumchi Ürümqi 乌鲁木齐 Wūlǔmùqí
Lhasa Lhasa 拉萨 Lāsà
Golmud Golmud 格尔木 Gé'ěrmù
See also: Tibetan Pinyin

Shigatse (Tibetan: གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་; Wylie transliteration: Gzhis-ka-rtse; Modified Wiley: gzhi-ka-rtse; pinyin (Tibetan): Xigazê; Chinese: 日喀则; pinyin: Rìkāzé, Zhigatse [Zhi-ga-tse], and Xigatse) is the second largest city in Tibet with a population of 80,000. ... Ãœrümqi Ãœrümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; Uyghur Latin script: Ãœrümqi; Simplified Chinese: 乌鲁木齐; Traditional Chinese: 烏魯木齊; pinyin: ), with a population about 1. ... Lhasa (Tibetan: ལྷ་ས་; Wylie: lha sa; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), sometimes spelled Llasa, is the traditional capital of Tibet and the capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Location of Golmud Golmud (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Koerhmu; Tibetan: ན་གོར་མོ་; Wylie: Na-gor-mo) is a county-level city of Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province, China. ... The Peoples Republic of Chinas Tibetan Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zàngwén PÄ«nyÄ«n; Tibetan: བོད་ཡིག་གི་སྒྲ་སྦྱོར་) is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in China. ...

Controversy

Debate continues about the actual suitability of pinyin as a Chinese romanization method. This argument revolves around pinyin's unconventional use of Roman letters, of which the phonological values of some phonemes are quite different from that of most languages utilizing the Roman alphabet. Some sinologists praise this as pinyin's flexibility in that it allows the entire Roman alphabet to be adapted to the Chinese sound system (compared to Wade-Giles, which leaves out or underuses many letters). Others point out that pinyin letter values are so unconventional that for a person unfamiliar with Chinese, they result in a larger number of mispronunciations when compared to Wade-Giles. However, as not only the PRC but by now most institutions and publications have adopted it, the debate seems increasingly obsolete. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Sinology is the study of China, which usually requires a foreign scholar to have command of the Chinese language. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ...


Pinyin, like all systems of romanization, has certain limitations that users should be aware of:

  • Like the spelling systems of any other language, pinyin does not represent English pronunciation and should not be pronounced according to English conventions. Readers are advised to learn pinyin phonetic conventions, bearing in mind that many sounds have no equivalents in English.
  • Chinese characters can indicate semantic cues. But since pinyin is based only on the sounds of Standard Mandarin, these semantic cues are no longer preserved. For speakers of other Chinese spoken variants who do not speak Standard Mandarin, pinyin is unsuitable for use in reading and writing because these sounds do not correspond to their speech.
  • The phonotactics of spoken Mandarin dictate a relatively small set of possible syllables resulting in many homophones. Because of this, pinyin can be more ambiguous than Chinese characters,[1] especially when transcribing Standard Written Chinese, which uses formal constructions not often found in speech. However, this should not be much of an issue in the transcription of normal spoken Mandarin conversation since speakers would not use such highly ambiguous constructions in speech. And Pinyin, as an accurate and unambiguous written representation of the sounds of Mandarin, should not be notably more ambiguous than other languages written with an alphabet.

Computer systems long provided the most convincing argument in favor of pinyin; early computers were able to display nothing but 7-bit ASCII (essentially the 26 letters, the 10 digits, and a handful of punctuation marks). Most contemporary computer systems are now able to readily display characters from not only Chinese, but from many other writing systems as well. In addition, multiple input method editors exist that use standard keyboards to type them (pinyin being one such method). Now, PDAs, tablet PCs and digitizing tablets allow users to write characters with a stylus, which can then be stored and edited like any text. Thus, this justification is no longer as strong as it used to be. In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Look up Homophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vernacular Chinese is a style of written Chinese associated with Standard Mandarin. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... An IME for inputting Japanese characters in Mac OS 9 An IME for inputting Japanese characters using Windows XPs radical IME pad An input method editor (IME) is a program or operating system component that allows computer users to enter characters and symbols not found on their keyboard. ... User with PDA Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. ... A Tablet PC is a notebook- or slate-shaped mobile computer. ... A graphics tablet (or digitizing tablet) is a computer peripheral device that allows for a relatively simple method of inputing hand-drawn graphics or art into a computer in real time. ... Modern stylus, used for touch-screen enabled devices such as the Nintendo DS and personal digital assistants Styli used in writing in the Fourteenth Century. ...


Nonetheless, pinyin has gained wide acceptance, and supporters believe it is useful for students of Chinese as a second language. Also, the ability to easily convert electronic Chinese texts written in traditional or simplified characters into pinyin using computer programs such as the Chinese Pronunciation Tool has greatly increased the value of being able to read pinyin.


Accessibility note

Some Internet users using the Internet Explorer browser may have difficulty displaying characters bearing the third tone mark. If the following character displays as an empty square box: ǔ, do the following: on the Internet Explorer menu at the top of the screen select "Tools," then "Internet Options," then "Accessibility." Check the box labeled "Ignore font styles specified on Web pages." Click "OK." After that, select "Tools," then "Internet Options," then "Fonts." In the menu at the left, select "Arial Unicode MS" (or "Arial," if this font is not available), then click "OK." It may also be necessary to select "View," then "Encoding," then "Unicode (UTF-8)."


Entering toned pinyin with Mac OS X

Activate the "US Extended" keyboard in System Preferences and then do: System Preferences is the application used by Mac OS X to set user preferences. ...

  • Option-a and then <vowel> to create the first tones: ā, ī, ē, ō, ū
  • Option-e and then <vowel> to create the second tones: á, é, í, ó, ú
  • Option-v and then <vowel> to create the third tone: ǎ, ǐ, ě, ǒ, ǔ
  • Option-` and then <vowel> to create the fourth tone: à, ì, è, ò, ù
  • u and then Shift-Option-u and then Shift-Option-<a, e, v or `> gives ǖ, ǘ, ǚ or ǜ.

Entering toned pinyin with Windows

Pinyinput is a Windows-based IME that allows you to type toned pinyin with ease. Because it works at the system level, it will allow you to type pīnyīn with tones in any Windows program just as easily as you would type Chinese (in fact even easier, because you don't need to select the correct character). Activate the IME then start typing pinyin. Type a number from 1-4 after a pinyin syllable, and the corresponding tone will automatically be placed on the correct vowel of that syllable.


See also

Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pīnyīn; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ... This pinyin table is a complete listing of all Hanyu Pinyin syllables used in Standard Mandarin. ... List of ISO standards for transliterations. ... The Peoples Republic of Chinas Tibetan Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zàngwén Pīnyīn; Tibetan: བོད་ཡིག་གི་སྒྲ་སྦྱོར་) is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in China. ... Legge romanization is a transliteration system for Mandarin Chinese, used by the prolific 19th Century sinologist James Legge. ... Chinese Postal Map Romanization (Traditional Chinese: 郵政式拼音; Pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì Pīnyīn) refers to the system of romanization for Chinese place names which came into use in the late Qing dynasty and was officially sanctioned by the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference (帝國郵電聯席會議), which was held in Shanghai in the... Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ...

References

  • Yin Binyong 尹斌庸 and Mary Felley (1990). Chinese Romanization. Pronunciation and Orthography (Hanyu pinyin he zhengcifa 汉语拼音和正词法). Beijing: Sinolingua. ISBN 7-80052-148-6 / ISBN 0-8351-1930-0.

Notes

  1. ^ Chinese characters can also be ambiguous in that the same character can represent two or more different meanings and two or more different pronunciations in standard Mandarin. For example the character 中 can be pronounced as either "zhōng" or "zhòng" and may have the meaning of any one of the several meanings of these two words.

External links

Auto-converters

  • Pinyinput An IME that outputs pinyin with tone marks, and greatly simplifies the process of entering pinyin with tone marks on Windows.
  • Pinyin4j: Java library supporting Chinese to various pinyin representations Support Simplified and Traditional Chinese; Target pinyin systems include Hanyu Pinyin, Tongyong Pinyin, Wade-Giles, MPS2, Yale and Gwoyeu Romatzyh; Support multiple pronunciations of a single character; Support customized output, such as ü or tone marks.
  • Pinyin Translator Pinyin with tone mark for traditional or simplified Chinese text.
  • Pinyin Tone Tool Convert pinyin with tone numbers into pinyin with tone marks above the correct vowels. Doesn't require page re-loads.
  • Chinese pronunciation tool Paste a Chinese text and get the pinyin pronunciation of all the characters.
  • Pinyin editor Write Pinyin with tone.
  • Pinyin Annotator Add pinyin on top of any Chinese text. Mouse over any word to see English tranlation. Save output to OpenOffice Writer format. Prints nicely. Also adds pinyin to any Chinese web page.

Other


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yin & Yang and the I Ching (7673 words)
First of all, the latter uses an adapted Pinyin alphabet, where "x" is used for "s" and "g" for final "k." Second, although Pinyin introduced the use of Greek-like accents to show tones, the Dictionary reverts to the old Wade-Giles way of simply numbering the tones with superscripts.
Pinyin, besides the phonemic redundancy, has the drawback that the sound of a number of letters (like q and x) has nothing to do with how they are pronounced in most Western languages.
Since Pinyin was willing to pick phonetic values of the Latin alphabet from different languages, the undotted Turkish I might have been considered for the "i" sound, though this is not available in HTML and is, as noted, unnecessary.
Pinyin (1434 words)
Pinyin (拼音 pin1 yin1) literally means "spelling according to sounds" in Mandarin and usually refers to Hanyu pinyin (汉语拼音, literal meaning: "Han language pinyin"), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Mandarin used in the People's Republic of China.
Pinyin was approved in 1958 and adopted in 1979 by its government.
Pinyin uses the Roman alphabet, hence the pronunciation is relatively straightforward for Westerners.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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