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Encyclopedia > Pin (chess)

Here there is an absolute pin on the black knight because moving it would illegally expose the black king to check from the white bishop.

In chess, a pin is a situation in which a piece is forced to stay put because moving it would expose a more valuable piece behind it to capture. In effect, pinned pieces are blocking a check on a king or blocking an attack on a more valuable piece. Listen to this article Â· (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-03-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... The word check has these meanings: In finance, a cheque (spelt check in American English) is an order for transfer of money. ... The king (â™”â™š) is the most important piece in the game of chess. ...

In the diagram to the right, the black knight is pinned to the black king by the white bishop. This is an absolute pin, because the rules forbid moving the knight, as it would expose the king to attack. The knight moves in an L shape. ... A bishop (â™—â™) is a piece in the board game of chess. ...

The black rook is pinning the white knight to the white queen. This is a relative pin; White is unlikely to move the knight because this would lose the queen, a far more valuable pieceābut White still has the choice. A rook (borrowed from Persian Ø±Ø® rokh) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess. ... The queen is the most powerful piece in the game of chess. ...

Only pieces that can move an indefinite number of squares in a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal line can pin opposing pieces down. Because bishops can move diagonally, rooks can move horizontally or vertically, and queens can move in all three of these directions in a line, these three kinds of pieces can pin opposing pieces down, relatively or absolutely. Kings, knights, and pawns cannot pin other pieces down. Any piece can be pinned down except the king, because the king is the most valuable piece a player has. The pawn (â™™â™Ÿ) is the weakest and most numerous piece in the game of chess, representing infantry, or more particularly pikemen. ...

In cases of an Absolute Pin, the pinned piece cannot move at all without exposing its valued piece to attack, thus that being the King. In cases of a Relative Pin, the pinned piece can still move along the line of linear attack (such as along a file, rank, or diagonal), but were it to move off this line of attack, the valued piece would be exposed to the attack. In many cases, such a partially pinned piece may be able to capture the pinning piece to end that pin.

It is possible for two opposing pieces to be partially pinning each other. It is also possible for one piece to be absolutely pinned in one direction and relatively pinned in one or more other directions (orientations).

The act of breaking a pin is unpinning. This can be executed in a number of ways: the piece creating the pin can be captured; a piece can be put between the pinning unit and the pinned unit; a piece can be put between the pinned unit and the unit to which it is pinned; or the unit to which a piece is pinned can be moved.

Although the chess tactics article does not specifically categorize pins as tactics, they are useful in tactical situations. One tactic which takes advantage of a pin can be called working the pin. In this tactic, other pieces from the pinning piece's side attack the opposing pinned piece. Since the pinned piece cannot move out of the line of attack, the pinned piece's player may move other pieces to defend the pinned piece, but the pinning player may yet attack with even more pieces, etc. Pinning can also be used in combination with other tactics. For example, a piece can be pinned to prevent it from moving to attack, or a defending piece can be pinned as part of tactic undermining an opponent's defense. A pinned piece can no longer be counted on as a defender of another friendly piece (that is out of the pinning line of attack) or as an attacker of an opposing piece (out of the pinning line). However, a pinned piece can still check the opposing king. In chess, a tactic refers to a short sequence of moves which limits the opponents options and which results in tangible gain. ... In combinatorial mathematics, a combination is an un-ordered collection of unique elements. ... Undermining (also known as Removal of the Guard) is a chess tactic in which a defensive piece is captured, leaving one of the opponents pieces undefended or underdefended. ...

A pin that often occurs in openings is the move Bb5 (see algebraic chess notation) which, if Black has moved their d-pawn, pins the knight on c6, because moving the knight would expose the king on e8 to check. A common way to win the queen is to pin her to the king with a rook: for instance with a white rook on e1, the black queen on e5 and the black king on e8. Algebraic chess notation is the method used today by all competition chess organizations and most books, magazines, and newspapers to record and describe the play of chess games. ...

Sometimes in a chess game position, a piece my be considered to be in a situational pin. In a situational pin, moving the pinned piece out of the line of attack will result in a situation detrimental to the player of the pinned piece, such as a checkmate. Although a situational pin is not an absolute pin and the pinned piece can still be moved according to the rules, moving out of line of attack can result in a bad situation or even immediate loss of the game.

Consider the chess position shown at right. White has not castled or moved the king or rook yet. The black bishop has just moved from e6 to d5, making itself unprotected and available for capture by the white knight on b4. It is now white's turn to move. Should white's knight capture the black bishop?

Results from FactBites:

 Pin (chess) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (834 words) The fl rook is pinning the white knight to the white queen. A pin that often occurs in openings is the move Bb5 (see algebraic chess notation) which, if Black has moved their d-pawn, pins the knight on c6, because moving the knight would expose the king on e8 to check. A common way to win the queen is to pin her to the king with a rook: for instance with a white rook on e1, the fl queen on e5 and the fl king on e8.
 Chess - definition of Chess in Encyclopedia (1173 words) Chess (from the Persian word Shah) is a board game for two players played on a square board divided into eight rows (or ranks) and eight columns (or files) creating 64 individual squares which alternate in color orthogonally (traditionally as white and fl although other shades are sometimes used). Chess is not a game of chance; it is based solely on tactics and strategy, and for this reason, it is sometimes known by the sobriquet "the game of Kings". Chess is sometimes seen as an abstract wargame; as a "mental martial art", and teaching chess has been advocated as a way of enhancing mental prowess.
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