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Encyclopedia > Pilgrims
Part of a series on
Calvinism
(see also Portal)
John Calvin

Background
Christianity
St. Augustine
The Reformation
Five Solas
Synod of Dort
Pilgrim may mean: Pilgrim, one who undertakes a religious pilgrimage Pilgrims, the English colonists of Plymouth, Massachusetts Pilgrim (brig), the brig made famous by Danas Two Years Before the Mast Pilgrim Nuclear Generating Station, the nuclear power plant Pilgrim Award, an award presented for Lifetime Achievement in the field... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ...

Distinctives
Five Points (TULIP)
Covenant Theology
Regulative principle
The Five points of Calvinism, sometimes called the doctrines of grace and remembered in the English-speaking world with the mnemonic TULIP, are a summary of the judgments (or canons) rendered by the Synod of Dordt reflecting the Calvinist understanding of the nature of divine grace and predestination as it... Covenant Theology is not to be confused with the Covenanters For Covenantal Theology in the Roman Catholic perspective, see Covenantal Theology (Roman Catholic). ... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church...

Documents
Calvin's Institutes
Confessions of faith
Geneva Bible
Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ... The Reformed churches express their consensus of faith in various creeds. ... The Geneva Bible was a Protestant translation of the Bible into English. ...

Influences
Theodore Beza
John Knox
Huldrych Zwingli
Jonathan Edwards
Princeton theologians
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703- March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher and theologian. ... The Princeton theology is a tradition of conservative, Christian, Reformed and Presbyterian theology at Princeton Seminary, in Princeton, New Jersey. ...

Churches
Reformed
Presbyterian
Congregationalist
Particular Baptist
-1... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The name Reformed Baptist does not refer to a distinct denomination but instead is a description of the churchs theological leaning. ...

Peoples
Afrikaner Calvinists
Huguenots
Pilgrims
Puritans
Scots
Afrikaner Calvinism is, according to theory, a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking people of South Africa. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Scotland, in common with the rest of the United Kingdom, is traditionally a Christian nation with around 70% claiming to be Christian. ...

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Pilgrims, or Pilgrim Fathers, is a name commonly applied to the early settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Maine. Their leadership came from a religious congregation who had fled a volatile political environment in the East Midlands of England for the relative calm of the Netherlands to preserve their religion. Concerned with losing their cultural identity, the group later arranged with English investors to establish a new colony in North America. The colonists faced a lengthy series of challenges, from bureaucracy, impatient investors and internal conflicts to sabotage, storms, disease, and uncertain relations with the indigenous people. The colony, established in 1620, became the second successful English settlement in what was to become the United States of America, the first being Jamestown, Virginia, which was founded in 1607. Their story has become a central theme of the history and culture of the United States. Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... Plymouth is a town located in Penobscot County, Maine. ... The East Midlands is one of the regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbor. ... Year 1607 (MDCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Separatists in Scrooby

The people who would come to be known as the Pilgrims (known as the Pilgrim Fathers in the United Kingdom) were brought together by a common belief in the ideas promoted by Richard Clyfton, parson at All Saints' Parish Church in Babworth, East Retford, Nottinghamshire, between 1586 and 1605. This congregation held Separatist beliefs comparable to nonconforming movements (i.e., groups not in communion with the Church of England) led by Henry Barrowe, John Greenwood and Robert Browne. Unlike conforming Puritan groups who maintained their membership in and allegiance to the Church of England, Separatists held that their differences with the Church of England were irreconcilable and that their worship should be organized independently of the trappings, traditions and organization of a central state church.[1] Unlike the Puritans the Pilgrims left England seeking a complete physical separation. William Brewster, a former diplomatic assistant to the Netherlands, was living in the Scrooby manor house, serving as postmaster for the village and bailiff to the Archbishop of York. Having been favorably impressed by Clyfton's services, he had begun participating in Separatist services led by John Smyth in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire.[2] The Separatists had long been controversial. Under the 1559 Act of Uniformity, it was illegal not to attend official Church of England services, with a fine of 12d (£.05; 2005 equivalent: about £5)[3] for each missed Sunday and holy day. The penalties for conducting unofficial services included imprisonment and larger fines. Under the policy of this time, Barrowe and Greenwood were executed for sedition in 1593. Richard Clyfton was the Separatist pastor of Babworths All Saints Parish Church in England. ... Babworth is a village and civil parish in the Bassetlaw district of Nottinghamshire, England, about 1½ miles west of East Retford. ... Retford is a town on the River Idle, in the Nottinghamshire, England district of Bassetlaw. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... “Separatists” redirects here. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Henry Barrow (1550—1593), English Puritan and Separatist, was born about 1550, near Norfolk, of a family related by marriage to the lord keeper Bacon, and probably to Aylmer, Bishop of London. ... see also 1. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Signing of the Mayflower Compact Elder William Brewster (born c. ... A small village in north Nottinghamshire which was the home of William Brewster one of the Pilgrim Fathers who set sail for America in 1620. ... If you are looking for different meanings of this word, see Postmaster (disambiguation) A postmaster is a term used in post offices to denote the head or master of the office. ... Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian (cf. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... John Smyth (1570 - c. ... Gainsborough may refer to: Several places: Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England An area in Ipswich, England Gainsborough Area in Kiama Downs, New South Wales, Australia Aeris Gainsborough, a character from Final Fantasy VII Thomas Gainsborough, a painter (who is often referred to simply as Gainsborough) Humphrey Gainsborough, Thomass brother Gainsborough Pictures... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... The Act of Uniformity 1559 set the order of prayer to be used in the English Book of Common Prayer. ... Above: A variety of coins considered to be lower-value, including an Irish 2p piece and many US pennies. ... GBP redirects here. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... Sedition is a term of law which refers to covert conduct, such as speech and organization, that is deemed by the legal authority as tending toward insurrection against the established order. ...


During much of Brewster's tenure (1595-1606), the Archbishop was Matthew Hutton. He displayed some sympathy to the Puritan (but not to the Separatist) cause, writing to Robert Cecil, Secretary of State to James I in 1604: Matthew Hutton (1529 — 1606), archbishop of York, son of Matthew Hutton of Priest Hutton, in the parish of Warton, North Lancashire, was born in that parish in 1529. ... ] The Right Honourable Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC (1 June 1563–24 May 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Queen Elizabeth I and King James I. Lord Salisbury is the... In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department (though not all departments are headed by a Secretary of State, e. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...

The Puritans (whose phantasticall zeale I mislike) though they differ in Ceremonies & accidentes, yet they agree with us in substance of religion, & I thinke all or the moste p[ar]te of them love his Ma[jes]tie, & the p[re]sente state, & I hope will yield to conformitie. But the Papistes are opposite & contrarie in very many substantiall pointes of religion, & cannot but wishe the Popes authoritie & popish religion to be established.[4]

It had been hoped that when James came to power, a reconciliation allowing independence would be possible, but the Hampton Court Conference of 1604 denied substantially all the concessions requested by Puritans, save for an English translation of the Bible. Following the Conference, in 1605, Clyfton was declared a nonconformist and stripped of his position at Babworth. Brewster invited Clyfton to live at his home. The Hampton Court Conference was a meeting in January 1604, convened at Hampton Court Palace between King James I of England and representatives of the English Puritans. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ...


Upon Hutton's 1606 death, Tobias Matthew was elected as his replacement. Matthew, one of James' chief supporters at the 1604 conference,[5] promptly began a campaign to purge the archdiocese of nonconforming influences, both separatists and papists. Disobedient clergy were replaced, and prominent Separatists were confronted, fined, and imprisoned. He is credited with driving recusants out of the country.[6][7] Tobias Matthew, or Tobie (1546 - March 29, 1628), archbishop of York, was the son of Sir John Matthew of Ross in Herefordshire, and of his wife Eleanor Crofton of Ludlow. ... Papist is a term, usually disparaging, referring to a member of the Roman Catholic Church. ... In the history of England, recusancy was a term used to describe the statutory offence of not complying with the established Church of England. ...


At about the same time, Brewster arranged for a congregation to meet privately at the Scrooby manor house. Beginning in 1606, services were held with Clyfton as pastor, John Robinson as teacher and Brewster as the presiding elder. Shortly thereafter, Smyth and members of the Gainsborough group moved on to Amsterdam.[8] Brewster is known to have been fined £20 (2005 equivalent: about £2000) in absentia for his non-compliance with the church.[9] This followed his September 1607 resignation from the postmaster position,[10] about the time that the congregation had decided to follow the Smyth party to Amsterdam.[1][11] John Robinson (1575-1625) was the pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers before they left on the Mayflower. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see In absentia (disambiguation). ...


Scrooby member William Bradford, of Austerfield, kept a journal of the congregation's events that would later be published as Of Plymouth Plantation. Of this time, he wrote: William Bradford (March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor after John Carver died. ... Austerfield is a village in the metropolitan borough of Doncaster (part of South Yorkshire, England), on the border with Nottinghamshire. ... The front page of the Bradford journal Written over a period of years by the leader of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation is the single most complete authority for the story of the Pilgrims and the early years of the Colony they founded. ...

But after these things they could not long continue in any peaceable condition, but were hunted & persecuted on every side, so as their former afflictions were but as flea-bitings in comparison of these which now came upon them. For some were taken & clapt up in prison, others had their houses besett & watcht night and day, & hardly escaped their hands; and ye most were faine to flie & leave their howses & habitations, and the means of their livelehood.[1]

In the Columbia Encyclopedia, it is stated that "Although not actively persecuted, the group was subjected to ecclesiastical investigation and to the mockery, criticism, and disfavor of their neighbors.".[12] The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ...


Migration to Amsterdam

Unable to obtain the papers necessary to leave England, members of the congregation agreed to leave surreptitiously, resorting to bribery to obtain passage. One documented attempt was in 1607, following Brewster's resignation, when members of the congregation chartered a boat in Boston, Lincolnshire. This turned out to be a sting operation, with all arrested upon boarding. The entire party was jailed for one month awaiting arraignment, at which time all but seven were released. Missing from the record is for how long the remainder were held, but it is known that the leaders made it to Amsterdam about a year later. Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... , Boston is a town and small port in Lincolnshire, UK, on the east coast of England. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Arraignment is a common law term for the formal reading of a criminal complaint, in the presence of the defendant, to inform him of the charges against him. ...


In a second departure attempt in the spring of 1608, arrangements were made with a Dutch merchant to pick up church members along the Humber estuary at Immingham near Grimsby, Lincolnshire. The men had boarded the ship, at which time the sailors spotted an armed contingent approaching. The ship quickly departed before the women and children could board; the stranded members were rounded up but then released without charges. River Hull tidal barrier. ... Immingham (informally referred to as Ming or Ming Ming) is a town in North East Lincolnshire, located on south bank of the Humber Estuary. ... For other uses, see Grimsby (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ...


Ultimately, at least 150 of the congregation did make their way to Amsterdam, meeting up with the Smyth party, who had joined with the Exiled English Church led by Francis Johnson (1562-1617), Barrowe's successor. The Scrooby party remained there for about one year, citing growing tensions between Smyth and Johnson. [11]


Leiden

Title page of a pamphlet published by William Brewster in Leiden
Title page of a pamphlet published by William Brewster in Leiden

The success of the congregation in Leiden was mixed. Leiden was a thriving industrial center,[13] and many members were well able to support themselves working at Leiden University or in the textile, printing and brewing trades. Others were less able to bring in sufficient income, hampered by their rural backgrounds and the language barrier; for those, accommodations were made on an estate bought by Robinson and three partners.[14] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (626x898, 524 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pilgrims ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (626x898, 524 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pilgrims ... Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands[1]. It is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum and the League of European Research Universities. ...


Of their years in Leiden, Bradford wrote:

"For these & other other reasons they removed to Leyden, a fair & bewtifull citie, and of a sweete situation, but made more famous by ye universitie wherwith it is adorned, in which of late had been so many learned man. But wanting that traffike by sea which Amerstdam injoyes, it was not so beneficiall for their outward means of living & estats. But being now hear pitchet they fell to such trads & imployments as they best could; valewing peace & their spirituall comforte above any other riches whatsoever. And at length they came to raise a competente & comforteable living, but with hard and continuall labor.

Brewster had been teaching English at the university, and in 1615, Robinson enrolled to pursue his doctorate. There, he participated in a series of debates, particularly regarding the contentious issue of Calvinism versus Arminianism (siding with the Calvinists against the Remonstrants). See the Synod of Dort. Brewster, in a venture financed by Thomas Brewer, acquired typesetting equipment about 1616 and began publishing the debates through a local press.[15] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Remonstrants, the name given to those Dutch Protestants who, after the death of Arminius, maintained the views associated with his name, and in 1610 presented to the states of Holland and Friesland a remonstrance in five articles formulating their points of departure from stricter Calvinism. ... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The Netherlands was, however, a land whose culture and language were strange and difficult for the English congregation to understand or learn. Their children were becoming more and more Dutch as the years passed by. The congregation came to believe that they faced eventual extinction if they remained there.


Decision to leave

By 1617, although the congregation was stable and relatively secure, there were ongoing issues that needed to be resolved.


Bradford noted that the congregation was aging, compounding the difficulties some had in supporting themselves. Some, having spent through their savings, gave up and returned to England. It was feared that more would follow and that the congregation would become unsustainable. The employment issues made it unattractive for others to come to Leiden, and younger members had begun leaving to find employment and adventure elsewhere. Also compelling was the possibility of missionary work, an opportunity that rarely arose in a Protestant stronghold.[16] For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Reasons for departure are suggested by Bradford, when he notes the "discouragements" of the hard life they had in the Netherlands, and the hope of attracting others by finding "a better, and easier place of living"; the "children" of the group being "drawn away by evil examples into extravagance and dangerous courses"; the "great hope, for the propagating and advancing the gospell of the kingdom of Christ in those remote parts of the world"


Edward Winslow's list was similar. In addition to the economic worries and missionary possibilities, he stressed that it was important for the people to retain their English identity, culture and language. They also believed that the English Church in Leiden could do little to benefit the larger community there.[17] Edward Winslow, 1651, by an anonymous artist Edward Winslow (1595–1655) was an American Pilgrim leader on the Mayflower. ...


At the same time, there were many uncertainties about moving to such a place as America. Stories had come back from there about failed colonies. There were fears that the native people would be violent, that there would be no source of food or water, that exposure to unknown diseases was possible, and that travel by sea was always hazardous. Balancing all this was a local political situation that was in danger of becoming unstable: the truce in what would be known as the Eighty Years' War was faltering, and there was fear over what the attitudes of Spain toward them might be.[16] Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ...


Candidate destinations included Guiana, where the Dutch had already established Essequibo, or somewhere near the existing Virginia settlements. Virginia was an attractive destination because the presence of the older colony might offer better security. It was thought, however, that they should not settle too near since that might too closely duplicate the political environment back in England. The London Company that administered Virginia covered a large area, so some distance would be possible. Guiana (also known as the Guiana highlands or the Guiana shield) forms a portion of the northern coast of South America. ... Essequibo is the name of a Dutch colony founded in 1616 and located in the region of the Essequibo River. ... A map of the Colony of Virginia. ... Virginia Company of London Seal The London Company (also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established by royal charter by James I on April 10, 1606 with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America. ...


Negotiations

Robert Cushman and John Carver were sent to England to solicit a land patent. Their negotiations were delayed because of conflicts internal to the London Company, but ultimately a patent was secured in the name of John Wincob on June 9 (Old Style)/June 19 (New Style), 1619.[18] The charter was granted with the king's condition that the Leiden group's religion would not receive official recognition.[19] Robert Cushman (1578-1625) was one of the Pilgrim Fathers. ... Signing of the Mayflower Compact John Carver, born c. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Because of the continued problems within the London Company, preparations stalled. The congregation was approached by competing Dutch companies, and the possibility of settling in the Hudson River area was discussed with them.[17][19] These negotiations were broken off at the encouragement of another English merchant, Thomas Weston, who assured them that he could resolve the London Company delays.[20] , The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois,[1][2][3] or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, Θkahnéhtati[4] in Tuscarora), is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and...


Weston did come back with a substantial change, telling the Leiden group that parties in England had obtained a land grant north of the existing Virginia territory, to be called New England. This was only partially true; the new grant would come to pass, but not until late in 1620 when the Plymouth Council for New England received its charter. It was expected that this area could be fished profitably, and it was not under the control of the existing Virginia government.[20][21] This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The sea to sea grant of Plymouth Council for New England is shown in green. ...


A second change was known only to parties in England who chose not to inform the larger group. New investors who had been brought into the venture wanted the terms altered so that at the end of the seven year contract, half of the settled land and property would revert to them; and that the provision for each settler to have two days per week to work on personal business was dropped.[20]


Brewster's diversion

Amid these negotiations, William Brewster found himself involved with religious unrest emerging in Scotland. In 1618, James had promulgated the Five Articles of Perth, which were seen in Scotland as an attempt to encroach on their Presbyterian tradition. Pamphlets critical of this law were published by Brewster and smuggled into Scotland by April 1619. These pamphlets were traced back to Leiden, and a failed attempt to apprehend Brewster was made in July when his presence in England became known. This article is about the country. ... The Five Articles of Perth were an attempt by King James VI of Scotland to impose popish practices on the Presbyterian Church of Scotland in an attempt to integrate it with the Episcopalian Church of England. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ...


Also in July in Leiden, English ambassador Dudley Carleton became aware of the situation and began leaning on the Dutch government to extradite Brewster. An arrest was made in September, but only Thomas Brewer, the financier, was in custody. Brewster's whereabouts between then and the colonists' departure remain unknown. Brewster's type was seized. After several months of delay, Brewer was sent to England for questioning, where he stonewalled government officials until well into 1620. One resulting concession that England did obtain from the Netherlands was a restriction on the press that would make such publications illegal to produce. Dudley Carleton, 1st Viscount Dorchester (1573-1632), English diplomatist, son of Antony Carleton of Brightwell Baldwin, Oxfordshire, and of Jocosa, daughter of John Goodwin of Winchendon, Buckinghamshire , was born on March 10, 1573, and educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. in 1600. ... Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ...


Thomas Brewer was ultimately convicted in England for his continued religious publication activities and sentenced in 1626 to a fourteen year prison term.[15]


Preparations

Not all of the congregation would be able to depart on the first trip. Many members would not be able to settle their affairs within the time constraints, and the budget for travel and supplies was limited. It was decided that the initial settlement should be undertaken primarily by younger and stronger members. The remainder agreed to follow if and when they could.


Robinson would remain in Leiden with the larger portion of the congregation, and Brewster was to lead the American congregation. While the church in America would be run independently, it was agreed that membership would automatically be granted in either congregation to members who moved between the continents.


With personal and business matters agreed upon, supplies and a small ship were procured. Speedwell was to bring some passengers from the Netherlands to England, then on to America where it would be kept for the fishing business, with a crew hired for support services during the first year. A second, larger, ship, Mayflower, was leased for transport and exploration services.[20][22] The Speedwell was a 60 ton ship, the smaller of the two ships (along with Mayflower) intended to carry the Pilgrim Fathers to North America. ... For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ...


Voyage

Model of a typical merchantman of the period, showing the cramped conditions that had to be endured.
Model of a typical merchantman of the period, showing the cramped conditions that had to be endured.
The Pilgrims on the Speedwell
The Pilgrims on the Speedwell

In July 1620, Speedwell departed Delfshaven with the Leiden colonists. Reaching Southampton, Hampshire, they met with Mayflower and the additional colonists hired by the investors. With final arrangements made, the two vessels set out on August 5 (Old Style)/August 15 (New Style).[22] Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... Image File history File links EmbarkationPilgrims. ... Image File history File links EmbarkationPilgrims. ... The Speedwell was a 60 ton ship, the smaller of the two ships (along with Mayflower) intended to carry the Pilgrim Fathers to North America. ... View of the harbour of Delfshaven as it appears today. ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hampshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... This article is about the day of the year. ...


Soon thereafter, the Speedwell crew reported that their ship was taking in water, so both were diverted to Dartmouth, Devon. There it was inspected for leaks and sealed, but a second attempt to depart also failed, bringing them only so far as Plymouth, Devon. It was decided that Speedwell was untrustworthy, and it was sold. It would later be learned that crew members had deliberately caused the ship to leak, allowing them to abandon their year-long commitments. The ship's master and some of the crew transferred to Mayflower for the trip. The Speedwell was a 60 ton ship, the smaller of the two ships (along with Mayflower) intended to carry the Pilgrim Fathers to North America. ... Map sources for Dartmouth, Devon at grid reference SX877514 The town seen from the River Dart Dartmouth is a town in Devon in the south-west of England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... The Speedwell was a 60 ton ship, the smaller of the two ships (along with Mayflower) intended to carry the Pilgrim Fathers to North America. ... For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ...


Atlantic crossing

Of the 121 combined passengers, 102 were chosen to travel on Mayflower with the supplies consolidated. Of these, about half had come by way of Leiden, and about 28 of the adults were members of the congregation.[23] The reduced party finally sailed successfully on September 6/September 16, 1620. For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Initially the trip went smoothly, but under way they were met with strong winds and storms. One of these caused a main beam to crack, and although they were more than half the way to their destination, the possibility of turning back was considered. Using a "great iron screw" (probably a piece of house construction equipment)[24] brought along by the colonists, they repaired the ship sufficiently to continue. One passenger, John Howland, was washed overboard in the storm but caught a rope and was rescued.


One crew member and one passenger died before they reached land. A child was born at sea and named "Oceanus".[25]


Arrival in America

1620 place names mentioned by Bradford
1620 place names mentioned by Bradford

Land was sighted on November 10/November 20, 1620. It was confirmed that the area was Cape Cod, within the New England territory recommended by Weston. An attempt was made to sail the ship around the cape towards the Hudson River, also within the New England grant area, but they encountered shoals and difficult currents around Malabar (a land mass that formerly existed in the vicinity of present-day Monomoy). It was decided to turn around, and by November 11/November 21 the ship was anchored in what is today known as Provincetown Harbor.[25][17] Image File history File links Cape_Cod_1620. ... Image File history File links Cape_Cod_1620. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the area of Massachusetts known as Cape Cod. For other uses, see Cape Cod (disambiguation). ... , The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois,[1][2][3] or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami, Muhheakantuck, Θkahnéhtati[4] in Tuscarora), is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and... This 8-mile long spit of sand extending southwest from the Chatham mainland was once owned by Chatham property owners. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aerial view of Provincetown Harbor in Provincetown, Massachusetts at the tip of Cape Cod. ...


Mayflower Compact

With the charter for the Plymouth Council for New England incomplete by the time the colonists departed England (it would be granted while they were in transit, on November 3/November 13,[21]) they arrived without a patent; the older Wincob patent was from their abandoned dealings with the London Company. Some of the passengers, aware of the situation, suggested that without a patent in place, they were free to do as they chose upon landing and ignore the contract with the investors.[26][27] is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


To address this issue, a brief contract, later to be known as the Mayflower Compact, was drafted promising cooperation among the settlers "for the general good of the Colony unto which we promise all due submission and obedience." It was ratified by majority rule, with 41 adult male passengers signing.[28] At this time, John Carver was chosen as the colony's first governor. This bas-relief depicting the signing of the Mayflower Compact is on Bradford Street in Provincetown directly below the Pilgrim Monument. ...


First landings

Thorough exploration of the area was delayed for over two weeks because the shallop or pinnace (a smaller sailing vessel) they brought had been partially dismantled to fit aboard the Mayflower and was further damaged in transit. Small parties, however, waded to the beach to fetch firewood and attend to long-deferred personal hygiene. A pleasure barge is a flat bottomed, slow moving boat used for leisure. ... A pinnace is a light boat, propelled by sails or oars, formerly used as a tender for guiding merchant and war vessels. ... For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ...


While awaiting the shallop, exploratory parties led by Myles Standish—a Manx soldier the colonists had met while in Leiden—and Christopher Jones were undertaken. They encountered several old buildings, both European-built and Native-built, and a few recently cultivated fields. Captain Myles Standish Kt. ... Christopher Jones was master of the Mayflower between at least 1609 and 1623 and captained it on the transatlantic voyage that established the Plymouth Colony settlement. ...


An artificial mound was found near the dunes, which they partially uncovered and found to be a Native grave. Further along, a similar mound, more recently made, was found, and as the colonists feared they might otherwise starve, they ventured to remove some of the provisions which had been placed in the grave. Baskets of maize were found inside, some of which the colonists took and placed into an iron kettle they also found nearby, while they reburied the rest, intending to use the borrowed corn as seed for planting. This article is about sand formations. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


William Bradford later recorded in his book, "Of Plymouth Plantation", that after the shallop had been repaired, The front page of the Bradford journal Written over a period of years by the leader of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation is the single most complete authority for the story of the Pilgrims and the early years of the Colony they founded. ...

"They also found two of the Indian's houses covered with mats, and some of their implements in them; but the people had run away and could not be seen. They also found more corn, and beans of various colours. These they brought away, intending to give them full satisfaction (repayment) when they should meet with any of them, - as about six months afterwards they did.

"And it is to be noted as a special providence of God, and a great mercy to this poor people, that they thus got seed to plant corn the next year, or they might have starved; for they had none, nor any likelihood of getting any, till too late for the planting season."

By December, most of the passengers and crew had become ill, coughing violently. Many were also suffering from the effects of scurvy. There had already been ice and snowfall, hampering exploration efforts. During the first winter, 47% of them died. Scurvy (N.Lat. ...


Contact

Explorations resumed on December 6/December 16. The shallop party—seven colonists from Leiden, three from London, and seven crew—headed south along the cape and chose to land at the area inhabited by the Nauset people (roughly, present-day Brewster, Chatham, Eastham, Harwich and Orleans), where they saw some native people on the shore, who ran when the colonists approached. Inland they found more mounds; one containing acorns, which they exhumed and left; and more graves, which they decided not to dig. is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nauset Indian tribe were the original inhabitants of the Cape Cod peninsula, in Massachusetts. ... Settled: 1656 â€“ Incorporated: 1803 Zip Code(s): 02631 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ... Seal of Chatham, MA Chatham is a town located in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, Barnstable County being coextensive with Cape Cod. ... Eastham is a town located in Barnstable County, Massachusetts. ... Location in Barnstable County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Barnstable County Settled 1670 Incorporated 1694 Government  - Type Open town meeting  - Leader Town Administrator Area  - Town  33. ...   Settled: 1693 â€“ Incorporated: 1797 Zip Code(s): 02653 â€“ Area Code(s): 508 / 774 Official website: http://www. ...


Remaining ashore overnight, they heard cries near the encampment. The following morning, they were met by native people who proceeded to shoot at them with arrows. The colonists retrieved their firearms and shot back, then chased the native people into the woods but did not find them. There was no more contact with native people for several months.[29]


The local people were already familiar with the English, who had intermittently visited the area for fishing and trade before Mayflower arrived. In the Cape Cod area, relations were poor following a visit several years earlier by Thomas Hunt. Hunt kidnapped twenty people from Patuxet (the place that would become New Plymouth) and another seven from Nausett, and he attempted to sell them as slaves in Europe. One of the Patuxet abductees was Tisquantum, who would become an ally of the Plymouth colony. The Pokanoket, who also lived nearby, had developed a particular dislike for the English after one group came in, captured numerous people, and shot them aboard their ship. There had by this time already been reciprocal killings at Martha's Vineyard and Cape Cod.[26][27] For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ... Thomas Hunt can refer to: Aubrey Thomas Hunt de Vere, an Irish-born poet, critic and essayist an English martyr together with Thomas Sprott in 1600 Category: ... Slave redirects here. ... This article is about the actual historical figure. ... The Pokanoket were one of the tribes that made up the Wampanoag peoples. ... Map of Marthas Vineyard. ...

Samuel de Champlain's 1605 map of Plymouth Harbor, showing Wampanoag village Patuxet, with some modern place names added for reference. The star is the approximate location of the 1620 English settlement.
Samuel de Champlain's 1605 map of Plymouth Harbor, showing Wampanoag village Patuxet, with some modern place names added for reference. The star is the approximate location of the 1620 English settlement.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1034x787, 257 KB)Port St. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1034x787, 257 KB)Port St. ... Samuel de Champlain, (c. ...

Settlement

Continuing westward, the shallop's mast and rudder were broken by storms, and their sail was lost. Rowing for safety, they encountered the harbor formed by the current Duxbury and Plymouth barrier beaches and stumbled on land in the darkness. They remained at this spot—Clark's Island—for two days to recuperate and repair equipment.


Resuming exploration on Monday, December 11/December 21, the party crossed over to the mainland and surveyed the area that ultimately became the settlement. The anniversary of this survey is observed in Massachusetts as Forefathers' Day and is traditionally associated with the Plymouth Rock landing legend. This land was especially suited to winter building because the land had already been cleared, and the tall hills provided a good defensive position. is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Forefathers Day is a holiday celebrated in Plymouth, Massachusetts. ... Plymouth Rock, described by some as the most disappointing landmark in America because of its small size and poor visitor access. ...


The cleared village, known as Patuxet to the Wampanoag people, was abandoned about three years earlier following a plague that killed all of its residents. Because the disease involved hemorrhaging,[30] the "Indian fever" is assumed to have been fulminating smallpox introduced by European traders. The outbreak had been severe enough that the colonists discovered unburied skeletons in abandoned dwellings.[31] With the local population in such a weakened state, the colonists faced no resistance to settling there. The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the disease. ...


The exploratory party returned to Mayflower, which was then brought to the harbor on December 16/December 26. Only nearby sites were evaluated, with a hill in Plymouth (so named on earlier charts)[32] chosen on December 19/December 29. For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Construction commenced immediately, with the first common house nearly completed by January 9/January 19. At this point, single men were ordered to join with families. Each extended family was assigned a plot and built its own dwelling. Supplies were brought ashore, and the settlement was mostly complete by early February.[26][29] is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Between the landing and March, only 47 colonists had survived the diseases they contracted on the ship. During the worst of the sickness, only six or seven of the group were able and willing to feed and care for the rest. In this time, half the Mayflower crew also died.[27] For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ...


William Bradford became governor in 1621 upon the death of Carver, served for eleven consecutive years, and was elected to various other terms until his death in 1657. The patent of Plymouth Colony was surrendered by Bradford to the freemen in 1640, minus a small reserve of three tracts of land. On March 22, 1621, the Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony signed a peace treaty with Massasoit of the Wampanoags. William Bradford (March 19, 1590 – May 9, 1657) was a leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor after John Carver died. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Oath of a Freeman // Freeman The term freeman was generally an English or American Colonial expression in Puritan times, which referred to those persons who were not under legal restraint – usually for the payment of an outstanding debt, because of their continual... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This 1902 photo shows Profile Rock in Assonet, Massachusetts. ... The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ...


The colony contained roughly what is now Bristol County, Plymouth County, and Barnstable County, Massachusetts. Bristol County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Plymouth County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Barnstable County is a county located in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ...


When the Massachusetts Bay Colony was reorganized and issued a new charter as the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1691, Plymouth ended its history as a separate colony. A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... A map of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. ...


See also

The Society of Mayflower Descendants is a hereditary organization comprised of individuals who have documented their descent from one or more of the 102 passengers who arrived on the Mayflower in 1620 at what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts. ... Forefathers Monument, circa 1902 The National Monument to the Forefathers commemorates the Mayflower Pilgrims and honors their ideals as later generally embraced by the United States. ... For other uses, see Thanksgiving (disambiguation). ... This is a list of passengers on the Mayflower . ... During the first winter in the New World, the Mayflower colonists suffered greatly from diseases like scurvy, lack of shelter and general conditions onboard ship. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c Bradford, William (1898). "1", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  2. ^ Cornelius Brown (1896). A History of Nottinghamshire. London: Elliot Stock. Retrieved on 2006-05-20. 
  3. ^ Lawrence H. Officer (2005). What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then?. Economic History Services. Retrieved on 2006-05-21.
  4. ^ The Bawdy Court: Exhibits - Belief and Persecution. University of Nottingham. Retrieved on 2006-05-23.
  5. ^ H. M. Luckock (1900). "Appendix III - In the Hampton Court Conference", Studies in the Book of Common Prayer (PDF), Longmans, Green, 107-108. Retrieved on 2006-05-23. 
  6. ^ William Joseph Sheils (2004). "Matthew, Tobie (1544?–1628)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. 
  7. ^ English Dissenters: Barrowists. Ex Libris (2006-04-24). Retrieved on 2006-05-22.
  8. ^ Bassetlaw Museum. Bassetlaw, Pilgrim Fathers Country. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  9. ^ Cornelius Brown (1896). A History of Nottinghamshire. London: Elliot Stock. Retrieved on 2006-05-20. 
  10. ^ "Brewster, William". Encyclopædia Britannica (11). (1911). Cambridge University Press. 
  11. ^ a b Bradford, William (1898). "2", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  12. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia. Pilgrims. Retrieved on 2006-05-20.
  13. ^ Harreld, Donald. The Dutch Economy in the Golden Age (16th – 17th Centuries). Economic History Services. Retrieved on 2006-05-26.
  14. ^ Contract of Sale, De Groene Poort. Leiden Pilgrim Archives. Retrieved on 2006-05-26.
  15. ^ a b Griffis, William. "The Pilgrim Press in Leyden". New England Magazine 19/25 (January 1899): 559–575. 
  16. ^ a b Bradford, William (1898). "4", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimouth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  17. ^ a b c Winslow, Edward. Hypocricie Unmasked, second section. Caleb Johnson. Retrieved on 2006-05-26.
  18. ^ (1908) in Susan Myra Kingsbury: The records of the Virginia Company of London: The Court Book, vol. I. United States Government Printing Office, 228. 
  19. ^ a b Bradford, William (1898). "5", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  20. ^ a b c d Bradford, William (1898). "6", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  21. ^ a b The Charter of New England : 1620. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  22. ^ a b Bradford, William (1898). "7", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  23. ^ Patricia Scott Deetz; James F. Deetz. Passengers on the Mayflower: Ages & Occupations, Origins & Connections. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  24. ^ Bangs, Jeremy. Pilgrim Life: Two Myths — Ancient and Modern. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  25. ^ a b Bradford, William (1898). "8-9", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  26. ^ a b c Winslow, Edward; Bradford, William. Mourt's Relation. Johnson, Caleb. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.
  27. ^ a b c Bradford, William (1898). "Book 2, Anno 1620", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  28. ^ Patricia Scott Deetz; Christopher Fennell. Mayflower Compact, 1620.
  29. ^ a b Bradford, William (1898). "10", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  30. ^ Bradford, William (1898). "Book 2, Anno 1622", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  31. ^ Bradford, William (1898). "Book 2, Anno 1621", in Hildebrandt, Ted: Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation" (PDF), Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved on 2006-06-01. 
  32. ^ Smith's Map of New England, 1614. The Plymouth Colony Archive Project. Retrieved on 2006-06-02.
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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Elliot Griffis William Elliot Griffis, D.D., L.H.D. (September 17, 1843 – 1928) was an American orientalist, author and Congregational preacher. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... The Apostolic Age is, to some church historians, the period in early church history during which some of Christs original apostles were still alive and helping to influence church doctrine, polity, and the like. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... St. ... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... The Apostolic Fathers were a small collection of Christian authors who lived and wrote in the late 1st century and early 2nd century who are acknowledged as leaders in the early church, but whose writings were not included in the collection of Christian scripture, the New Testament Biblical canon, at... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... Marcionism is the dualist belief system that originates in the teachings of Marcion of Sinope at Rome around the year 144. ... A folio from P46, an early 3rd century collection of Pauline epistles. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... Montanism was an early Christian sectarian movement of the mid-2nd century A.D., named after its founder Montanus. ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... The Arian controversy describes several controversies which divided the Christian church from before the Council of Nicaea in 325 to after the Council of Constantinople in 383. ... The First Council of Constantinople (second ecumenical council) was called by Theodosius I in 381 to confirm the Nicene Creed and deal with other matters of the Arian controversy . ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Cyril of Alexandria The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article does not cite any... The Eastern Orthodox Churches trace their roots back to the Apostles and Jesus Christ. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Judging from the New Testament account of the rise and expansion of the early church, during the first few centuries of Christianity, the most extensive dissemination of the gospel was not in the West but in the East. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Coptic history is part of History of Egypt that begins with the introduction of Christianity in Egypt in the 1st century AD during the Roman period, and covers the history of the Copts to the present day. ... This article refers to the Christian saint. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... This article is about the religious artifacts. ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ... Saint Gregory redirects here. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the... For the purposes of this article the Christianization of Scandinavia refers to the process of conversion to Christianity of the Scandinavian and Nordic peoples, starting in the 8th century with the arrival of missionaries in Denmark and ending in the 18th century with the conversion of the Inuits and the... A medieval king investing a bishop with the symbols of office. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician. ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... For other saints named Dominic, see the disambiguation page for Dominic Saint Dominic (Spanish: Domingo), also known as Dominic of Osma, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo de Guzmán Garcés (1170 – August 6, 1221) was the founder of the Friars Preachers, popularly called the Dominicans or... Saint Francis of Assisi (September 26, 1181 or 1182 – October 3, 1226) was a Roman Catholic friar and the founder of the Order of Friars Minor, more commonly known as the Franciscans. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Insert non-formatted text here Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Historical map of the Western Schism: red is support for Avignon, blue for Rome The Western Schism or Papal Schism (also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). ... Jan Hus ( ) (IPA: , alternative spellings John Hus, Jan Huss, John Huss) (c. ... In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the pope. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Reformation redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The History of Protestantism begins with the Reformation movement, which began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church and led to the fracturing of Christendom. ... Erasmus redirects here. ... The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: // Orthodox Christianity the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence. ... The history of the Calvinist-Arminian debate arguably extends back to the first century church but was not formulated until the fifth century. ... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... -1... Lutheranism has its origins in the early 16th century with the work of Martin Luther. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The theology of Martin Luther was fairly instrumental in influencing the Protestant Reformation, specifically topics dealing with Justification by Faith, the relationship between the Law and the Gospel (also an instrumental component of Reformed theology), and various other theological ideas. ... For other uses, see Diet of Worms (disambiguation). ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Title Page from 1580 German Edition of the Book of Concord The Book of Concord or Concordia (1580) is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism since the 16th century. ... Lutheran orthodoxy was era in history of Lutheranism, which began 1580 from Book of Concord and ended to Age of Enlightenment. ... -1... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrate and population of Zürich in the 1520s. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Calvinism began as part of the Magisterial Reformation branch of the Protestant Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tulip (disambiguation). ... xxx cciiiox The Synod of Dort was a National Synod held in Dordrecht in 1618/19, by the Dutch Reformed Church, in order to settle a serious controversy in the Dutch churches initiated by the rise of Arminianism. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ... Conrad Grebel (ca. ... Swiss Brethren were Anabaptists, a group of radical evangelical reformers who initially followed Huldrych Zwingli of Zürich. ... Menno Simons - wood engraving by Christoffel van Sichem 1610 Menno Simons (1496–1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from Friesland (today a province of The Netherlands). ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... The specifically English church originates primarily from events in the late 6th century in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Kent, and the mission of Saint Augustine. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was Elizabeth I’s response to the religious divisions created over the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I. This response, described as The Revolution of 1559,[1] was set out in two Acts of the Parliament of England. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The office of the Pope is called the Papacy. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 17th Century religious Denominations in England There were a large number of religious denominations who emerged during the early - mid 17th Century in England. ... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... The First Great Awakening is the name sometimes given to a period of heightened religious activity, primarily in the southwester belly US during the 1730s and 1740s. ... The history of Jehovahs Witnesses dates from 1872 when Charles Taze Russell began to lead a Bible study group in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... The History of the Anglican Communion may be attributed mainly to the worldwide spread of British culture associated with the British Empire. ... The Latter Day Saint movement is a religious movement within Christian Restorationism beginning in the early 19th century that led to the set of doctrines, practices, and cultures called Mormonism and to the existence of numerous Latter Day Saint churches. ... The Seventh-day Adventist Church had its roots in the Millerite movement of the 1830s and 1840s, and was officially founded in 1863. ... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... William Miller The Millerite tradition is a diverse family of denominations and Bible study movements that have arisen since the middle of the 19th century, traceable to the Adventist movement sparked by the teachings of William Miller. ... Neo-Lutheranism was a 19th century revival movement within Lutheranism, which began as a reaction against Pietism. ... Pietism was a movement within Lutheranism, lasting from the late-17th century to the mid-18th century. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about the Stone... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Revival in... A watercolor painting of a camp meeting circa 1839 (New Bedford Whaling Museum). ... The Holiness movement is composed of people who believe and propagate the belief that the carnal nature of man can be cleansed through faith and by the power of the Holy Spirit if one has had his sins forgiven through faith in Jesus. ... Independent Catholic Churches are Christian denominations (or congregations) claiming valid apostolic succession of their bishops but are not a part of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Old Catholic Churches under the Archbishop of Utrect or the Anglican Communion. ... The Second Great Awakening  (1800–1830s) was the second great religious revival in United States  history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. ... The Azusa Street Revival was a Pentecostal revival meeting that took place in Los Angeles, California and was led by William J. Seymour, an African American preacher. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... For the first century movement surrounding Jesus of Nazareth, see Early Christianity The Jesus movement was the major Christian element within the hippie counterculture, or, conversely, the major hippie element within the Christian Church. ... In the United States, the mainline (also sometimes called mainstream) or mainline Protestant denominations are those Protestant denominations with a mix of moderate and liberal theologies. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The charismatic movement began... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This is... Icon of St. ... // This timeline of Christian missions chronicles the global expansion of Christianity through its missionary work. ... The Eastern Orthodox Churches trace their roots back to the Apostles and Jesus Christ. ... The History of Protestantism begins with the Reformation movement, which began as an attempt to reform the Catholic Church and led to the fracturing of Christendom. ... See also: History of the Papacy The History of the Roman Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years. ...

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PlYMOUTH MA - ITS HISTORY AND PEOPLE (1465 words)
The pilgrims founded Plymouth on Dec. 21, 1620, establishing a settlement that became the seat of Plymouth Colony in 1633 and a part of Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691.
Bradford was born in March 1590 in Austerfield, Yorkshire, the son of a yeoman farmer.
The term Pilgrim is derived from his description of himself and his coreligionists as they left Holland (July 22, 1620) for Southampton, where they joined another group of English separatists on the Mayflower.
Pilgrims - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (841 words)
The Pilgrims were a group of English religious separatists who sailed from Europe to North America in the early 17th century, in search of a home where they could freely practice their style of religion.
These separatist "Pilgrims" settled in Leiden for 12 years, but by 1617 a poor economy, and concern about the Dutch influence upon their community convinced many of them to move on, this time to the New World.
It was not long before the Pilgrims determined that the sandy land of the outer cape was insufficient to support them, so a group of them sailed across Cape Cod Bay and landed at Plymouth on December 21.
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