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Encyclopedia > Pigment
Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form.
Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form.
Synthetic Ultramarine pigment is chemically identical to natural ultramarine.
Synthetic Ultramarine pigment is chemically identical to natural ultramarine.

A pigment is a material that changes the color of light it reflects as the result of selective color absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which the material itself emits light. Many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. Image of natural Ultramarine pigment, taken by Palladian This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image of natural Ultramarine pigment, taken by Palladian This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Natural ultramarine. ... image of synthetic ultramarine, taken by Palladian This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... image of synthetic ultramarine, taken by Palladian This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Natural ultramarine. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Electromagnetic radiation. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... Phosphorescent powder under visible light, ultraviolet light, and total darkness. ... Luminescence is light not generated by high temperatures alone. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... Tinting generally refers to adding a color to a base, generlly through dye. ...


For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken. Fugitive pigments, in painting, are non-permanent pigments (pigments that lighten in what is understood, said or defined to be a relatively short time when exposed to light). ...


Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colourants, usually ground into a fine powder. This powder is added to a vehicle (or matrix), a relatively neutral or colorless material that acts as a binder. For information on the U.S. borough, see Paint, Pennsylvania. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Cosmetic. ... Manufacturing , a branch of industry, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... A colourant is something added to something else to induce a change in colour. ... Powder is a substance that has been crushed into very fine grains. ... An adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together. ...


A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble in the vehicle, and a dye, which is either a liquid, or is soluble in its vehicle. A colorant can be both a pigment and a dye depending on the vehicle it is used in. In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt. The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment. Insoluble Not soluble ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A liquid will usually assume the shape of its container A liquid is one of the main states of matter. ... A Lake pigment is a pigment manufactured by precipitating a dye with an inert binder, usually a metallic salt. ...

Contents

Biological pigments

The monarch butterfly's distinctive pigmentation reminds potential predators that it is poisonous.
The monarch butterfly's distinctive pigmentation reminds potential predators that it is poisonous.
Main article: Biological pigment

In biology, a pigment is any material resulting in color of plant or animal cells. Many biological structures, such as skin, eyes, fur and hair contain pigments (such as melanin) in specialized cells called chromatophores. Many conditions affect the levels or nature of pigments in plant and animal cells. For instance, Albinism is a disorder affecting the level of melanin production in animals. Image File history File links Monarch_butterfly. ... Image File history File links Monarch_butterfly. ... Binomial name Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is a well-known North American butterfly. ... The monarch butterflys distinctive pigmentation reminds potential predators that it is poisonous. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epidermis (skin). ... A human eye. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... A strand of human hair under magnification Hair is also the name of a musical, see respective articles for the stage production and the movie. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Chromatophores or pigment cells are color changing cells used most notably by Cephalopods such as squid and octopuses. ... Albinism (from Latin albus, meaning Bobby Herrick; extended etymology at Wiktionary), more technically hypomelanism or hypomelanosis, is a form of hypopigmentary congenital disorder, characterized by a lack of melanin pigment in the eyes, skin and hair (or more rarely the eyes alone). ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ...


Pigment color differs from structural colour in that it is the same for all viewing angles, whereas structural color is the result of selective reflection or iridescence, usually because of multilayer structures. For example, butterfly wings typically contain structural color, although many butterflies have cells that contain pigment as well. Look up reflection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The iridescence of the Blue Morpho butterfly wings. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ...




History of pigments

An anonymous prehistoric cave painter used naturally occurring ochres, oxides of iron and charred wood or bone to depict Paleolithic fauna at Lascaux, France.
An anonymous prehistoric cave painter used naturally occurring ochres, oxides of iron and charred wood or bone to depict Paleolithic fauna at Lascaux, France.

Naturally occurring pigments such as ochres and iron oxides have been used as colorants since prehistoric times. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes such as body decoration. Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old have been reported in a cave at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Lascaux is a complex of caves in southwestern France famous for its cave paintings. ... This article is about the color. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter. ...


Before the Industrial Revolution, the range of color available for art and decorative uses was technically limited. Most of the pigments in use were earth and mineral pigments, or pigments of biological origin. Pigments from unusual sources such as botanical materials, animal waste, insects, and mollusks were harvested and traded over long distances. Some colors were costly or impossible to mix with the range of pigments that were available. Blue and purple came to be associated with royalty because of their expense. A Watt steam engine. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Orders See taxonomy Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than all other animal groups combined. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Red-violet be merged into this article or section. ... Royalty may refer to either: the royal family of a country with a monarchy royalties the payment made to the owner of a copyright, patent, or trademark, for the use thereof This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same...


Biological pigments were often difficult to acquire, and the details of their production were kept secret by the manufacturers. Tyrian Purple is a pigment made from the mucus of one of several species of Murex snail. Production of Tyrian Purple for use as a fabric dye began as early as 1200 BCE by the Phoenicians, and was continued by the Greeks and Romans until 1453 CE, with the fall of Constantinople.[1] The pigment was expensive and complex to produce, and items colored with it became associated with power and wealth. Greek historian Theopompus, writing in the 4th century BCE, reported that "purple for dyes fetched its weight in silver at Colophon [in Asia Minor]."[2] Murex brandaris, also known as the Spiny dye-murex The chemical structure of 6,6′-dibromoindigo, the main component of Tyrian Purple A space-filling model of 6,6′-dibromoindigo Tyrian purple (Greek: , porphura), also known as royal purple or imperial purple, is a purple-red dye made by the... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of various membranes in the body (mucous membranes). ... Binomial name Hexaplex trunculus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Murex trunculus Phyllanotus trunculus Truncullariopsis trunculus Hexaplex trunculus (known as the trunculus murex, purple murex or banded dye-murex) is a marine snail that produces a distinctive purple dye, considered valuable in ancient times and often used to dye fabrics; if left in... Fabric may mean: Cloth, a flexible artificial material made up of a network of natural or artificial fibres Fabric (club), a London dance club Fibre Channel fabric, a network of Fibre Channel devices enabled by a Fibre Channel switch using the FC-SW topology This is a disambiguation page, a... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Theopompus, a Greek historian and rhetorician, was born at Chios about 380 BC. In early youth he seems to have spent some time at Athens, along with his father, who had been exiled on account of his Laconian sympathies. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... Colophon (Greek Κολοφών; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was a titular see of Asia Minor. ...


Mineral pigments were also traded over long distances. The only way to achieve a deep rich blue was by using a semi-precious stone, lapis lazuli, and the best sources of lapis were remote. Flemish painter Jan Van Eyck, working in the 15th century, did not ordinarily include blue in his paintings. To have one's portrait commissioned and painted with blue was considered a great luxury. If a patron wanted blue, they were forced to pay extra. When Van Eyck used lapis, he never blended it with other colors. Instead he applied it in pure form, almost as a decorative glaze.[3] A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Portrait of a Man in a Turban (actually a chaperon), probably a self-portrait, painted 1433 Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (c. ...

Miracle of the Slave by Tintoretto (c. 1548). The son of a master dyer, Tintoretto used Carmine Red Lake pigment, derived from the cochineal insect, to achieve dramatic color effects.
Miracle of the Slave by Tintoretto (c. 1548). The son of a master dyer, Tintoretto used Carmine Red Lake pigment, derived from the cochineal insect, to achieve dramatic color effects.

Spain's conquest of a New World empire in the 16th century introduced new pigments and colors to peoples on both sides of the Atlantic. Carmine, a dye and pigment derived from a parasitic insect found in Central and South America, attained great status and value in Europe. Produced from harvested, dried, and crushed cochineal insects, carmine could be used in fabric dye, body paint, or in its solid lake form, almost any kind of paint or cosmetic. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1030x776, 190 KB) Jacopo Tintoretto. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1030x776, 190 KB) Jacopo Tintoretto. ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... Dyer is a surname, derived from the occupation (one who works with dye), and may refer to: Ainsworth Dyer Alexander Brydie Dyer Alvin R. Dyer Bruce Dyer Buddy Dyer, politician, mayor of Orlando Clay Dyer Colin Dyer Danny Dyer Deborah Dyer Dennis Dyer Eddie Dyer Edward Dyer Elinor Brent-Dyer... Binomial name Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... This article is about the pigment. ... Map of Central America Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... A Lake pigment is a pigment manufactured by precipitating a dye with an inert binder, usually a metallic salt. ... Look up cosmetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Natives of Peru had been producing cochineal dyes for textiles since at least 700 CE,[4] but Europeans had never seen the color before. When the Spanish invaded the Aztec empire in what is now Mexico, they were quick to exploit the color for new trade opportunities. Carmine became the region's second most valuable export next to silver. Pigments produced from the cochineal insect gave the Catholic cardinals their vibrant robes and the English "Redcoats" their distinctive uniforms. The true source of the pigment, an insect, was kept secret until the 18th century, when biologists discovered the source.[5] The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... This article is about the pigment. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ...

Girl with a Pearl Earring by Johannes Vermeer (c. 1665).
Girl with a Pearl Earring by Johannes Vermeer (c. 1665).

While Carmine was popular in Europe, blue remained an exclusive color, associated with wealth and status. The 17th century Dutch master Johannes Vermeer often made lavish use of lapis lazuli. Girl with a Pearl Earring, a novel by Tracy Chevalier, is a fictional account of one of Vermeer's most famous paintings. In Chevalier's novel, and in the film based upon it, the artist uses lapis to paint the headscarf on a young servant girl. Vermeer (played by Colin Firth in the film version) admonishes the servant girl Griet (played by Scarlett Johansson) to keep this secret from his wife, knowing that his wife will be jealous.[6] Download high resolution version (815x990, 99 KB)1600s painting by Johannes Vermeer The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (815x990, 99 KB)1600s painting by Johannes Vermeer The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North Johannes Vermeer or Jan Vermeer (baptized October 31, 1632, died December 15, 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of ordinary bourgeois life. ... Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North Johannes Vermeer or Jan Vermeer (baptized October 31, 1632, died December 15, 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of ordinary bourgeois life. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Girl with a Pearl Earring is a novel by Tracy Chevalier published in 1999. ... Tracy Chevalier (born in Washington, DC in October of 1962) is a historical novelist whose career began with the book The Virgin Blue but who became well known with a book on the creation of the painting Girl with a Pearl Earring by Vermeer. ... Colin Andrew Firth (born 10 September 1960) is an English actor. ... Scarlett Johansson (born November 22, 1984) is an American actress. ...


Development of synthetic pigments

The Industrial and Scientific Revolutions brought a huge expansion in the range of synthetic pigments, pigments that are manufactured or refined from naturally occurring materials, available both for manufacturing and artistic expression. Because of the expense of Lapis Lazuli, much effort went into finding a less costly blue pigment. The event which most historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ...


Prussian Blue was the first synthetic pigment, discovered by accident in 1704. By the early 19th century, synthetic and metallic blue pigments had been added to the range of blues, including French Ultramarine, a synthetic form of Lapis Lazuli, and the various forms of Cobalt and Cerulean Blue. In the early 20th century, organic chemistry added Phthalo Blue, a synthetic, organic pigment with overwhelming tinting power. A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußisch Blau, Berliner Blau) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Natural ultramarine. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Cobalt Blue is a supervillain destroyed by the Flash. ... Cerulean blue is a cerulean (light blue or azure) pigment used in artistic painting. ... Phthalocyanine Blue BN Phthalocyanine Blue BN, also called phthalo blue, helio blue, thalo blue, Winsor blue, phthalocyanine blue, C.I. Pigment Blue 15:2, Copper phthalocyanine blue, Copper tetrabenzoporphyrazine, Cu-Phthaloblue, PB-15, PB-36, and C.I. 74160, is a bright, greenish-blue crystalline synthetic blue pigment from the...


Discoveries in color science created new industries and drove changes in fashion and taste. The discovery in 1856 of mauveine, the first aniline dye, was a forerunner for the development of hundreds of synthetic dyes and pigments. Mauveine was discovered by an 18-year-old chemist named William Henry Perkin, who went on to exploit his discovery in industry and become wealthy. His success attracted a generation of followers, as young scientists went into organic chemistry to pursue riches. Within a few years, chemists had synthesized a substitute for madder in the production of Alizarin Crimson. By the closing decades of the 19th century, textiles, paints, and other commodities in colors such as red, crimson, blue, and purple had become affordable.[7] Fashion illustration by George Barbier of a gown by Jeanne Paquin, 1912, from La Gazette du bon ton, the most influential fashion magazine of its era. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Mauveine, also known as aniline purple, was the first synthetic organic dye. ... A class of synthetic, organic dyes originally obtained from aniline (coal tars), which were, in fact, the first synthetic dyes. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Sir William Henry Perkin (March 12, 1838 – July 14, 1907) was an English chemist best known for his discovery, at the age of 18, of the first aniline dye, mauveine. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Species See text. ... Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan. ... Red is any of a number of similar colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of light discernible by the human eye. ... Crimson is a strong, bright deep red color combined with some blue, resulting in a tiny degree of purple. ...

Self Portrait by Paul Cézanne. Working in the late 19th century, Cezanne had a palette of colors that earlier generations of artists could only dream of.
Self Portrait by Paul Cézanne. Working in the late 19th century, Cezanne had a palette of colors that earlier generations of artists could only dream of.

Development of chemical pigments and dyes helped bring new industrial prosperity to Germany and other countries in northern Europe, but it brought dissolution and decline elsewhere. In Spain's former New World empire, the production of cochineal colors employed thousands of low-paid workers. The Spanish monopoly on cochineal production had been worth a fortune until the early 1800s, when the Mexican War of Independence and other market changes disrupted production.[8] Organic chemistry delivered the final blow for the cochineal color industry. When chemists created inexpensive substitutes for carmine, an industry and a way of life went into steep decline.[9] Image File history File links Paul_Cezanne. ... Image File history File links Paul_Cezanne. ... Paul Cézanne (IPA: , January 19, 1839 – October 22, 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well...


New sources for historic pigments

The Milkmaid by Johannes Vermeer (c. 1658). Vermeer was lavish in his choice of expensive pigments, including Indian Yellow, lapis lazuli, and Carmine, as shown in this vibrant painting.
The Milkmaid by Johannes Vermeer (c. 1658). Vermeer was lavish in his choice of expensive pigments, including Indian Yellow, lapis lazuli, and Carmine, as shown in this vibrant painting.

Before the Industrial Revolution, many pigments were known by the location where they were produced. Pigments based on minerals and clays often bore the name of the city or region where they were mined. Raw Sienna and Burnt Sienna came from Sienna, Italy, while Raw Umber and Burnt Umber came from Umbria. These pigments were among the easiest to synthesize, and chemists created modern colors based on the originals that were more consistent than colors mined from the original ore bodies. But the place names remained. Download high resolution version (1576x1780, 313 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1576x1780, 313 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North Johannes Vermeer or Jan Vermeer (baptized October 31, 1632, died December 15, 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of ordinary bourgeois life. ... Indian Yellow, also called euxanthin or euxanthine, is a transparent yellow pigment used in oil painting. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... This article is about the pigment. ... A Watt steam engine. ... Raw Sienna is the fifth album by the band Savoy Brown. ... Burnt sienna is an iron oxide pigment: a warm mid brown color. ... This page is not about Siena, Italy. ... Raw umber Umber is a natural brown clay pigment which contains iron and manganese oxides. ... Burnt umber is both a pigment, and colour. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ...


Historically and culturally, many famous natural pigments have been replaced with synthetic pigments, while retaining historic names. In some cases the original color name has shifted in meaning, as a historic name has been applied to a popular modern color. By convention, a contemporary mixture of pigments that replaces a historical pigment is indicated by calling the resulting color a hue, but manufacturers are not always careful in maintaining this distinction. The following examples illustrate the shifting nature of historic pigment names:

Titian used the historic pigment Vermilion to create the reds in the great fresco of Assunta, completed c. 1518.
Titian used the historic pigment Vermilion to create the reds in the great fresco of Assunta, completed c. 1518.
  • Indian Yellow was once produced by collecting the urine of cattle that had been fed only mango leaves. Dutch and Flemish painters of the 17th and 18th centuries favored it for its luminescent qualities, and often used it to represent sunlight. In Girl with a Pearl Earring, Vermeer's patron remarks that Vermeer used "cow piss" to paint his wife. Since mango leaves are nutritionally inadequate for cattle, the practice of harvesting Indian Yellow was eventually declared to be inhumane. Modern Indian Yellow Hue is a mixture of synthetic pigments.
  • Ultramarine, originally the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli, has been replaced by an inexpensive modern synthetic pigment manufactured from aluminum silicate with sulfur impurities. At the same time, Royal Blue, another name once given to tints produced from lapis lazuli, has evolved to signify a much lighter and brighter color, and is usually mixed from Phthalo Blue and titanium dioxide, or from inexpensive synthetic blue dyes. Since synthetic ultramarine is chemically identical with lapis lazuli, the "hue" designation is not used. French Blue, yet another historic name for Ultramarine, was adopted by the textile and apparel industry as a color name in the 1990s, and was applied to a shade of blue that has nothing in common with the historic pigment French Ultramarine.
  • Vermilion, a toxic mercury compound favored for its deep red-orange color by old master painters such as Titian, has been replaced by convenience mixtures of synthetic, inorganic pigments. Although genuine Vermilion paint can still be purchased for fine arts and art conservation applications, few manufacturers make it, because of legal liability issues. Few artists buy it, because it has been superseded by modern pigments that are both less expensive and less toxic, as well as less reactive with other pigments. As a result, genuine Vermilion is almost unavailable. Modern vermilion colors are properly designated as Vermilion Hue to distinguish them from genuine Vermilion.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (457x774, 120 KB) Tizian - Jomfru Marias himmelferd File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Titian Assumption of Mary ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (457x774, 120 KB) Tizian - Jomfru Marias himmelferd File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Titian Assumption of Mary ... Titians self-portrait, 1566. ... Vermilion, also spelled vermillion, when found naturally-occurring, is an opaque reddish orange pigment, used since antiquity, originally derived from the powdered mineral cinnabar. ... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ... Indian Yellow, also called euxanthin or euxanthine, is a transparent yellow pigment used in oil painting. ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... Luminescence is any emission of electromagnetic radiation. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Girl with a Pearl Earring is a novel by Tracy Chevalier published in 1999. ... Natural ultramarine. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Aluminium silicate (or aluminum silicate) has the chemical formula Al2SiO5. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Royal blue is a lighter shade of blue. ... Phthalocyanine Blue BN Phthalocyanine Blue BN, also called phthalo blue, helio blue, phthalocyanine blue, C.I. Pigment Blue 15:2, Copper phthalocyanine blue, Copper tetrabenzoporphyrazine, Cu-Phthaloblue, and C.I. 74160, is a bright, greenish-blue crystalline synthetic blue pigment from the group of phthalocyanine dyes. ... Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. ... Vermilion, also spelled vermillion, when found naturally-occurring, is an opaque reddish orange pigment, used since antiquity, originally derived from the powdered mineral cinnabar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Atomic mass 200. ... Titians self-portrait, 1566. ...

Manufacturing and industrial standards

Before the development of synthetic pigments, and the refinement of techniques for extracting mineral pigments, batches of color were often inconsistent. With the development of a modern color industry, manufacturers and professionals have cooperated to create international standards for identifying, producing, measuring, and testing colors.


First published in 1905, the Munsell Color System became the foundation for a series of color models, providing objective methods for the measurement of color. The Munsell system describes a color in three dimensions, hue, value (or lightness), and chroma, where chroma is the difference from gray at a given hue and value. Munsell Color Wheel In colorimetry, the Munsell color system is a color system that specifies colors based on three color dimensions. ...


By the middle years of the 20th century, standardized methods for pigment chemistry were available, part of an international movement to create such standards in industry. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) develops technical standards for the manufacture of pigments and dyes. ISO standards define various industrial and chemical properties, and how to test for them. The principal ISO standards that relate to all pigments are as follows: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ...

  • ISO-787 General methods of test for pigments and extenders
  • ISO-8780 Methods of dispersion for assessment of dispersion characteristics

Other ISO standards pertain to particular classes or categories of pigments, based on their chemical composition, such as ultramarine pigments, titanium dioxide, iron oxide pigments, and so forth. Natural ultramarine. ... Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. ...


Many manufacturers of paints, inks, textiles, plastics, and colors have voluntarily adopted the Colour Index International (CII) as a standard for identifying the pigments that they use in manufacturing particular colors. First published in 1925, and now published jointly on the web by the Society of Dyers and Colourists (United Kingdom) and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (USA), this index is recognized internationally as the authoritative reference on colorants. It encompasses more than 27,000 products under more than 13,000 generic color index names. Colour Index International is a reference database, jointly maintained by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. ... The Society of Dyers and Colourists (SDC) is an international professional society, with headquarters in Bradford, United Kingdom, specialising in colour in all its manifestations. ... The American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists is a professional organization of textile chemists and colorists, organized as a nonprofit corporation. ...


In the CII schema, each pigment has a generic index number that identifies it chemically, regardless of proprietary and historic names. For example, Phthalo Blue has been known by a variety of generic and proprietary names since its discovery in the 1930s. In much of Europe, phthalocyanine blue is better known as Helio Blue, or by a proprietary name such as Winsor Blue. An American paint manufacturer, Grumbacher, registered an alternate spelling (Thalo Blue) as a trademark. Colour Index International resolves all these conflicting historic, generic, and proprietary names so that manufacturers and consumers can identify the pigment (or dye) used in a particular color product. In the CII, all Phthalo Blue pigments are designated by a generic colour index number as either PB15 or PB36, short for pigment blue 15 and pigment blue 36. (The two forms of Phthalo Blue, PB15 and PB36, reflect slight variations in molecular structure that produce a slightly more greenish or reddish blue.) Phthalocyanine Blue BN Phthalocyanine Blue BN, also called phthalo blue, helio blue, phthalocyanine blue, C.I. Pigment Blue 15:2, Copper phthalocyanine blue, Copper tetrabenzoporphyrazine, Cu-Phthaloblue, and C.I. 74160, is a bright, greenish-blue crystalline synthetic blue pigment from the group of phthalocyanine dyes. ... Colour Index International is a reference database, jointly maintained by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. ... Phthalocyanine Blue BN Phthalocyanine Blue BN, also called phthalo blue, helio blue, phthalocyanine blue, C.I. Pigment Blue 15:2, Copper phthalocyanine blue, Copper tetrabenzoporphyrazine, Cu-Phthaloblue, and C.I. 74160, is a bright, greenish-blue crystalline synthetic blue pigment from the group of phthalocyanine dyes. ...


Physical basis behind pigments

A wide variety of wavelengths (colors) encounter a pigment. This pigment absorbs red and green light, but reflects blue, creating the color blue.
A wide variety of wavelengths (colors) encounter a pigment. This pigment absorbs red and green light, but reflects blue, creating the color blue.

Pigments appear the colors they are because they selectively reflect and absorb certain wavelengths of light. White light is a roughly equal mixture of the entire visible spectrum of light. When this light encounters a pigment, some wavelengths are absorbed by the chemical bonds and substituents of the pigment, and others are reflected. This new spectrum creates the appearance of a color. Ultramarine reflects blue light, and absorbs other colors, for instance. Pigments, unlike fluorescent or phosphorescent substances, can only subtract wavelengths from the source light, never add new ones. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the color. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Natural ultramarine. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... Phosphorescent powder under visible light, ultraviolet light, and total darkness. ...


The appearance of pigments is intimately connected to the color of the source light. Sunlight has a high color temperature, and a fairly uniform spectrum, and is considered a standard for white light. Artificial light sources tend to have great peaks in some parts of their spectrum, and deep valleys in others. Viewed under these conditions, pigments will appear different colors. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in photography, videography, publishing and other fields. ...

Sunlight encounters Rosco R80 "Primary Blue" pigment. The product of the source spectrum and the reflectance spectrum of the pigment results in the final spectrum, and the appearance of blue.
Sunlight encounters Rosco R80 "Primary Blue" pigment. The product of the source spectrum and the reflectance spectrum of the pigment results in the final spectrum, and the appearance of blue.

Color spaces used to represent colors numerically must specify their light source. Lab color measurements, unless otherwise noted, assume that the measurement was taken under a D65 light source, or "Daylight 6500 K", which is roughly the color temperature of sunlight. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Without further qualification, Lab color space refers to that of Hunter (Richard S Hunter, JOSA, 38, p 661 (1948)), which is an Adams Chromatic Valance Space. ... Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in photography, videography, publishing and other fields. ...


Other properties of a color, such as its saturation or lightness, may be determined by the other substances that accompany pigments. Binders and fillers added to pure pigment chemicals also have their own reflection and absorption patterns, which can affect the final spectrum. Likewise, in pigment/binder mixtures, individual rays of light may not encounter pigment molecules, and may be reflected as is. These stray rays of source light contribute to the saturation of the color. Pure pigment allows very little white light to escape, producing a highly saturated color. A small quantity of pigment mixed with a lot of white binder, however, will appear desaturated and pale, due to the high quantity of escaping white light.


Scientific and technical issues

Selection of a pigment for a particular application is determined by cost, and by the physical properties and attributes of the pigment itself. For example, a pigment that is used to color glass must have very high heat stability in order to survive the manufacturing process; but, suspended in the glass vehicle, its resistance to alkali or acidic materials is not an issue. In artistic paint, heat stability is less important, while lightfastness and toxicity are greater concerns. In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... For alternative meanings see acid (disambiguation). ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ...


The following are some of the attributes of pigments that determine their suitability for particular manufacturing processes and applications:

  • Lightfastness
  • Heat stability
  • Toxicity
  • Tinting strength
  • Staining
  • Dispersion
  • Opacity or transparency
  • Resistance to alkalis and acids
  • Reactions and interactions between pigments

// Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... A substance or object that is opaque is neither transparent nor translucent. ... See: transparency (optics) alpha compositing GIF#Transparency transparency (overhead projector) market transparency transparency (telecommunication) transparency (computing) For X11 pseudo-transparency, see pseudo-transparency. ...

Pigment groups

Molecular structure of alizarin Alizarin, or 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone or mordant red, is the red dye originally derived from the root of the madder plant. ... Gamboge is a rather transparent dark mustard yellow pigment. ... Indigo (or spectral indigo) is the color on the spectrum between 440 and 420 nanometres in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. ... Indian Yellow, also called euxanthin or euxanthine, is a transparent yellow pigment used in oil painting. ... Binomial name Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... Murex brandaris, also known as the Spiny dye-murex The chemical structure of 6,6′-dibromoindigo, the main component of Tyrian Purple A space-filling model of 6,6′-dibromoindigo Tyrian purple (Greek: , porphura), also known as royal purple or imperial purple, is a purple-red dye made by the... Rose madder can mean: Rose madder, a pinkish color made from madder pigment or dye. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Paris Green is a common name for copper(II)-acetoarsenite, or C.I. Pigment Green 21, an extremely toxic blue green chemical with four main uses: pigment, animal poison (mostly rodenticide), insecticide, and blue colorant for fireworks. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Carbon black is a material, today usually produced by the incomplete combustion of petroleum products. ... Bone char, also known as bone black or animal charcoal, is a granular black material produced by calcining animal bones: the bones are heated to high temperatures in the absence of air to drive off volatile substances. ... Carbon black is a material, today usually produced by the incomplete combustion of petroleum products. ... Soot, also called lampblack or carbon black, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the lack of sufficient oxygen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Atomic mass 112. ... About 65% to 75% of cadmium produced worldwide is used in the production of Ni-Cd Batteries. ... About 65% to 75% of cadmium produced worldwide is used in the production of Ni-Cd Batteries. ... About 2/3 to 3/4 of Cadmium produced worldwide is used in the production of Ni-Cd Batteries. ... About 2/3 to 3/4 of Cadmium produced worldwide is used in the production of Ni-Cd Batteries. ... About 65% to 75% of cadmium produced worldwide is used in the production of Ni-Cd Batteries. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... Caput Mortuum is a Latin term meaning deaths head. In alchemy, it signified a useless substance left over from a chemical operation such as sublimation. ... Red ochre and yellow ochre (pronounced //, from the Greek ochros, yellow) are pigments made from naturally tinted clay. ... Sanguine can refer to: Sanguine personality - optimistic, cheerful, even-tempered, confident, rational, popular, fun-loving; the temperament of blood. ... Red re-directs here; for alternate uses see Red (disambiguation) Red is a color at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye. ... Mars Black is an Omaha, Nebraska based hip-hop artist, born in Brooklyn, New York. ... A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußisch Blau, Berliner Blau) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 51. ... In chemistry, chromic acid (or Jones reagent) is a chromium (Cr) compound, yet to be isolated, that would have the formula H2CrO4. ... Chrome Yellow is a natural yellow pigment made of lead(II) chromate (PbCrO4). ... wikipedia sucks big balls For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... Cobalt Blue is a supervillain destroyed by the Flash. ... Cerulean blue is a cerulean (light blue or azure) pigment used in artistic painting. ... Aureolin (sometimes called Cobalt Yellow) is a pigment used in oil and watercolor painting. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see Pb. ... Lead paint is paint containing lead, which was used until the 1970s as a white pigment. ... Naples Yellow is a warm yellow pigment containing lead carbonate. ... Red lead, also called minium or lead tetroxide, is a bright red or orange crystalline or amorphous pigment. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Paris Green is a common name for copper(II)-acetoarsenite, or C.I. Pigment Green 21, an extremely toxic blue green chemical with four main uses: pigment, animal poison (mostly rodenticide), insecticide, and blue colorant for fireworks. ... Verdigris is the common name for the chemical Cu(CH3COO)2. ... Viridian is a blue-green pigment, a hydrated chromium(III) oxide, of medium saturation and relatively dark in value. ... Egyptian Blue ( CaCuSi4O10 or CaO.CuO.4SiO2) is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years. ... Han Purple ( BaCuSi2O6 ) is a pigment that has been used in China for over 2,000 years. ... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. ... Titanium yellow, also nickel antimony titanium yellow, nickel antimony titanium yellow rutile, CI Pigment Yellow 53, or C.I. 77788, is a yellow pigment with the chemical composition of NiO.Sb2O5. ... Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3) is a chemical compound. ... Natural ultramarine. ... Natural ultramarine. ... Natural ultramarine. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Atomic mass 200. ... Vermilion, also spelled vermillion, when found naturally-occurring, is an opaque reddish orange pigment, used since antiquity, originally derived from the powdered mineral cinnabar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ... Clay earth pigments are naturally occurring minerals that have been used since prehistoric times as pigments. ... Raw Sienna is the fifth album by the band Savoy Brown. ... Burnt sienna is an iron oxide pigment: a warm mid brown color. ... Raw umber Umber is a natural brown clay pigment which contains iron and manganese oxides. ... Burnt umber is both a pigment, and colour. ... Red ochre and yellow ochre (pronounced OAK-ur, from the Greek ochros, yellow) are pigments made from naturally tinted clay. ... An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... Pigment red 170 is an organic pigment extensively used in automotive coatings. ... Phthalocyanine Green G Phthalocyanine Green G, also called phthalo green, Pigment Green 7, Copper Phthalocyanine Green, C.I. Pigment Green 42, Non-flocculating Green G, Polychloro copper phthalocyanine, or C.I. 74260, is a synthetic green pigment from the group of phthalocyanine dyes, a complex of copper(II) with chlorinated... Phthalocyanine Blue BN Phthalocyanine Blue BN, also called phthalo blue, helio blue, phthalocyanine blue, C.I. Pigment Blue 15:2, Copper phthalocyanine blue, Copper tetrabenzoporphyrazine, Cu-Phthaloblue, and C.I. 74160, is a bright, greenish-blue crystalline synthetic blue pigment from the group of phthalocyanine dyes. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ...

Swatches

Pure pigments reflect light in a very specific way that cannot be precisely duplicated by the discrete light emitters in a computer display. However, by making careful measurements of pigments, close approximations can be made. The Munsell Color System provides a good conceptual explanation of what is missing. Munsell devised a system that provides an objective measure of color in three dimensions: hue, value (or lightness), and chroma. Computer displays in general are unable to show the true chroma of many pigments, but the hue and lightness can be reproduced with relative accuracy. However, when the gamma of a computer display deviates from the reference value, the hue is also systematically biased. A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor when the meaning is clear from the context, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ... Munsell Color Wheel In colorimetry, the Munsell color system is a color system that specifies colors based on three color dimensions. ...


The following approximations assume a display device at gamma 2.2, using the sRGB color space. The further a display device deviates from these standards, the less accurate these swatches will be.[10] Swatches are based on the average measurements of several lots of single-pigment watercolor paints, converted from lab color space to sRGB color space for viewing on a computer display. Different brands and lots of the same pigment may vary in color. Furthermore, pigments have inherently complex spectral reflectance functions that will render their color appearance greatly different depending on the spectrum of the source illumination, a property called metamerism. Averaged measurements of pigment samples will only yield approximations of their true appearance under a specific source of illumination. Computer display systems use a technique called chromatic adaptation transforms [1] , [2] to emulate the correllated color temperature of illumination sources, and cannot perfectly reproduce the intricate spectral combinations originally seen. In many cases the perceived color of a pigment falls outside of the gamut of computer displays and a method called gamut mapping is used to approximate the true appearance. Gamut mapping trades off any one of Lightness, Hue or Saturation accuracy to render the color onscreen, depending on the priority chosen in the conversion's ICC rendering intent.
Gamma correction is the name of an internal adjustment made in the rendering of images through photography, television, and computer imaging. ... CIE 1931 xy chromaticity diagram showing the gamut of the sRGB color space and location of the primaries. ... Without further qualification, Lab color space refers to that of Hunter (Richard S Hunter, JOSA, 38, p 661 (1948)), which is an Adams Chromatic Valance Space. ... CIE 1931 xy chromaticity diagram showing the gamut of the sRGB color space and location of the primaries. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... A standard illuminant is a profile or spectrum of visible light which is published in order to allow images or colours recorded under different lighting to be compared. ... Metamerism is a psychophysical phenomenon commonly defined as the situation when two samples match in color under one condition, but fail to match under another condition. ... Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in photography, videography, publishing and other fields. ... In computer graphics, the gamut, or color gamut (pronounced ), is a certain complete subset of colors. ... Color management is a term used in computer environments which describes a controlled conversion between the colors of various color devices, such as scanners, digital cameras, monitors, TV screens, film printers, printers, offset presses, and corresponding media. ... An image with the hues cyclically shifted The hues in the image of this Painted Bunting are cyclically rotated with time. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromaticity. ... The International Color Consortium was formed in 1993 by eight industry vendors in order to create a universal color management system that would function transparently across all operating systems and software packages. ... Rendering intent refers to the way the CMM (Color Management Module) will handle out of gamut colors during a conversion from one color space to another. ...

#990024
PR106 - #E34234
Vermilion (genuine)
#FFB02E
Indian Yellow
PB29 - #003BAF
Ultramarine Blue
PB27 - #0B3E66
Prussian Blue

Binomial name Hexaplex trunculus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Murex trunculus Phyllanotus trunculus Truncullariopsis trunculus Hexaplex trunculus (known as the trunculus murex, purple murex or banded dye-murex) is a marine snail that produces a distinctive purple dye, considered valuable in ancient times and often used to dye fabrics; if left in...

Notes

  1. ^ Kassinger, Ruth G. (2003-02-06). Dyes: From Sea Snails to Synthetics. 21st Century. ISBN 0-7613-2112-8. 
  2. ^ Theopompus, cited by Athenaeus [12.526] in c. 200 BCE; according to Gulick, Charles Barton. (1941). Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  3. ^ Michel Pastoureau (2001-10-01). Blue: The History of a Color. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09050-5. 
  4. ^ Jan Wouters, Noemi Rosario-Chirinos (1992). "Dye Analysis of Pre-Columbian Peruvian Textiles with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Diode-Array Detection". Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 31 (2): 237-255. 
  5. ^ Amy Butler Greenfield (2005-04-26). A Perfect Red: Empire, Espionage, and the Quest for the Color of Desire. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-052275-5. 
  6. ^ Chevalier, Tracy. (2001-01-08). Girl with a Pearl Earring. Plume. ISBN 0-452-28215-2. 
  7. ^ Simon Garfield (2000). Mauve: How One Man Invented a Color That Changed the World. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-393-02005-3. 
  8. ^ Octavio Hernández. Cochineal. Mexico Desconocido Online. Retrieved on July 15, 2005.
  9. ^ Jeff Behan. The bug that changed history. Retrieved on June 26, 2006.
  10. ^ Dictionary of Color Terms. Retrieved on 2006-07-20.

Michel Pastoureau is a French specialist in medieval history, who was born in Paris on 17 June 1947. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... Faber and Faber is a celebrated publishing house in the UK, notable in particular for publishing the poetry of T. S. Eliot. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ...

References

  • Ball, Philip (2002), Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, ISBN 0-374-11679-2
  • Doerner, Max (1984), The Materials of the Artist and Their Use in Painting: With Notes on the Techniques of the Old Masters, Revised Edition., Harcourt, ISBN 0-15-657716-X
  • Finlay, Victoria (2003), Color: A Natural History of the Palette, Random House, ISBN 0-8129-7142-6
  • Gage, John (1999), Color and Culture: Practice and Meaning from Antiquity to Abstraction, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-22225-3
  • Meyer, Ralph (1991), The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Fifth Edition, Viking, ISBN 0-670-83701-6

External links

  • Pigments through the ages
  • Earliest evidence of art found
  • handprint: watercolors A personal, non-commercial website by a watercolor artist that describes watercolor painting techniques and examines and reviews hundreds of pigments and their properties.

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Online POV-Ray Tutorial: Pigment Reference (4317 words)
The pigment is generated by basically setting the center of each unit cube in the space to the color at one end of the color map, and points on the edge of the cube to the color at the other end.
Note that adjusting the phase of a gradient pattern is the same as translating the pigment and adjusting the phase of a radial pigment is the same as rotating the pigment around the y-axis.
The spotted pigment is identical to the bozo pigment, except it doesn't respond to turbulence.
Pigment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1863 words)
A pigment is a material that changes the color of light it reflects as the result of selective color absorption.
A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble in the vehicle, and a dye, which is either a liquid, or is soluble.
For example, a pigment that is used to color glass must have very high heat stability in order to survive the manufacturing process; but, suspended in the glass vehicle, its resistance to alkali or acidic materials is not an issue.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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