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Encyclopedia > Pierre Gassendi

Pierre Gassendi (January 22, 1592October 24, 1655) was a French philosopher, scientist and mathematician, best known for attempting to reconcile Epicurean atomism with Christianity and for publishing the first official observations of the Transit of Mercury in 1631. The Moon's Gassendi crater is named after him. January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... The physicist Albert Einstein is probably the most famous scientist of our time. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... In natural philosophy, atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small, indestructible elements - atoms. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Transit of Mercury (time lapse showing entire event) A transit of Mercury across the Sun takes place when the planet Mercury comes between the Sun and the Earth, and Mercury is seen as a small black dot moving across the face of the Sun. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... Bulk composition of the Moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ... Gassendi is a large lunar crater feature located at the northern edge of Mare Humorum. ...

Contents

Biography

Early Life

Pierre was born at Champtercier, near Digne, in France. At a very early age he showed academic potential and attended the college at Digne. He showed particular aptitude for languages and mathematics. Soon afterwards he entered the University of Aix-en-Provence, to study philosophy under P. Fesaye. In 1612 the college of Digne called him to lecture on theology. Four years later he received the degree of Doctor of Theology at Avignon, and in 1617 he took holy orders. In the same year he answered a call to the chair of philosophy at Aix-en-Provence University, and seems gradually to have withdrawn from theology. Digne-les-Bains or simply Digne is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département. ... Digne-les-Bains or simply Digne is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ... Doctor of Theology (in Latin Theologiae Doctor) is a terminal academic degree in theology. ...   City flag City coat of arms Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig  (UMP... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ...


He lectured principally on the Aristotelian philosophy, conforming as far as possible to the orthodox methods. At the same time, however, he followed with interest the discoveries of Galileo and Kepler, and became more and more dissatisfied with the Peripatetic system. The period of revolt against Aristotelianism had begun, and Pierre shared the empirical tendencies of the age. He contributed to the objections of Aristotelian philosophy, but waited to publish his thoughts. Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Galileo Galilei (February 15, 1564 – January 8, 1642) was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher who is closely associated with the scientific revolution. ... Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630), a key figure in the scientific revolution, was a German mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, and an early writer of science fiction stories. ... Peripatetic means wandering. The Peripatetics were a school of philosophy in ancient Greece. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience. ...


Priesthood

In 1624, after he left Aix for a canonry at Grenoble, he printed the first part of his Exercitationes paradoxicae adversus Aristoteleos. A fragment of the second book later appeared in print at La Haye (1659), but Gassendi never composed the remaining five, apparently thinking that the Discussiones Peripateticae of Francesco Patrizzi left little scope for his labours. Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... A canon (from the Latin canonicus and Greek κανωνικωσ relating to a rule) is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Christian clergy subject to a rule (canon). ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France, situated at the foot of the Alps, at the confluence of the Drac into the Isère River. ... Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ... Francesco Patrizzi (Franciscus Patritus) (1529-1597), was an Italian philosopher and scientist. ...


After 1628 Pierre Gassendi travelled in Flanders and in Holland. During this time he wrote, at the instance of Marin Mersenne, his examination of the mystical philosophy of Robert Fludd (Epistolica Exercitatio, in qua precipua principia philosophiae Roberti Fluddi deteguntur, 1631), an essay on parhelia (Epistola de parheliis), and some valuable observations on the transit of Mercury which Kepler had foretold. He returned to France in 1631, and two years later became provost of the cathedral church at Digne. Events March 1 - writs were issued in February 1628 by Charles I of England that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date. ... Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... Marin Mersenne, Marin Mersennus or le Père Mersenne (September 8, 1588 – September 1, 1648) was a French theologian, philosopher, mathematician and music theorist. ... Robert Fludd, also known as Robertus de Fluctibus (1574, Bearsted, Kent – September 8, 1637, London) was a prominent English Rosicrucian and Paracelsian physicist, astrologer, and mystic. ... The plural scientific term for a Sun dog The Matrox Parhelia, a series of computer graphics processors This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Astronomical Observations

In 1631, Gassendi became the first person to observe the transit of a planet across the Sun, viewing the transit of Mercury which Kepler had predicted. In December of the same year he watched for the transit of Venus, but this event occurred when it was night time in Paris. // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... Deimos transits the Sun, as seen by Mars Rover Opportunity on March 4, 2004 The word transit has two meanings in astronomy: A transit is the astronomical event that occurs when one celestial body appears to move across the face of another celestial body, as seen by an observer at... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... The Sun is the star of our solar system. ... Transit of Mercury (time lapse showing entire event) A transit of Mercury across the Sun takes place when the planet Mercury comes between the Sun and the Earth, and Mercury is seen as a small black dot moving across the face of the Sun. ... The 2004 transit of Venus A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and the Earth, obscuring a small portion of the Suns disc. ...


Controversy

Gassendi then spent some years travelling through Provence with the duke of Angoulême, governor of the region. During this period he wrote only the one literary work, his Life of Peiresc, which has received frequent reprintings and an English translation. In 1642 Mersenne engaged him in controversy with René Descartes. His objections to the fundamental propositions of Descartes appeared in print in 1642; they appear as the fifth in the series contained in the works of Descartes. Gassendi's tendency towards the empirical school of speculation appears more pronounced here than in any of his other writings. Charles de Valois, duc dAngoulême (1573-1650), the natural son of Charles IX of France and Marie Touchet, was born on the 28th of April 1573, at the castle of Fayet in Dauphiné. His father dying in the following year, commended him to the care and favour of... Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (December 1, 1580 – June 24, 1637) was a French astronomer and savant who maintained a wide correspondence with scientists and was a successful organizer of scientific inquiry, whose own researches were not confined to the matter of determining the difference in longitude of various locations... René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, was a noted French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ...


Mathematics chairmanship

In 1645 he accepted the chair of mathematics in the Collège Royal in Paris, and lectured for several years with great success. In addition to controversial writings on physical questions, there appeared during this period the first of the works for which historians of philosophy remember him. In 1647 he published the well-received treatise De vita, moribus, et doctrina Epicuri libri octo. Two years later appeared his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laërtius, De vita, moribus, et placitis Epicuri, seu Animadversiones in X. librum Diog. Laër. (Lyons, 1649; last edition, 1675). In the same year he had published the more important Syntagma philosophiae Epicuri (Lyons, 1649; Amsterdam, 1684). Courtyard of the Collège de France. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... // Events March 14 - Thirty Years War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm. ... Diogenes Laërtius, the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of the Laërtii. ...


In 1648 ill-hkf;sdalksa'fealth compelled him to give up his lectures at the Collège Royal. He travelled in the south of France -in company of his protégé, aid and secretary François Bernier- spending nearly two years at Toulon, the climate of which suited him. In 1653 he returned to Paris and resumed his literary work, publishing in that year lives of Copernicus and of Tycho Brahe. // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... François Bernier (1625 – 1688) was a French physician and traveler, born at Joué-Etiau /Anjou. ... Location within France Coat of Arms of Toulon Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Tycho Brahe Monument of Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler in Prague   , born Tyge Ottesen Brahe (December 14, 1546 – October 24, 1601), was a Danish (Scanian) nobleman best known today as an early astronomer, though in his lifetime he was also well known as an astrologer and alchemist. ...


Death and Memorials

The disease from which he suffered, a lung complaint, had, however, established a firm hold on him. His strength gradually failed, and he died at Paris. A bronze statue of him was erected by subscription at Digne in 1852. 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Writings

Montmort published Gassendi's collected works, most importantly the Syntagma philosophicum (Opera, i. and ii.), in 1658 (6 vols., Lyons). Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by...


N. Averanius published another edition, also in 6 folio volumes, in 1727. The first two comprise entirely his Syntagma philosophicum; the third contains his critical writings on Epicurus, Aristotle, Descartes, Fludd and Lord Herbert, with some occasional pieces on certain problems of physics; the fourth, his Institutio astronomica, and his Commentarii de rebus celestibus; the fifth, his commentary on the tenth book of Diogenes Laërtius, the biographies of Epicurus, NCF de Peiresc, Tycho Brahe, Copernicus, Georg von Peuerbach, and Regiomontanus, with some tracts on the value of ancient money, on the Roman calendar, and on the theory of music, with an appended large and prolix piece entitled Notitia ecclesiae Diniensis; the sixth volume contains his correspondence. The Lives, especially those of Copernicus, Tycho and Peiresc, received much praise. Roman marble bust of Epicurus Epicurus (Epikouros or in Greek) (341 BC, Samos – 270 BC, Athens) was an ancient Greek philosopher, the founder of Epicureanism, one of the most popular schools of Hellenistic Philosophy. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... Edward Herbert, Baron Herbert of Cherbury (March 3, 1583 - August 20, 1648) was a British soldier, diplomat, historian, poet and religious philosopher. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... Diogenes Laërtius, the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of the Laërtii. ... Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (December 1, 1580 – June 24, 1637) was a French astronomer and savant who maintained a wide correspondence with scientists and was a successful organizer of scientific inquiry, whose own researches were not confined to the matter of determining the difference in longitude of various locations... Tycho Brahe Monument of Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler in Prague   , born Tyge Ottesen Brahe (December 14, 1546 – October 24, 1601), was a Danish (Scanian) nobleman best known today as an early astronomer, though in his lifetime he was also well known as an astrologer and alchemist. ... Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus - February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed a heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Georg Purbach (also Georg von Peuerbach, Peurbach, Purbach, Purbachius, his real surname is unknown) (born May 30, 1423 in Purbach near Linz– April 8, 1461 in Vienna) was an Austrian astronomer and mathematician. ... Johannes Müller von Königsberg (June 6, 1436 – July 6, 1476), known by his Latin pseudonym Regiomontanus, was an important German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Correspondence may refer to: In the theology of Emanuel Swedenborg, correspondence is the relationship between spiritual and physical realities. ...


Gassendi became one of the first to treat the literature of philosophy in a lively way. His writings abound in those anecdotal details, natural yet not obvious reflections, and vivacious turns of thought, which made Edward Gibbon style him, with some extravagance certainly, but also with some truth -- "Le meilleur philosophe des littérateurs, et le meilleur littérateur des philosophes". Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ...


Gassendi holds an honourable place in the history of physical science. Although he added little to the stock of human knowledge, the clearness of his exposition and the manner in which he, like Roger Bacon, urged the importance of experimental research, provided an inestimable service to the cause of science. Statue of Roger Bacon in the Oxford University Museum Roger Bacon (c. ...


Reviews of his writing

To in the history of philosophy remains more doubtful. The Exercitationes excited much attention, though they contain little or nothing beyond what others had already advanced against Aristotle. The first book expounds clearly, and with much vigour, the evil effects of the blind acceptance of the Aristotelian dicta on physical and philosophical study; but, as occurs with so many of the anti-Aristotelian works of this period, the objections show the usual ignorance of Aristotle's own writings. The second book, which contains the review of Aristotle's dialectic or logic, throughout reflects Ramism in tone and method. The objections to Descartes -- one of which at least, through Descartes's statement of it in the appendix of objections in the Meditations has become famous -- have no speculative value, and in general stem from the crudest empiricism. His labours on Epicurus have a certain historical value, but the want of consistency inherent in the philosophical system raised on Epicureanism deprives it of genuine worth. Along with strong expressions of empiricism we find him holding doctrines absolutely irreconcilable with empiricism in any form. For while he maintains constantly his favourite maxim "that there is nothing in the intellect which has not been in the senses" (nihil est in intellectu quod non prius fuerit in sensu), while he contends that the imaginative faculty (phantasia) is the counterpart of sense -- that, as it has to do with material images, it is itself, like sense, material, and essentially the same both in men and brutes; he at the same time admits that the intellect, which he affirms as immaterial and immortal -- the most characteristic distinction of humanity -- attains notions and truths of which no effort of sensation or imagination can give us the slightest apprehension (Op. ii. 383). He instances the capacity of forming "general notions"; the very conception of universality itself (ib. 384), to which he says brutes, who partake as truly as men in the faculty called phantasia, never attain; the notion of God, whom he says we may imagine as corporeal, but understand as incorporeal; and lastly, the reflex action by which the mind makes its own phenomena and operations the objects of attention. Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Petrus Ramus. ... Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A corporeal thing is a thing having physical substance. ...


The Syntagma philosophicum, in fact, remains one of those eclectic systems which unite, or rather place in juxtaposition, irreconcilable dogmas from various schools of thought. It sub-divides, according to the usual fashion of the Epicureans, into logic (which, with Gassendi as with Epicurus, is truly canonic), physics and ethics. The logic, which contains at least one praiseworthy portion, a sketch of the history of the science, is divided into theory of right apprehension (bene imaginari), theory of right judgment (bene proponere), theory of right inference (bene colligere), theory of right method (bene ordinare). The first part contains the specially empirical positions which Gassendi afterwards neglects or leaves out of account. The senses, the sole source of knowledge, supposedly yield us immediate cognition of individual things; phantasy (which Gassendi takes as material in nature) reproduces these ideas; understanding compares these ideas, each particular, and frames general ideas. Nevertheless, he admits that the senses yield knowledge -- not of things -- but of qualities only, and that we arrive at the idea of thing or substance by [[Inductive reasoning]|induction]]. He holds that the true method of research is the analytic, rising from lower to higher notions; yet he sees and admits that inductive reasoning, as conceived by Francis Bacon, rests on a general proposition not itself proved by induction. In his dispute with Descartes he did apparently hold that the evidence of the senses remains the only convincing evidence; yet he maintains, and is natural from his mathematical training it, that the evidence of reason is absolutely satisfactory. The whole doctrine of judgment, syllogism and method mixes Aristotelian and Ramist notions. Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c340-c270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. ... Logic, from Classical Greek λόγος (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, (but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy among philosophers. ... Roman marble bust of Epicurus Epicurus (Epikouros or in Greek) (341 BC, Samos – 270 BC, Athens) was an ancient Greek philosopher, the founder of Epicureanism, one of the most popular schools of Hellenistic Philosophy. ... Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English astrologer, philosopher, statesman, spy, freemason and essayist. ...


In the second part of the Syntagma, the physics, appears the most glaring contradiction between Gassendi's fundamental principles. While approving of the Epicurean physics, he rejects the Epicurean negation of God and particular providence. He states the various proofs for the existence of an immaterial, infinite, supreme Being, asserts that this Being is the author of the visible universe, and strongly defends the doctrine of the foreknowledge and particular providence of God. At the same time he holds, in opposition to Epicureanism, the doctrine of an immaterial rational soul, endowed with immortality and capable of free determination. It is altogether impossible to assent to the supposition of Lange (Geschichte des Materialismus, 3rd ed., i. 233), that all this portion of Gassendi's system contains nothing of his own opinions, but is introduced solely from motives of self-defence. The positive exposition of atomism has much that is attractive, but the hypothesis of the calor vitalis (vital heat), a species of anima mundi (world-soul) which he introduces as a physical explanation of physical phenomena, does not seem to throw much light on the special problems which he invokes it to solve. Nor is his theory of the weight essential to atoms as being due to an inner force impelling them to motion in any way reconcilable with his general doctrine of mechanical causes. The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is a self-aware ethereal substance particular to a unique living being. ... Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of existing for a potentially infinite, or indeterminate, length of time. ... Friedrich Albert Lange (September 28, 1828 - November 23, 1875), was a German philosopher and sociologist. ... In natural philosophy, atomism is the theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small, indestructible elements - atoms. ... Anima mundi is the soul of the world, a pure ethereal spirit, which was proclaimed by some ancient philosophers to be diffused throughout all nature. ...


In the third part, the ethics, over and above the discussion on freedom, which on the whole is indefinite, there is little beyond a milder statement of the Epicurean moral code. The final end of life is happiness, and happiness is harmony of soul and body (tranquillitas animi et indolentia corporis). Probably, Gassendi thinks, perfect happiness is not attainable in this life, but it may be in the life to come.


The Syntagma remains thus an essentially unsystematic work, and clearly exhibits the main characteristics of Gassendi's genius. He was critical rather than constructive, widely read and trained thoroughly both in languages and in science, but deficient in speculative power and original force. Even in the department of natural science he shows the same inability steadfastly to retain principles and to work from them; he wavers between the systems of Brahe and Copernicus. That his revival of Epicureanism had an important influence on the general thinking of the 17th century may be admitted; that it has any real importance in the history of philosophy cannot be granted. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


References

Samuel Sorbière recounts Gassendi's life in the first collected edition of the works, by Joseph Bougerel, Vie de Gassendi (1737; 2nd ed., 1770); as does Damiron, Mémoire sur Gassendi (1839). An abridgment of his philosophy was given by his friend, the celebrated traveller, François Bernier (Abrégé de la philosophie de Gassendi, 8 vols., 1678; 2nd ed., 7 vols., 1684). François Bernier (1625 – 1688) was a French physician and traveler, born at Joué-Etiau /Anjou. ...


Surveys of his work are

  • George Sidney Brett, Philosophy of Gassendi, (London, 1908)
  • Johann Gottlieb Buhle, Geschichte der neuern Philosophie, iii. 1, 87-222
  • Jean Philibert Damiron, Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire de philosophie au XVII siècle
  • Pierre-Félix Thomas, La Philosophie de Gassendi (Paris, 1889)

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Buhle, Johann Gottlieb Johann Gottlieb Buhle (1763-1821), German scholar and philosopher, was born at Brunswick and educated at Göttingen. ... Jean-Philibert Damiron (January 10, 1794 - January 11, 1862) was a French philosopher. ...

See also

  • Heinrich Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophie, x. 543-571
  • Feuerbach, Gesch. d. neu. Phil. von Bacon als Spinoza, 127-150
  • F. X. Kiefl, P. Gassendis Erkenninistheorie and seine Stellung zum Materialismus (1893) and "Gassendi's Skepticismus" in Philos. Jahrb. vi. (1893)
  • C. Güttler, "Gassend oder Gassendi?" in Archiv f. Gesch. d. Philos. x. (1897), pp. 238-242.

Recent works on Gassendi include: Heinrich Ritter (November 21, 1791 - February 3, 1869) was a German philosopher. ... Ludwig Feuerbach. ...

  • Alberti Antonina (1988). Sensazione e realtà. Epicuro e Gassendi, Florence, Leo T. Olschki. ISBN 8822236084
  • Olivier Bloch (1971). La philosophie de Gassendi. Nominalisme, matérialisme et métaphysique, La Haye, Martinus Nijhoff, ISBN 9024750350
  • Saul Fisher (2005). Pierre Gassendi's Philosophy and Science, Leiden/Boston, Brill. ISBN 9789004119963
  • Lynn Sumida Joy (1987). Gassendi the Atomist: Advocate of History in an Age of Science, Cambridge, UK/New York, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521522390
  • Antonia Lolordo (2006). Pierre Gassendi and the Birth of Early Modern Philosophy, Cambridge, UK/New York, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866132
  • Marco Messeri (1985). Causa e spiegazione. La fisica di Pierre Gassendi, Milan, Franco Angeli. ISBN 8820440458
  • Margaret J. Osler (1994). Divine Will and the Mechanical Philosophy: Gassendi and Descartes on Contingency and Necessity in the Created World, Cambridge, UK/New York, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521461049
  • Rolf W. Puster (1991). Britische Gassendi-Rezeption am Beispiel John Lockes, Frommann-Holzboog. ISBN 3-7728-1362-3
  • Reiner Tack (1974). Untersuchungen zum Philosophie- und Wissenschaftsbegriff bei Pierre Gassendi: (1592 - 1655), Meisenheim (am Glan), Hain. ISBN 3-445-01103-6

External links

  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Pierre Gassendi
  • De proportione qua gravia decidentia accelerantur 1646

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Galileo Project (1179 words)
Gassendi was the son of Antoine Gassend and Francoise Fabry.
Gassendi was ordained a priest in 1616 or 17.
Cardinal Alphonse Richelieu was influencial in the appointment of Gassendi to the professorship in mathematics in 1645.
Pierre Gassendi (817 words)
Gassendi, "the Bacon of France", is specially note-worthy for his opposition to the Aristotelean philosophy, and for his revival of the Epicurean system.
That Gassendi was neither "the father of materialism" nor a sceptic in the proper sense is shown by Kiefi (see Baldwin, op.
Gassendi was esteemed by all, and loved by the poor for whom he provided in lifetime and in his last will.
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