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Encyclopedia > Pierre Curie
Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie (1859-1906)
Born May 15, 1859
Paris, France
Died April 19, 1906 (aged 46)
Paris, France
Residence France
Nationality French
Field Physicist
Institutions Sorbonne
Alma mater Sorbonne
Notable students   Paul Langevin
André-Louis Debierne
Marguerite Catherine Perey
Known for Radioactivity
Notable prizes Nobel Prize for Physics (1903)
Married to Marie Curie (m. 1895), their children include Irène Joliot-Curie and Ève Curie.

Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859 – died April 19, 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x778, 28 KB) Source: http://www. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually... Paul Langevin (January 23, 1872 â€“ December 19, 1946) was a prominent French physicist who developed Langevin dynamics and the Langevin equation. ... André-Louis Debierne (1874 - August, 1949) was a French chemist, born in Paris. ... Marguerite Catherine Perey (1909 - 1975) was a French physicist. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Irène Joliot-Curie née Curie, (12 September 1897 – 17 March 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie SkÅ‚odowska-Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. ... Ève Denise Curie Labouisse (born December 6, 1904 in Paris) is a U.S. (French-born) author and writer. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electric potential[1] in response to applied mechanical stress. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


He shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in physics with his wife, Maria Skłodowska-Curie (Marie Curie), and Henri Becquerel," in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel." The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, is awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Antoine Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 – August 25, 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and one of the discoverers of radioactivity. ...

Contents

Early life and work

Born in Paris, France, Pierre was educated by his father, and in his early teens showed a strong aptitude for mathematics and geometry. By the age of 18 he had completed the equivalent of a higher degree, but did not proceed immediately to a doctorate due to lack of money. Instead he worked as a laboratory instructor. This article is about the capital of France. ...


In 1880, Pierre and his older brother Jacques demonstrated that an electric potential was generated when crystals were compressed, i.e. piezoelectricity. Shortly afterwards, in 1881, they demonstrated the reverse effect: that crystals could be made to deform when subject to an electric field. Almost all digital electronic circuits now rely on this phenomenon in the form of crystal oscillators. Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electric potential[1] in response to applied mechanical stress. ... A crystal oscillator is an electronic device that uses the mechanical resonance of a physical crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. ...


Prior to his famous doctoral studies on magnetism he designed and perfected an extremely sensitive torsion balance for measuring magnetic coefficients. Variations on this equipment were commonly used by future workers in that area. Pierre Curie studied ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism for his doctoral thesis, and discovered the effect of temperature on paramagnetism which is now known as Curie's law. The material constant in Curie's law is known as the Curie constant. He also discovered that ferromagnetic substances exhibited a critical temperature transition, above which the substances lost their ferromagnetic behaviour. This is now known as the Curie point. A torsion spring is a ribbon, bar, or coil that reacts against twisting motion. ... Ferromagnetism is the phenomenon by which materials, such as iron, in an external magnetic field become magnetized and remain magnetized for a period after the material is no longer in the field. ... Simple Illustration of a paramagnetic probe made up from miniature magnets. ... Levitating pyrolytic carbon Diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that is only exhibited by a substance in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... In a paramagnetic material Curies law relates the magnetization of the material to the applied magnetic field and temperature. ... The critical temperature, Tc, of a material is the temperature above which distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. ... The Curie point is a term in physics and materials science, named after Pierre Curie (1859-1906), and refers to a characteristic property of a ferromagnetic material. ...


Pierre formulated what is now known as the Curie Dissymmetry Principle: a physical effect cannot have a dissymmetry absent from its efficient cause. For example, a random mixture of sand in zero gravity has no dissymmetry (it is isotropic). Introduce a gravitational field, then there is a dissymmetry because of the direction of the field. Then the sand grains can ‘self-sort’ with the density increasing with depth. But this new arrangement, with the directional arrangement of sand grains, actually reflects the dissymmetry of the gravitational field that causes the separation. Effect can be used in several different ways: Cause and effect are the relata of causality In movies and other media, sound effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Isotropic means independent of direction. Isotropic radiation has the same intensity regardless of the direction of measurement, and an isotropic field exerts the same action regardless of how the test particle is oriented. ... A gravitational field is a model used within physics to explain how gravity exists in the universe. ...


Work

Pierre worked with his wife Marie Curie in isolating polonium and radium. They were the first to use the term "radioactivity," and were pioneers in its study. Their work, including Marie's celebrated doctoral work, made use of a sensitive piezoelectric electrometer constructed by Pierre and his brother Jacques. General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight (226) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An electrometer is an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference. ...


Pierre and one of his students made the first discovery of nuclear energy, by identifying the continuous emission of heat from radium particles. He also investigated the radiation emissions of radioactive substances, and through the use of magnetic fields was able to show that some of the emissions were positively charged, some were negative and some were neutral. These correspond to alpha, beta and gamma radiation. This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight (226) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ...


The curie is a unit of radioactivity (3.7 x 1010 decays per second or 37 gigabecquerels) originally named in honour of Pierre Curie by the Radiology Congress in 1910, after Pierre's death. The curie (symbol Ci) is a former unit of radioactivity, defined as 3. ... The becquerel (symbol Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity, defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. ...


Pierre died as a result of a carriage accident in a snow storm while crossing the Rue Dauphine in Paris on April 19, 1906. His head having been crushed under the carriage wheel, he avoided probable death by the radiation exposure that later killed his wife. Both Pierre and Marie were enshrined in the crypt of the Panthéon in Paris in April 1995. This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ... The Panthéon Interior Dome of the Panthéon Entrance of the Panthéon Voltaires statue and tomb in the crypt of the Panthéon The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Pantheon, meaning All the Gods) is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ...


Pierre and Marie Curie's daughter Irène Joliot-Curie and their son-in-law Frédéric Joliot-Curie were also physicists involved in the study of radioactivity, and were also awarded the Nobel prize for their work. Their other daughter Ève wrote her mother's biography. His grand-daughter Hélène Langevin-Joliot is a professor of nuclear physics at the University of Paris and his grandson, Pierre Joliot, who was named after him, is a noted biochemist. Irène Joliot-Curie née Curie, (12 September 1897 – 17 March 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie SkÅ‚odowska-Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. ... Frédéric Joliot-Curie Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie né Joliot (March 19, 1900 – August 14, 1958) was a French physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Ève Denise Curie Labouisse (born December 6, 1904 in Paris) is a U.S. (French-born) author and writer. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Pierre Joliot (born in Paris, 12 March 1932) is a noted french biochemist and researcher for the CNRS. A researcher there since 1956, he became a Director of Research in 1974 and a member of their scientific council in 1992. ...


Prizes

List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... The Davy Medal is a bronze medal that has been awarded annually by the Royal Society in London since 1887. ... The Matteucci Medal was established to award physicists for their fundamental contributions. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pierre Curie

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pierre Curie - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (626 words)
Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859, Paris – April 19, 1906, Paris) was a French physicist and a pioneer in the study of crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.
Pierre Curie studied ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism for his doctoral thesis, and discovered the effect of temperature on paramagnetism which is now known as Curie's law.
Pierre and one of his students made the first discovery of nuclear energy, by identifying the continuous emission of heat from radium particles.
Pierre Curie - MSN Encarta (356 words)
Pierre Curie also worked on important topics in the structure of crystals and helped discover the piezoelectric effect in crystals—a property of producing electrical voltages when they are compressed.
Pierre Curie was born in Paris and educated at home by his parents.
Pierre became a professor of physics at the University of Paris in 1904.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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