FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pierre Charles L'Enfant
Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant
Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant
L'Enfant's plan for Washington, as revised by Andrew Ellicott

Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant (2 August 1754, Paris, France14 June 1825, Prince George's County, Maryland) was a French-born American architect and urban planner. L'Enfant designed the first street plan for the Federal City in the United States, now known as Washington, D.C. Image File history File links L_enfant. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x718, 161 KB) Peter Charles LEnfants plan for Washington, D.C., as revised by Andrew Ellicott This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x718, 161 KB) Peter Charles LEnfants plan for Washington, D.C., as revised by Andrew Ellicott This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Prince Georges County is located in the U.S. state of Maryland immediately north, east, and south of Washington, D.C. It is the wealthiest majority African-American county in the nation. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (=Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack...

Contents

Early life

L'Enfant was born at the Gobelins, Paris, the third child and second son of Marie Charlotte L'Enfant (aged 25 and the daughter of a minor marine official at court) and Pierre L'Enfant (1704-1787), a painter with a good reputation in the service of the king. In 1758 his brother Pierre Joseph died at the age of six, leaving him the eldest son. He studied at the Royal Academy in the Louvre before enrolling to fight in the American Revolution. Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that...


Military service

In 1777, L'Enfant moved to the American colonies as a military engineer with Major General Lafayette and served in the Continental Army.[1] L'Enfant became closely identified with the United States, adopting the name Peter.[2] He was wounded at the Siege of Savannah in 1779, but recovered and served in General Washington's staff as a Captain of Engineers for the remainder of the Revolutionary War. He was promoted by brevet to Major of Engineers on May 2, 1783 in recognition of his service to American liberty.[3] In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Marie-Joseph-Paul-Roch-Yves-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (September 6, 1757–May 20, 1834), was a French aristocrat most famous for his participation in the American Revolutionary War and early French Revolution. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... Combatants United States France Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders General Benjamin Lincoln Admiral Comte dEstaing Count Kazimierz Pulaski † General Augustin Prevost Strength 1,550 American troops; 3,500 French troops and sailors 3,200 troops Casualties Total Allied: 800 killed 1200 wounded 40 killed 63 wounded The Siege of... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Architect and planner

Following the war, L'Enfant established a successful and highly profitable civil engineering firm in New York City. He achieved some fame as an architect by redesigning Federal Hall. He also designed coins, medals, furniture and houses of the wealthy, and was a friend of treasurer Alexander Hamilton. New York, NY redirects here. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Federal Hall, once located at 26 Wall Street in New York City, was the first capitol of the United States. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ...


In 1791, L'Enfant was appointed by President George Washington to design a new federal capital city under the supervision of three commissioners that Washington had appointed to oversee the planning and development of the 10 mile square of federal territory that would later become the District of Columbia. L'Enfant arrived in Georgetown on March 9, 1791, and began his work.[4] L'Enfant's plan was presented to George Washington on August 19, 1791.[5] He secured the lease of quarries at Wigginton Island and along Aquia Creek in Virginia for use in the foundations of the Capitol in November 1791.[6] The familiar golden dome of Washingtons once venerable Riggs Bank, now amalgamated into PNC Bank, at the northeast corner of Wisconsin Avenue and M Street NW. Georgetown in red Georgetown is a neighborhood located in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C., along the Potomac River waterfront. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A small cinder quarry A dimension stone quarry A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted. ... Aquia Creek is a tributary of the tidal segment of the Potomac River located in Northern Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... A foundation is a structure that transmits loads from a building or road to the underlying ground. ... The south facade of the United States Capitol Capitol Hill redirects here. ...


Because of his temperament and insistence on the city being realised as a whole, L'Enfant's plan for the Federal City was only partially executed during his lifetime. The District commissioners wanted to direct the limited funds available into the construction of the federal buildings; in this, they had the support of Thomas Jefferson. As a result of L'Enfant's frequent conflicts with the commissioners, George Washington dismissed L'Enfant from the project in March 1792, before L'Enfant was able to find a publisher for his plan.[7] However, George Washington retained a copy of one of L'Enfant's original plans, which is now in the possession of the U.S. Library of Congress. [8] The last line in an oval in the upper left hand corner of the plan identifies its author as "Peter Charles L'Enfant". Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... The Great Hall interior. ...


Following L'Enfant's dismissal, the commissioners placed the planning for the Capitol city in the hands of the surveyors, Andrew and Joseph Ellicott, who had earlier conducted the original boundary survey of the future District of Columbia. Andrew Ellicott then revised L'Enfant's plan and, unlike L'Enfant, succeeded in having his own version of the plan engraved, published, and distributed. [9] Ellicott's revision subsequently became the basis for the capital city's development. Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Andrew Ellicott on a miniature portrait from 1799. ... Joseph Ellicott Joseph Ellicott (November 1, 1760 - August 19, 1826) was a surveyor, city planner, land office agent, canal commissioner and judge born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, of the Quaker faith. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ...


L'Enfant was not paid for his work and fell into disgrace, spending much of the rest of his life trying to persuade Congress to pay him what he felt he was owed. He was offered a position as Professor of Engineering at West Point, in 1812, but declined. L'Enfant died in poverty and was buried at the farm of a friend in Prince George's County, Maryland. The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... USMA redirects here. ... Prince Georges County is located in the U.S. state of Maryland immediately north, east, and south of Washington, D.C. It is the wealthiest majority African-American county in the nation. ...


In 1909, by order of Congress, L'Enfant's remains were disinterred and laid in honor in the Capitol Rotunda. Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... United States Capitol . The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ...


Private life

L'Enfant's decade-long relationship with Richard Soderstrom began in 1794. While historians debate the sexual nature of the partnership, at a minimum the two shared living quarters near Philadelphia and collaborated in business. In 1801, Soderstrom billed L'Enfant for his share of their living expenses, and a legal dispute followed.


McMillan Plan

In 1901, the McMillan Commission used L'Enfant's plan as the cornerstone of its 1902 report, which laid out a plan for a sweeping National Mall. At the instigation of the French ambassador, Jean Jules Jusserand, L'Enfant's adopted nation then finally recognized his contributions. In 1909, after a ceremony at the U.S. Capitol Rotunda, L'Enfant's remains were reinterred in Arlington National Cemetery, on a hill overlooking the city that he had partially designed. [10]. In 1911, he was honored with a monument placed on top of his grave. Engraved on the monument is a portion of L'Enfant's own plan, which Andrew Ellicott had later superseded. [11] The National Mall was the centerpiece of the McMillan Plan. ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ... Jean Adrien Antoine Jules Jusserand (February 18, 1855 - July 18, 1932) was a French author and diplomatist. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... United States Capitol The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Honors

The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ... The SS Pierre LEnfant (Hull Number 1001) was a Liberty ship built in the United States during World War II. She was named after Pierre LEnfant, a French-born American architect who designed what is today Washington D.C. The ship was laid down on May 17, 1943...

Notes

  1. ^ Morgan, J.D. (1899). "Maj. Pierre Charles L'Enfant". Records of the Columbia Historical Society 2: p. 118. 
  2. ^ Bowling, Kenneth R., Peter Charles L’Enfant: vision, honor, and male friendship in the early American Republic. George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 2002.
  3. ^ Morgan, J.D. (1899). "Maj. Pierre Charles L'Enfant". Records of the Columbia Historical Society 2: p. 119. 
  4. ^ Stewart, John (1899). "Early Maps and Surveyors of the City of Washington, D.C.". Records of the Columbia Historical Society 2: p. 50. 
  5. ^ Stewart, John (1899). "Early Maps and Surveyors of the City of Washington, D.C.". Records of the Columbia Historical Society 2: p. 52. 
  6. ^ Morgan, J.D. (1899). "Maj. Pierre Charles L'Enfant". Records of the Columbia Historical Society 2: p. 120. 
  7. ^ Bryan, W.B. (1899). "L'Enfant's Personal Affairs". Records of the Columbia Historical Society 2: p. 113. 
  8. ^ U.S. Library of Congress: Pierre Charles L'Enfant's 1791 "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government ...."
  9. ^ Washington Map Society: Plan of the City of Washington
  10. ^ Gravesite of Peter Charles L'Enfant in Arlington National Cemetery (Hybrid satellite image/street map from WikiMapia)
  11. ^ Arlington National Cemetery: Historical Information: Pierre Charles L'Enfant

References

  • Berg, Scott W. (2007). Grand Avenues: The Story of the French Visionary Who Designed Washington, D.C.. Pantheon Books. ISBN 978-0-375-42280-5. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
L’ENFANT, PIERRE CHARLES. The Columbia Encyclopedia: Sixth Edition. 2000 (135 words)
L’Enfant had remodeled the New York City city hall to serve as a temporary seat of federal government when he was asked (1789) by Washington to submit plans for the capital city at Washington.
In 1889, L’Enfant’s plans were exhumed from the archives, and in 1901 the design of the capital was developed along the lines that he had laid down.
L’Enfant’s body was moved to the Arlington National Cemetery in 1909.
The L'Enfant and McMillian Plans (1132 words)
L'Enfant specified in notes accompanying the plan that these avenues were to be wide, grand, lined with trees, and situated in a manner that would visually connect ideal topographical sites throughout the city, where important structures, monuments, and fountains were to be erected.
L'Enfant opposed selling land prematurely, refused to furnish his map to the city commissioners in time for the sale, and was reluctantly relieved of his duties by George Washington.
L'Enfant's plan was magnified and expanded during the early decades of the 20th century with the reclamation of land for waterfront parks, parkways, an improved Mall and new monuments and vistas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m