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Encyclopedia > Pierre Boulez
Pierre Boulez
Pierre Boulez

Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlɛz/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. Image File history File links Boulez. ... Image File history File links Boulez. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... See Conductor for other possible uses of the word. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...

Contents


Life and music

Boulez was born in Montbrison, France. He initially studied mathematics at Lyon before pursuing music at the Paris Conservatoire under Olivier Messiaen and Andrée Vaurabourg (Arthur Honegger's wife). He studied twelve-tone technique with René Leibowitz and went on to write atonal music in a post-Webernian serial style. The first fruits of this were his cantatas Le visage nuptial and Le soleil des eaux for female voices and orchestra (both composed in the late forties and revised several times since), as well as the Second Piano Sonata of 1948, a well-received 32-minute work that Boulez composed at the age of 23. Thereafter, Boulez was influenced by Messiaen's research to extend twelve-tone technique beyond the realm of pitch organization, serialising durations, dynamics, accents, and so on. This technique became known as integral serialism. Boulez quickly became one of the philosophical leaders of the post-war movement in the arts towards greater abstraction and experimentation. Many composers of Boulez's generation taught at the International Summer Courses for New Music in Darmstadt, Germany. The so-called Darmstadt composers were instrumental in creating a style that, for a time, existed as an antidote to music of nationalist fervor; an international, even cosmopolitan style, a style that could not be 'co-opted' as propaganda in the way that the Nazis used, for example, the music of Ludwig van Beethoven. Boulez was in contact with many young composers that would become influential, including John Cage. Montbrison is the name of several communes of France: Montbrison, in the Drôme département Montbrison, in the Loire département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Euclid, detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Three of the main sights in Lyon, the Cathedral St-Jean, the Basilica Notre Dame de Fourvière, and the Tour métallique de Fourvière City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 9... Conservatoire de Paris, or Paris Conservatoire, has been central to the evolution of music in France and Western Europe. ... Olivier Messiaen. ... Andrée Vaurabourg (1894-1980) was a French pianist and teacher. ... Arthur Honegger in 1921. ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... René Leibowitz (February 17, 1913 – August 28, 1972) was a French composer, conductor, music theorist and teacher born in Warsaw, Poland. ... Atonality describes music that does not conform to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer. ... In the European classical music theory, serialism is a set of methods for composing and analyzing works of music based on structuring those works around the parameterization of parts of music: that is, ordering pitch, dynamics, instrumentation, rhythm and on occasion other elements into a row or series in which... Cantata (Italian for a song or story set to music), a vocal composition accompanied by instruments and generally containing more than one movement. ... Human voice consists of sound made by a person using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, screaming or crying. ... The Boston Pops orchestra performing on the Charles River Esplanade in Boston, Massachusetts. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... In music, pitch is the perception of the frequency of a note. ... // Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. ... In music, dynamics refers to the volume or loudness of the sound or note, in particular to the range from soft (quiet) to loud. ... In music, an accent is an emphasis on a particular note created by length, as in an agogic accent, pitch, as in a pitch accent, and dynamics, such as dynamic accents. ... In the European classical music theory, serialism is a set of methods for composing and analyzing works of music based on structuring those works around the parameterization of parts of music: that is, ordering pitch, dynamics, instrumentation, rhythm and on occasion other elements into a row or series in which... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Ludwig van Beethoven by Carl Jäger (Date unknown). ... John Cage For the character of John Cage from the TV show Ally McBeal see: John Cage (Character) John Milton Cage (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American experimental music composer, writer and visual artist. ...


Boulez's totally serialized works included Polyphonie X (1951) for 18 instruments, and Structures I for two pianos. The latter work was quite successful, and seems to sum up the feelings of zero hour in Europe during the early 50s. Structures was also a turning point for Boulez. As one of the most visible totally serialized works, it became a lightning rod for various kinds of criticism. György Ligeti, for example, published an article in die Reihe that examined the patterns of durations, dynamics, and pitch in it, and found that a single pitch did not fit the pattern, which he then proceeded to question in excruciating detail. These criticisms, combined with what Boulez felt was a lack of expressive flexibility in the language, as he outlined in his essay "To the farthest reach of the fertile country", led Boulez to refine his compositional language. He distilled the feel of total serialization into a more supple and strongly gestural music, and he kept his methods for composing secret, to prevent people like Ligeti from discussing the technique, rather than the content of his music. Boulez's strongest achievement in this method is his masterpiece Le marteau sans maître for ensemble and voice, from 1953-1957, one of the few works of advanced music from the fifties to remain in the repertoire. Le marteau was a surprising and revolutionary synthesis of many different streams in modern music, as well as seeming to encompass the sound worlds of modern jazz, the Balinese Gamelan, traditional African musics, and traditional Japanese musics. It seemed to be powerfully relevant and earth-shatteringly cosmopolitan, and it was hailed by diverse musicians, including Igor Stravinsky. At that time, Boulez seemed to control the modern musical discourse. Lev Koblyakov cracked the code of these new techniques in his 1975-7 doctoral thesis (now published under the title "Pierre Boulez: A World of Harmony"), a feat one could liken to reverse engineering a complex machine. (However, Koblyakov accomplished this well after specific flavors of serial technique had been controversial among composers; Boulez had already moved on to other things.) Polyphonie X is a composition for eighteen instruments by Pierre Boulez written in 1950-51. ... György Sándor Ligeti (born May 28, 1923) is a Jewish Hungarian composer (now living in, and a citizen of, Austria), widely seen as one of the great composers of instrumental music of the 20th century. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Music is conceptual time expressed in the structures of tones and silence. ... The 1950s were a decade that spanned the years 1951 through 1960. ... Jazz is an original American musical art form originating around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans, rooted in Western music technique and theory, and is marked by the profound cultural contributions of African Americans. ... Saron - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs. ... Igor Stravinsky Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: И́горь Фёдорович Страви́нский Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-born composer of modern classical music. ...


After Le marteau sans maître, Boulez began to strengthen the position of the music post-WWI modern composers through conducting and advocacy. He also begins to consider new avenues in his own work. With Pli selon pli for orchestra with solo soprano, he began to work with an idea of improvisation and open-endedness. He considered how the conductor might be able to 'improvise' on vague notations, such as the fermata, and how the players might 'improvise' on irrational durations, such as grace notes. In addition, he worked with the idea of leaving the specific ordering of movements or sections of music open to be chosen for a particular night of a performance, an idea related to the mobile form of Karlheinz Stockhausen. Interestingly, though the two works sound similar today, and certainly represent the same impeccable craft, Pli selon pli was not received as well as Le marteau. (Stravinsky for instance, hated the former but loved the latter.) This is perhaps more of a cultural barometer than a reflection on the work itself. During the time that Boulez was testing these new ideas, those colleagues who had never been entirely comfortable with the prominence of a rigorous musical language, such as György Ligeti, had brought a convincing musical counter argument to Boulez's musical ideals. In a poetic twist, Boulez had moved from peerless respect for Le marteau sans maître, meaning "the hammer without master", to seeming defeat with Pli selon pli ("Fold upon fold"), which sets a Stéphane Mallarmé poem about the tripping impotence of a swan, unable to take flight from a frozen lake. Pli selon pli (Fold by fold) is a piece of classical music by the French composer Pierre Boulez. ... In music, solo means to play or sing alone. ... Look up Soprano in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fermata A fermata is an element of Musical notation indicating that the note should be sustained for longer than the printed note would indicate. ... A grace note is a common term for a phenomenon of music notation used to denote several kinds of musical ornaments. ... Aleatoric music (or aleatory) is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance or some primary element of a composed works realization is left to the determination of its performer(s). ... Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a composer. ... Édouard Manet, Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé . Stéphane Mallarmé (March 18, 1842 – September 9, 1898) was a French poet and critic. ...


From the 1950s, beginning with the Third Piano Sonata (1955- ), Boulez experimented with what he called "controlled chance" and he developed his views on aleatoric music in the articles Aléa and Sonate, que me veux-tu?. His use of chance, which he would later employ in compositions like Eclat, Domaines and Rituel in Memoriam Bruno Maderna is very different from that in the works of for example John Cage. While in Cage's music the performers are often given the freedom to improvise and create completely new sounds, in works by Boulez they only get to choose between possibilities that have been written out in detail by the composer - a method that is often described as mobile form. Aleatoric (or aleatory) music or composition, is music where some element of the composition is left to chance. ...


Some critics have accused Boulez of trying out the musical fads in the 1970s, for example the Rituel for orchestra divided into eight groups has been viewed as under the influence of American minimalism. None of these fads seemed to fit Boulez well, and gradually, Boulez closes the book on this sort of experimentation. Some later revisions to his works, such as a fixed ordering for the movements of Pli selon pli (which previously could be performed in any order), is by some seen as a reaction against this line of criticism. (Boulez himself explained that after working with the piece for awhile, it seemed that there was a best ordering: the one he chose.) However, Boulez has had a strong tendency to view all of his pieces as works in progress. His output since the 1970s has been considerably slowed; works tend to be contemplated over many years, and some, such as the Third Piano Sonata remain unfinished, though two of its projected five movements have been performed. ...explosante-fixe..., effectively a flute concerto with electronics, was first written in the 1970s and completely revised in the 1990s. His early work Notations for piano (1945), which consisted of short miniatures, is in the process today of being fleshed out as a piece for orchestra, with each tiny piano movement metamorphosed into a monolithic orchestral one at least seven movements of this project have been completed. He has made these kind of continuations of his works throughout his carrer, other examples include the Structures II continuation of Structures I a few years later, Anthémes for solo violin reworked with electronics as Anthémes 2, and Incises for solo piano exploded into Sur Incises for three percussion groups. Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features. ... The Flute (Ger. ... In classical music, the word concerto (pl. ... The field of electronics is the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons (or other charge carriers) in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1971 to 1980, inclusive. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ...


He also began to work more with electronics in his music in the 1970s. Following the lead of figures such as Pierre Schaeffer and Edgard Varèse, he and his colleagues (even Olivier Messiaen) had experimented with electronics in the 1950's, but had given it up after an unsatisfying attempt (though Karlheinz Stockhausen was fantastically successful with this medium, and had gone on to make many important advances between the 50s and the 70s). In 1970 president Georges Pompidou asked Boulez to create and direct an institution for the exploration and development of modern music. This became IRCAM. There, Boulez made pioneering advances in classical electronic music and computer music, and promoted the idea that composers should work with technological assistants, who would attempt to realize the musical intentions of the composer. An example of this sort of relationship can be found in his major electronic work, Répons, for orchestra and electronics. Boulez worked with Andrew Gerzso to create a work where the resonance and spatialization of sounds created by the ensemble, were processed in real time (electronic music was usually laboriously created in controlled situations, and then recorded to tape, and thus 'fixed' in place for a performance). Boulez remained director of the IRCAM until 1992. As of 2004 he still has an office in the IRCAM. The IRCAM has become one of the most successful and notorious centers of musical modernism. Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer (August 14, 1910–August 19, 1995) was a French composer, noted as the inventor of musique concrète. ... This article is in need of improvement. ... Karlheinz Stockhausen (born August 22, 1928) is a composer. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (July 5, 1911 – April 2, 1974) was President of France from 1969 until his death in 1974. ... The IRCAM, Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique, was founded in the 1970s by Pierre Boulez. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Electronic music is a term for music created using electronic devices. ... Computer music is music generated with, or composed with the aid of, computers. ... The Tacoma Narrows Bridge (shown twisting) in Washington collapsed spectacularly, under moderate wind, in part because of resonance. ... Spatialization is the aspect of music related with space. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Today, Boulez was and is one of the leaders of the post-World War II musical modernism. His compositions have enriched musical culture, and his advocacy of modern and postmodern music has been decisive for many. Boulez continues to conduct and compose as of 2006. From 1976-1995, Boulez held the Chair in "Invention, technique et langage en musique" at the prestigious Collège de France. In 2002 he was awarded the prestigious Glenn Gould Prize for his contributions. 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Courtyard of the Collège de France. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The Glenn Gould Prize is an international award bestowed by the Glenn Gould Foundation. ...


Boulez as a conductor

Boulez is also world-famous conductor, having directed most of the world's leading symphony orchestras and ensembles since the late fifties. He served both as Chief Conductor of the BBC Symphony Orchestra from 1971-1975, and Music Director of the New York Philharmonic from 1971-1977. He is currently the Principal Guest Conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and will continue the following season as Conductor Emeritus, .
Boulez is particularly famed for his polished interpretations of twentieth century classics - Claude Debussy, Gustav Mahler, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Béla Bartók, Anton Webern and Edgard Varèse - as well as for numerous performances of contemporary music. Clarity, precision, rhythmic agility and a respect for the composers' intentions as notated in the musical score are the hallmarks of his conducting style. He never uses a baton, conducting with his hands alone. His nineteenth century repertoire focuses upon Ludwig van Beethoven, Hector Berlioz, Robert Schumann and especially Richard Wagner. See Conductor for other possible uses of the word. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... The New York Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in New York City. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, based in Chicago, Illinois, is one of the leading orchestras in the world. ... Claude Debussy Achille-Claude Debussy () (August 22, 1862 – March 25, 1918) was a French composer. ... Gustav Mahler in 1909 Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was a Bohemian-Austrian composer and conductor. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1938 For the American music critic and journalist, see Harold Charles Schonberg. ... Igor Stravinsky Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: И́горь Фёдорович Страви́нский Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-born composer of modern classical music. ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881 – September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and collector of Eastern European and Middle Eastern folk music. ... Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer. ... This article is in need of improvement. ... Baton can refer to: // Instruments Baton (via French bâton = stick from Late Latin bastum = stout staff, probably of Gaulish origin) refers to several types of cylindrical or tapered instruments composed of a wide variety of materials (finished, not wood in the natural state), with differing functions:- A baton (billy... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ludwig van Beethoven by Carl Jäger (Date unknown). ... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer best known for the Symphonie fantastique, first performed in 1830, and for his Grande Messe des morts Requiem of 1837, with its tremendous resources that include four antiphonal brass choirs. ... Robert Schumann (June 8, 1810 – July 29, 1856) was a German composer and pianist. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 in Leipzig[1] – February 13, 1883 in Venice[2]) was an influential German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ...


Boulez as a writer

Boulez is also an articulate, perceptive and sweeping writer on music. Some articles - notably the notorious "Schoenberg is Dead," (1951) were deliberately provocative and veered towards polemic. Others dealt with questions of technique and aesthetics in a deeply reflective if sometimes elliptical manner. These writings have mostly been republished under the titles "Notes of an Apprenticeship", "Orientations: Collected Writings", and "Boulez on Music Today", as well as within reprints of the journal of the Darmstadt composers of the time, "Die Reihe." Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg, (the anglicized form of Schönberg—Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he became a U.S. citizen) (September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was a composer, born in Vienna, Austria. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... A journal (through French from late Latin diurnalis, daily) is a daily record of events or business. ...


Selected list of compositions

See also: List of compositions by Pierre Boulez A list of works by the French Composer Pierre Boulez. ...

  • Piano Sonata No. 1 (1946)
  • Piano Sonata No. 2 (1947-48)
  • Polyphonie X (1951)
  • Structures, Livres I et II (2 pianos, 1952 and 1961, respectively)
  • Le marteau sans maître (alto, alto flute, guitar, vibraphone, xylorimba, percussion and viola, 1953-55)
  • Piano Sonata No. 3 (1955-...) (Unfinished: only two of the five movements have been published.)
  • Pli selon pli (soprano and orchestra, 1957-62)
  • Domaines (clarinet solo, 1968-69)
  • Domaines (clarinet and ensemble, 1968-69)
  • cummings ist der Dichter (for chorus and ensemble, 1970)
  • Rituel: In Memoriam Bruno Maderna (orchestra, 1974-75)
  • Messagesquisse (seven cellos, 1976-77)
  • Notations (piano version 1945, orchestral version 1978-...)
  • Répons (two pianos, harp, vibraphone, glockenspiel, cimbalom, orchestra and electronics, 1980-84)
  • "Dérive 1" (for six instruments, 1984)
  • Le visage nuptial (soprano, alto, female chorus and orchestra, 1951-89)
  • "Dérive 2" (for eleven instruments, 1990)
  • ...explosante-fixe... (ensemble and electronics, first version 1972-74, second version 1991-93)
  • Sur Incises (3 pianos, 3 harps and 3 mallet instruments, 1996-98)
  • "Anthèmes 2" (violin and electronics, 1998)

Polyphonie X is a composition for eighteen instruments by Pierre Boulez written in 1950-51. ... A baby grand piano, with the lid up. ... In music, an alto or contralto is a singer with a vocal range somewhere between a tenor and a mezzo-soprano. ... The Flute (Ger. ... The acoustic archtop guitar, used in Jazz music, features steel strings. ... Luigi Waites plays a vibraphone, July 29, 1999 The vibraphone, sometimes called the vibraharp or simply the vibes, is a musical instrument in the percussion family. ... The xylorimba (sometimes known as the xylo-marimba or marimba-xylophone) is a pitched percussion musical instrument which is not a combination of the xylophone and the marimba but a xylophone with an extended range. ... Percussion instruments are music instruments played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped, hence the percussive name. ... The viola (in French, alto; in German bratsche) is a stringed musical instrument played with a bow which serves as the middle voice of the violin family, between the upper lines played by the higher violin (soprano register) and the lower lines played by the deeper cello (bass) and double... Pli selon pli (Fold by fold) is a piece of classical music by the French composer Pierre Boulez. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... A choir or chorus is a musical ensemble of singers. ... A baby grand piano, with the lid up. ... The harp is a stringed instrument which has its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ... Glockenspiel The Glockenspiel (German, play of bells, also known as orchestra bells and, in its portable form, bell lyra or bell lyre) is a musical instrument in the percussion family. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbal instrument. ... Look up Soprano in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A choir or chorus is a musical ensemble of singers. ... A baby grand piano, with the lid up. ... The harp is a stringed instrument which has its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. ... A mallet is a type of hammer, and is manufactured in different designs according to their intended use. ... A violin The violin is a bowed stringed musical instrument that has four strings tuned a perfect fifth apart. ... The field of electronics is the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons (or other charge carriers) in devices such as thermionic valves and semiconductors. ...

References

  • Pierre Boulez. "Boulez on Music Today." Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1971.
  • ________. "Orientations: Collected Writings." Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press,1981. ISBN 0674643763
  • Paul Griffiths. "Modern Music and After: Directions Since 1945." London: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0198165110.
  • Dominque Jameux. "Pierre Boulez." Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press,1991. ISBN 0674667409
  • Lev Koblyakov. "Pierre Boulez: A World of Harmony." Chur: Harwood, 1990.
  • Joan Peyser. "Boulez: Composer, Conductor, Enigma." New York: Schirmer Books, 1976.
  • Unitel Highlight - The Boulez/Chéreau Ring

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Pierre Boulez
Preceded by:
Colin Davis
Principal Conductors, BBC Symphony Orchestra
1971–1976
Succeeded by:
Rudolf Kempe
Preceded by:
George Szell
Musical Directors, New York Philharmonic
1971–1978
Succeeded by:
Zubin Mehta
Preceded by:
none
Principal Conductors, Ensemble InterContemporain
1976–1978
Succeeded by:
Peter Eötvös

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alex Ross: The Rest Is Noise: The Godfather: Pierre Boulez (1414 words)
Boulez has stopped issuing proclamations of this kind, but no one should be fooled into thinking that he has changed his mind.* His programs are still notable as much for what they exclude as for what they include; the borders of the canon are still tightly guarded.
Boulez’s instrumental writing, meanwhile, has settled into a familiar set of mannerisms: a steady alternation of held notes and rapid figuration; a heavy reliance on drones, trills, tremolos, and other effects of filigree; a weakness for splashy percussion.
Boulez’s programming is tied to a teleological theory of musical history; it spotlights assorted radical gestures in an effort to illustrate the alleged dissolution of tonality.
Pierre Boulez - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1939 words)
Boulez's strongest achievement in this method is his masterpiece Le marteau sans maître for ensemble and voice, from 1953-1957, one of the few works of advanced music from the fifties to remain in the repertoire.
Boulez worked with Andrew Gerzso to create a work where the resonance and spatialization of sounds created by the ensemble, were processed in real time (electronic music was usually laboriously created in controlled situations, and then recorded to tape, and thus 'fixed' in place for a performance).
Boulez is particularly famed for his polished interpretations of twentieth century classics - Claude Debussy, Gustav Mahler, Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, Béla Bartók, Anton Webern and Edgard Varèse - as well as for numerous performances of contemporary music.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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