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Encyclopedia > Pierre Bayle
Pierre Bayle.
Pierre Bayle.
French literature
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20th century - Contemporary In the public domain by age This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henri IV of France to the throne. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

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Pierre Bayle (November 18, 1647December 28, 1706) was a French philosopher, and writer. November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events March 14 - Thirty Years War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm. ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ...

Contents

Biography

Pierre Bayle was a pious Christian who argued that faith could not be justified by reason because he said that god was incomprehensible. As one of his proofs he pointed out that god had chosen King David to lead, who was a liar, murderer, thief and adultress which would make no sense to any reasonable person. Although his intent was to turn people against reason in matters of faith, he was so thorough at debunking the reasonableness and coherency of religion that his works subsequently influenced the development of the Enlightenment and he was thought by many to be a skeptic. Although he represents a dramatic chapter in the history ideas and he was the most well read author of his day, he is now virtually unknown. The Age of Enlightenment (from the German word Aufklärung, meaning Enlightenment) refers to either the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the seventeenth century and the Age of Reason. ... Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical...


He was born at Carla-le-Comte, near Pamiers (Ariège), and was educated by his father, a Calvinist minister, and at an academy at Puylaurens. He afterwards entered a Jesuit college at Toulouse, and became a Roman Catholic a month later (1669). After seventeen months, he returned to Calvinism, fleeing to Geneva to avoid persecution. In Geneva, he became acquainted with the teachings of René Descartes. For some years he worked under the name of Bèle as a tutor for various Parisian families, but in 1675 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Protestant University of Sedan. Carla-Bayle is a commune of the Ariège département, in southern France. ... Pamiers is a commune of the Ariège département, in southwestern France. ... Ariège is a département in southwestern France named after the Ariège River. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... Puylaurens is a town and commune located in the Tarn département in southwestern France. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Midi-Pyrénées Département Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... René Descartes (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim June 18 - Battle of Fehrbellin August 10 - King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London - construction begins November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ...


In 1681 the university at Sedan was suppressed, but almost immediately afterwards Bayle was appointed professor of philosophy and history at the Ecole Illustre in Rotterdam. Here in 1682 he published his famous Pensées diverses sur la comète de 1680 and his critique of Louis Maimbourg's work on the history of Calvinism. The great reputation achieved by this critique stirred the envy of Bayle's colleague, Pierre Jurieu, who had written a book on the same subject. Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Sedan is a town and commune in France, a sous-préfecture of the Ardennes département. ... Rotterdam Location Coat of arms The coat of arms reads Sterker door strijd, i. ... Events March 11 – Chelsea hospital for soldiers is founded in England May 6 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles. ... Louis Maimbourg (1610 - August 13, 1686), French Jesuit and historian, was born at Nancy. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... Pierre Jurieu (1637 - January 11, 1713) was a French Protestant leader. ...


In 1684 Bayle began the publication of his Nouvelles de la république des lettres, a journal of literary criticism. In 1690 there appeared a work entitled Avis important aux refugies, which Jurieu attributed to Bayle, whom he attacked with animosity. After a long quarrel Bayle was deprived of his chair in 1693. He was not depressed by this misfortune, especially as he was at the time engaged in the preparation of the Historical and Critical Dictionary (Dictionnaire historique et critique). The remaining years of Bayle's life were devoted to miscellaneous writings, arising in many instances out of criticisms made upon his Dictionary. He died in exile at Rotterdam. In 1906 a statue in his honour was erected at Pamiers, "la reparation d'un long oubli." Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Rotterdam Location Coat of arms The coat of arms reads Sterker door strijd, i. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Bayle's erudition was considerable. As an original thinker, he was not outstanding, but as a critic he was second to none in his own time, and even now the delicacy and the skill with which he handled his subject is notable. [citation needed] The Nouvelles de la république des lettres (see Louis P. Betz, P. Bayle und die Nouvelles de la république des lettres, Zürich, 1896) was the first thorough-going attempt to popularize literature, and it was eminently successful. The Dictionary, however, is Bayle's masterpiece.


Editions

  • Historical and Critical Dictionary (1695-1697; 1702, enlarged; best that of P. des Maizeaux, 4 vols., 1740)
  • Les Œuvres de Bayle (3 vols., The Hague)
  • des Maizeaux, Vie de Bayle
  • LA Feuerbach, Pierre Bayle (1838)
  • Damiron, La Philosophie en France au XVIII' siècle (1858-1864)
  • Sainte-Beuve, “Du genie critique et de Bayle" (Revue des deux mondes, December 1, 1855)
  • A. Deschamps, La Génèse du scepticisme erudit chez Bayle (Liege, 1878)
  • J. Denis, Bayle et furleu (Paris, 1886)
  • Ferdinand Brunetière, La Critique littéraire au XVIII' siècle (vol. 1, 1890), and La Critique de Bayle (1893)
  • Émile Gigas, Choix de to correspondance inédite de Pierre Bayle (Paris, 1890, reviewed in Revue critique, December 22, 1890)
  • de Budé, Lettres inédites adressées a J. A. Turretini (Paris, 1887)
  • J. F. Stephen, Horae Sabbaticae (London, 1892, 3rd ser. pp. 174192)
  • A. Cazes, P. Bayle, sa vie, ses œuvres, etc. (1905).

This article refers to the philosopher. ... Jean-Philibert Damiron (January 10, 1794 - January 11, 1862) was a French philosopher. ... Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (December 23, 1804 – October 13, 1869) was a literary critic and one of the major figures of French literary history. ... The Revue des Deux Mondes is a monthly literary and cultural affairs magazine published in the French language. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Ferdinand Brunetière (July 19, 1849 - December 9, 1906) was a French writer and critic. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ...

Reference

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • The Pierre Bayle Homepage
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry
  • The Pierre Bayle Collaborative Translation Project
  • The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pierre Bayle - LoveToKnow 1911 (509 words)
PIERRE BAYLE (1647-1706), French philosopher and man of letters, was born on the 18th of November 1647, at le Carlale-Comte, near Pamiers (Ariege).
In 1681 the university at Sedan was suppressed, but almost immediately afterwards Bayle was appointed professor of philosophy and history at Rotterdam.
Bayle and die Nouvelles de la republique des lettres, Zurich, 1896) was the first thorough-going attempt to popularize literature, and it was eminently successful.
Pierre Bayle - Encyclopedia.com (1019 words)
Bayle was renowned for his trenchant skeptical attacks against leading religious, metaphysical, and scientific theories of his day.
Pierre Bayle's Reformation: Conscience and Criticism on the Eve of the Enlightenment.
Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) was probably the first one to...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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