FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pienza
Comune di Pienza

Municipal coat of arms
Country Flag of Italy Italy
Region Toscana
Province Siena (SI)
Mayor Marco Del Ciondolo (since June 13, 2004)
Elevation 491 m
Area 122 km²
Population
 - Total (as of December 31, 2005) 2,231
 - Density 18/km²
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 43°04′43″N, 11°40′44″E
Gentilic Pientini
Dialing code 0578
Postal code 56026
Frazioni Cosona, La Foce, Monticchiello, Palazzo Massaini, Spadaletto
Patron St. Andrew the Apostle
 - Day November 30

Location of Pienza in Italy
Website: www.comunedipienza.it
Historic Centre of the City of Pienza*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Façade of the Cathedral of Pienza.
State Party Flag of Italy Italy
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv
Reference 789
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 1996  (20th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Pienza, a town and commune in the province of Siena, in the Val d'Orcia in Tuscany (central Italy), between the towns of Montepulciano and Montalcino, is the "touchstone of Renaissance urbanism."[1] Image File history File links Pienza-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Siena (Italian: Provincia di Siena) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Italy_Regions_220px_(including_Pelagie_Islands). ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (608x840, 226 KB) Duomo in Pienza. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Siena (Italian: Provincia di Siena) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Montepulciano is a town and commune in the province of Siena, in Central Tuscany (Italy) on a high limestone ridge. ... Montalcino is a hilltown and comune in Tuscany, Italy. ...


In 1996, UNESCO declared the town a World Heritage Site, and in 2004 the entire valley, the Val d'Orcia, was included on the list of UNESCO's World Cultural Landscapes. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

Contents

History

Pienza was rebuilt from a village called Corsignano, which was the birthplace (1405) of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (Italian: Enea Silvio Piccolomini), a Renaissance humanist born into an exiled Sienese family, who later became Pope Pius II. Once he became Pope, Piccolomini had the entire village rebuilt as an ideal Renaissance town. Intended as a retreat from Rome, it represents the first application of humanist urban planning concepts, creating an impetus for planning that was adopted in other Italian towns and cities and eventually spread to other European centers. Piccolomini is the name of an Italian noble family, which was prominent in Siena from the beginning of the 13th century onwards. ... ... Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Latin Aeneas Sylvius), (October 18, 1405 – August 14, 1464) was Pope from 1458 until his death. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ...


The rebuilding was done by Florentine architect Bernardo Gambarelli (known as Bernardo Rossellino) who may have worked with the humanist and architect Leon Battista Alberti, though there are no documents to prove it for sure. Alberti was in the employ of the Papal Curia at the time and served as an advisor to Pius. Construction started about 1459. Pope Pius II consecrated the Duomo on August 29, 1462, during his long summer visit. His included a detailed description of the structures in his Commentaries, written during the last two years of his life. Bernardo Gamberelli, better known as Bernardo Rossellino, (c. ... Leone Battista Alberti (February 1404 - 25th April 1472), Italian painter, poet, linguist, philosopher, cryptographer, musician, architect, and general Renaissance polymath . ... The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Roman Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Events September 23 - Battle of Blore Heath. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ...

The Piccolomini gardens and Val d'Orcia.
The Piccolomini gardens and Val d'Orcia.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 848 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I am the author of this work. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 848 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I am the author of this work. ...

Main sights

Palazzo Piccolomini

The trapezoidal-shaped piazza is defined by four buildings. The principal residence, Palazzo Piccolomini, is on the west side. It has three stories, articulated by pilasters and entablature courses, with a window set within each bay. This structure is similar to Alberti's Palazzo Rucellai in Florence and other later palaces. Noteworthy is the internal court of the palazzo. The back of the palace, to the south, is defined by loggias on all three floors that overlook an enclosed giardino all'Italiana and spectacular views into the distant landscape of the Val d'Orcia. Palazzo Rucellai is a Renaissance palace in Florence, Italy, designed Leon Battista Alberti. ... See also subsistence gardening, the art and craft of growing plants, considered as a circumscribed form of individual agriculture. ...


The Duomo

The Duomo (Cathedral), which dominates the center of the piazza, has a façade that is one of the earliest designed in the Renaissance manner. Though the tripartite division is conventional, the use of pilasters and of columns, standing on high dados and linked by arches, was novel for the time. The bell tower, however, has a Germanic flavor as is the layout of the Hallenkirche plan, a "triple-nave" plan where the side aisles are almost as tall as the nave; Pius, before he became pope, served many years in Germany and praised the effects of light admitted into the German hall churches in his Commentari.[2] Artworks in the duomo include five altar paintings from the Sienese School. The Baptistry, dedicated as usual to San Giovanni, is located next to the apse of the church. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... The lower part of a wall, below the dado rail and above the skirting board. ... For ARCH models, see autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity. ... A campanile (pronounced []) is, especially in Italy, a free-standing bell tower (Italian campana, bell), often adjacent to a church or cathedral. ... A hall church is a church with nave and side aisles of approximately equal height, often united under a single immense roof. ... The Sienese School of painting flourished in Italy between the 13th and 15th centuries and for a time rivalled Florence, though it was more conservative, being inclined towards the decorative beauty and elegant grace of late Gothic art. ...


Palazzo Borgia

Pius encouraged his cardinals to build palazzi to complete the city. The Palazzo Borgia, on the third side of the piazza, was built as the palace to house the bishops who would travel to Pienza to attend the pope. It is now home to the Diocesan Museum, and the Museo della Cattedrale. The collection includes local textile work as well as religious artifacts. Paintings include a 7th century painting of Christ on the Cross (La Croce), 14th century works by Pietro Lorenzetti (Madonna with Child) and Bartolo di Fredi (Madonna della Misericordia). There are also important works from the 14th and 15th centuries, including a Madonna attributed to Luca Signorelli. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Beata Umilta Transports Bricks to the Monastery(c. ... Detail from Bartolo di Fredis triptych The Coronation of the Virgin (1388) Tempera on panel, Museo Civico e Diocesano dArte Sacra, Montalcino. ... fresco of the Last Judgment (1499) in Orvieto Cathedral Luca Signorelli (c. ...

Tourists in Pienza.
Tourists in Pienza.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Palazzo Comunale

Across from the church is the town hall, or Palazzo Comunale. Since Corsigniano was originally a village without a town governance, before the transformations there was no town hall. But when Corsigniano was given the status of an official city, a Palazzo Comunale was required, though it was certainly more for show than anything else. It has a loggia on the ground floor and council chamber above; a third floor was added in 1599 (Mack 1987). It also has a brick bell tower that is, however, shorter than its religious counterpart, to symbolize the superior power of the church. The Palazzo Comunale was probably also designed by Rossellino.


The travertine well in the Piazza carries the Piccolomini family crest, and was widely copied in Tuscany during the following century.


Other buildings

About fifty meters west from the piazza, is the church of San Francesco, with a gabled façade and gothic portal. Among the buildings that survived from the old Corsignano, it is built on a pre-existing church that dated from the 8th century. The interior contains frescoes depicting the life of Saint Francis, those on the walls having been painted by Cristofano di Bindoccio and Meo di Pero, 14th century artists of the Senese school. Saint Francis of Assisi (born in Assisi, Italy, ca. ...


Other noteworthy buildings in Pienza include the Ammannati Palace, the Gonzaga Palace and the Palazzo del Cardinale Atrebatense, all built in the 15th century.


The Pieve of Corsignano, in the neighbourhood, is one of the most important Romanesque monuments of the area.


The frazione of Monticchiello is home to a characteristic Romitorio, a series of grottoes carved in the rock by hermit monks.


References

  • R. Mack, Charles (1987). Pienza: the Creation of a Renaissance City. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 
  • Tönnesmann, Andreas (1990). Pienza: Städtebau und Humanismus. Munich: Hirmer. 
  • Pieper, Jan (1997). Pienza: der Entwurf einer humanistischen Weltsich. Stuttgart: Axel Menges. 

Notes

  1. ^ Nicholas Adams, "The Acquisition of Pienza 1459-1464" The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 44.2 (May 1985), pp. 99-110. Adams details the piecemeal acquisition of parcels of land by Pius II.
  2. ^ "As you enter the middle door, the entire church with its altars and chapels is visible and is remarkable for the clarity of the light and the brilliance of the whole edifice. There are three naves, as they are called. The middle one is wider. All are the same height. This was according to the directions of Pius, who had seen the plan among the Germans in Austria" Quoted in Henk W. van Os, "Painting in a House of Glass: The Altarpieces of Pienza" Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art 17.1 (1987, pp. 23-38)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pienza

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pienza - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (725 words)
Pienza is town and commune in the province of Siena, in the Val d'Orcia in Tuscany (central Italy), between the towns of Montepulciano and Montalcino.
Pienza was built on a village called Corsignano, which was the birthplace (1405) of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, a Renaissance Humanist born into an exiled Sienese family, who later became Pope Pius II.
Pope Pius II consecrated the Duomo, which sits across from the Piazza Comunale on Pienza's main piazza, the Piazza Pio II, on August 29, 1462.
Tuscany | Destination Weddings in Pienza (358 words)
Pienza is an absolutely unique town, filled with romance, and it is a magical place to celebrate your Italian wedding.
Pienza's center was completely redesigned by Pope Pius II in Renaissance times, and it was seen as a 'utopian town' by the Italian people.
Also in the center of Pienza is the town hall, whose architecture is Florentine in style and thus differs from the rest of the town.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m