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Encyclopedia > Pictures at an Exhibition
Mussorgsky in 1874
Mussorgsky in 1874

Pictures at an Exhibition (Russian: Картинки с выставки – Воспоминание о Викторе Гартмане, Kartínki s výstavki – Vospominániye o Víktore Gártmane, Pictures from an Exhibition – a Remembrance of Viktor Hartmann) is a famous suite of ten piano pieces composed by Modest Mussorgsky in 1874. It is generally acknowledged to be Mussorgsky’s greatest solo piano composition, and has become a showpiece for virtuoso pianists. It has also become known through various orchestrations and arrangements produced by other musicians and composers (see: Arrangements by other composers, below, for further discussion), with Ravel's arrangement being the most recorded and performed. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (682x949, 84 KB) Summary This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (682x949, 84 KB) Summary This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Pictures at an Exhibition can refer to: Pictures at an Exhibition (suite of ten piano pieces composed by Modest Mussorgsky) Pictures at an Exhibition (album by Emerson, Lake and Palmer) Pictures at an Exhibition (album by Isao Tomita) Pictures at an Exhibition (album by Mekong Delta) Pictures in an Exhibition... In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso, late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability at singing or playing a musical instrument. ... Maurice Ravel. ...

Contents

Composition history

Viktor Hartmann (1834-1873)

Mussorgsky composed the work in commemoration of his friend, the artist and architect Viktor Hartmann, who was only 39 when he suffered an aneurism and died in 1873. The working title for the suite was Hartmann: Image File history File links Viktor_Gartman. ... Image File history File links Viktor_Gartman. ... Viktor Hartmann Viktor Alexandrovich Hartmann (Russian: Виктор Александрович Гартман; b. ... Viktor Hartmann Viktor Alexandrovich Hartmann (Russian: Виктор Александрович Гартман; b. ... An aneurysm (or aneurism) (from Gr. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

"Hartmann is seething as Boris was. Sounds and ideas float in the air and my scribbling can hardly keep pace with them."

Modest Mussorgsky, letter to Stasov

It was probably in 1870, and through the highly influential critic Vladimir Stasov, that Mussorgsky had met Hartmann, whose devotion to the cause of an intrinsically Russian art must have made him a congenial spirit. It was at Stasov’s instigation that a posthumous exhibition of over 400 of the artist’s works was mounted in the Academy of Fine Arts in St Petersburg, in February and March 1874. Pictures at an Exhibition takes the form of an imaginary musical tour around such a collection. Despite his alcoholism, Mussorgsky finished this masterpiece a month and a half after having viewed the tribute to Hartmann. A sufferer of delirium tremens in his forties, Mussorgsky would die just seven years after composing Pictures, at age forty-two.[1] 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Vladimir Stasovs portrait by Ilya Repin. ... The edifice for the academy was built in 1764-89 to a design by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe and Alexander F. Kokorinov. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... For the beer, see Delirium Tremens (beer). ...


As the pictorial basis for his musical exhibition, Mussorgsky mostly selected drawings and watercolours that Hartmann had produced during his travels abroad. Sadly, we cannot in all cases be certain which Hartmann work Mussorgsky was alluding to, because not all the paintings and drawings have survived. In an article in The Musical Quarterly in 1939, Alfred Frankenstein claimed to have identified seven pictures by catalogue number of the eleven (two separate drawings supposedly became the source of Samuel Goldenberg und Schmuyle) that inspired the suite: Gnomus (now lost), Tuileries (now lost), Ballet of the Unhatched Chicks, Samuel Goldenberg und Schmuyle, Catacombae, The Hut on Hen’s Legs (Baba Yaga), and The Bogatyr Gates. Yaga can refer to: Yajna (Hindu mythology) Baba Yaga (Russian mythology) Yaga (clothing company) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ilya Muromets, Dobrynya Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich are represented together in Viktor Vasnetsovs famous 1898 painting Bogatyrs. ...


Remarkably, Mussorgsky structures the suite in a manner that actually allows him to represent his own progress through the exhibition. This he does by means of the opening Promenade and the four interludes (only the last of which is also labelled "Promenade") that are clear variations of its material: "My physiognomy can be seen in the interludes," he wrote in a letter to Stasov. More remarkable still, however, is the fact that by the end of the work the Promenade theme has stopped functioning as a merely linking device and instead started to appear within the actual "pictures" themselves: The theme features prominently in the movements Cum mortuis in lingua mortua and The Bogatyr Gates, mysterious in one, celebratory in the other.


Publication history

The cover of the first edition of Pictures at an Exhibition
The cover of the first edition of Pictures at an Exhibition

As with most of Mussorgsky’s works, Pictures at an Exhibition has a complicated publication history. Although composed very rapidly (during June 2-22, 1874), the work did not appear in print until 1886 (five years after the composer’s death), when an edition by the composer’s great friend Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov was published. This publication, moreover, was not a completely accurate representation of Mussorgsky’s score, but presented an edited and revised text that had been reworked to a certain amount, as well as containing a substantial number of errors and misreadings. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1016x1233, 162 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pictures at an Exhibition ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1016x1233, 162 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pictures at an Exhibition ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a...


Only in 1931, more than half a century after the work’s composition, was Pictures at an Exhibition published in a scholarly edition in agreement with the composer’s manuscript. In 1940, the Italian composer Luigi Dallapiccola published an important critical edition of Mussorgsky’s work with extensive commentary. Mussorgsky’s hand-written manuscript was published in facsimile in 1975. Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Luigi Dallapiccola (February 3, 1904 – February 19, 1975) was an Italian composer known for his lyrical twelve-tone compositions. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gallery of Hartmann’s pictures

The works by Hartmann that can be shown with any certainty to have been used by Mussorgsky in assembling his suite are as follows:

Movements of the suite

The ten pieces comprising the suite correspond to ten pictures by Hartmann. The five ‘Promenade’ movements, consisting of an introduction and four links, are not numbered among the ten pictures. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th ‘Promenade’ movements are untitled in the composer's manuscript. Vladimir Stasov provided an early 'program' for the ten pictures, identified below: Stasov is a quintessential family of Russian intelligentsia. ...

  • Promenade (French): Key of B flat major, alternating 5/4 and 6/4 time. Stasov: In this piece Mussorgsky depicts himself "roving through the exhibition, now leisurely, now briskly in order to come close to a picture that had attracted his attention, and at times sadly, thinking of his departed friend." The melody and rhythm resemble Russian folk songs. The piece has simple, strong rhythms, but a changing meter:
    The 3rd and 4th bars of the opening movement, "Promenade".
    The 3rd and 4th bars of the opening movement, "Promenade".
  • No. 1 "Gnomus" (Latin: The Gnome): Key of E flat minor, in 3/4 time. Stasov: "A sketch depicting a little gnome, clumsily running with crooked legs." Hartmann’s sketch is believed to represent a toy nutcracker.
  • [Untitled]: Key of A flat major. The promenade theme, illustrating the composer walking from work to work.
  • No. 2 "Il vecchio castello" (Italian: The Old Castle): Key of G sharp minor, in 6/8 time. Stasov: "A medieval castle before which a troubador sings a song." This piece is probably based on an architectural watercolor by Hartman of an Italian castle. [2]
  • [Untitled]: Key of B major. The promenade theme, extremely short (8 measures).
  • No. 3 "Tuileries" (Dispute d'enfants après jeux) (French: Tuileries (Dispute between Children at Play)): Key of B major, in 4/4 time. Stasov: "An avenue in the garden of the Tuileries, with a swarm of children and nurses." Hartmann originally pictured an empty garden, presumably the Jardin des Tuileries, near the Louvre in Paris, France. Mussorgsky musically added children chattering and playing in the garden.
  • No. 4 "Bydło" (Polish: Cattle): Key of G sharp minor, in 2/4 time. Stasov: "A Polish cart on enormous wheels, drawn by oxen."
  • [Untitled]: Key of D minor. The promenade theme.
  • No. 5 "Балет невылупившихся птенцов" [Balet nevylupivshikhsya ptentsov] (Russian: Ballet of the Unhatched Chicks): Key of F major, in 2/4 time. Stasov: "Hartmann’s design for the décor of a picturesque scene in the ballet Trilby." Gerald Abraham provides the following details: "Trilby or The Demon of the Heath, a ballet with choreography by Petipa, music by Julius Gerber, and décor by Hartmann... produced in 1870. The fledglings were canary chicks." This movement is in ternary form (ABA):
  1. Scherzino
  2. Trio
  3. Scherzino (repeat of No.1)
  4. Coda
  • No. 6 "Samuel Goldenberg und Schmuÿle" (Yiddish): Key of B flat minor, in 4/4 time. Stasov: "Two Jews: Rich and Poor" (Russian: Два еврея: богатый и бедный) Some have incorrectly perceived this description to be part of the original title. Some arrangements have retitled this piece as "Two Polish Jews, Rich and Poor (Samuel Goldenberg and Schmuyle)". The title given here is the one used in Mussorgsky’s original manuscript. These are two separate drawings, presented by Hartmann to Mussorgsky. The use of augmented second intervals approximate Jewish modes such as the Phrygian dominant scale.
  • Promenade: Key of B flat major. Many arrangements including Ravel’s omit it.
  • No. 7 "Limoges, le marché" (La grande nouvelle) (French: The Market at Limoges (The Great News)): Key of E flat major, in 4/4 time. Stasov: "French women quarreling violently in the market." Limoges is a city in central France. Mussorgsky originally provided two paragraphs, in French, describing the marketplace discussion (the 'great news') represented in this movement, but crossed them out. The coda leads without a break into the next movement.
  • No. 8 "Catacombae" (Sepulcrum romanum) (Latin: The Catacombs (Roman sepulcher)). This movement consists of two parts – a Largo in b minor, 3/4 time, and an Andante in b minor, 6/4 time. Stasov: "Hartmann represented himself examining the Paris catacombs by the light of a lantern." In the first part, alternating loud and soft chords mysteriously evoke the cavernous acoustics of the catacombs. The second part features a ghostly variation of the promenade theme. The composer's manuscript for this portion of the movement is accompanied by the following penciled notes in Russian: "NB – Latin text: With the dead in a dead language", and "A Latin text would be appropriate: The creative spirit of the dead Hartmann leads me towards the skulls, calls to them; the skulls begin to glow softly." This portion of Catacombs is accordingly called "Cum mortuis in lingua mortua" (Latin: With the Dead in a Dead Language), often incorrectly 'Con mortuis'.
  • No. 9 "Избушка на курьих ножках" (Баба-Яга) [Izbushka na kur'ikh nozhkakh (Baba-Yaga)] (Russian: The Hut on Hen’s Legs (Baba-Yaga)): Key of C minor, in 2/4 time. Stasov: "Hartmann's drawing depicted a clock in the form of Baba-Yaga's hut on fowl's legs. Mussorgsky added Baba-Yaga's flight in a mortar." This movement is in ternary form (ABA):
  1. Allegro
  2. Andante
  3. Allegro (similar to No.1)
  4. Coda
The central andante is one of the more demanding portions of the suite, featuring a 16th note triplet tremolo throughout. The coda leads without a break to the next and final movement.
  • No. 10 "Богатырские ворота" (В стольном городе во Киеве) [Bogatïrskie vorota (v stol'nom gorode vo Kieve)] (Russian: The Bogatyr Gates (in the Capital in Kiev)): Key of E flat major, in 4/4 time. Bogatyrs are heroes that appear in Russian epics called bylinas. This movement is commonly translated as "The Great Gate of Kiev." The title is also sometimes rendered "The Heroes' Gate at Kiev." Stasov: "Hartmann's sketch was his design for city gates at Kiev in the ancient Russian massive style with a cupola shaped like a slavonic helmet." Hartmann made a sketch for a planned (but never built) monumental gate for Tsar Alexander II. This gate was to have commemorated the Tsar’s narrow escape from an assassination attempt on 1866 April 4. Hartmann felt that his design for the gate was the finest work he had yet done, and it won the competition for the gate’s design. The movement has the following form (roughly ABABCA):
  1. Majestic
  2. Solemn (piano)
  3. Majestic (with descending and ascending 8th note scales)
  4. Solemn (fortissimo)
  5. Bells (with a final variation of the 'promenade' theme)
  6. Majestic (half note triplets)
  7. Coda

Download high resolution version (885x170, 8 KB)Modest Mussorgskys Pictures at an Exhibition: Promenade, chords Created by Hyacinth using Sibelius and Paint. ... Download high resolution version (885x170, 8 KB)Modest Mussorgskys Pictures at an Exhibition: Promenade, chords Created by Hyacinth using Sibelius and Paint. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Tuileries Palace before 1871 - View from the Louvre courtyard The Tuileries Palace stood in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine until 1871, when it was destroyed. ... Eugeniia Sokolova in the title role of the Petipa/Gerber Trilby, St. ... Marius Petipa, Circa 1890 Marius Petipa (11 March 1818 – 14 July 1910) - Unrivaled ballet master of the Tsars Imperial Ballet of St. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... A minor third is the smaller of two commonly occurring musical intervals compounded of two steps of the diatonic scale. ... The Phrygian dominant scale is constructed by raising the third of the Phrygian scale and is the fifth mode of the harmonic minor scale, the fifth being the dominant. ... This article is about the French commune. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Yaga can refer to: Yajna (Hindu mythology) Baba Yaga (Russian mythology) Yaga (clothing company) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mortar and pestle Mortar used to pulverise plant material with liquid nitrogen A mortar and pestle is a tool used to grind and mix substances. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Figure 1. ... In music a tuplet is a note value whose relationship with the next larger note value is more or less than (not equal to) half as long as the next higher note value, usually indicated with a horizontal (or nearly horizontal) bracket with a number. ... Tremolo is a musical term with two meanings: A rapid repetition of the same note, a rapid variation in the amplitude of a single note, or an alternation between two or more notes. ... Ilya Muromets, Dobrynya Nikitich and Alyosha Popovich are represented together in Viktor Vasnetsovs famous 1898 painting Bogatyrs. ... Ivan Bilibin. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Arrangements by others

The first musician to arrange Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition for orchestra was the little-known Russian composer and conductor Mikhail Tushmalov (1861-1896). However, his version (first performed in 1891 and possibly produced as early as 1886 when he was a student of Rimsky-Korsakov) does not include the entire suite: Only seven of the ten “pictures” are present, leaving out Gnomus, Tuileries, and Bydło, and all the Promenades are omitted except for the last one, which is used in place of the first. For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ...


The next orchestration was that undertaken by the British conductor Henry Wood in 1915. This too eliminated some of the appearances of the Promenade theme. Sir Henry Wood Kt CH (3 March 1869 – 19 August 1944) was an English conductor, forever associated with the Promenade Concerts which he conducted for half a century. ...


The first person to orchestrate the piece in its entirety was the Slovenian-born conductor and violinist Leo Funtek, who finished his version in 1922 while living and working in Finland.


The version by Maurice Ravel (also produced in 1922, to a commission by Serge Koussevitzky) is a virtuoso effort by a master colourist, and has proved the most popular in the concert hall and on record. Ravel does, however, omit the Promenade between “Samuel” Goldenberg und “Schmuÿle” and Limoges. Maurice Ravel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The conductor Leopold Stokowski introduced Ravel’s version to Philadelphia audiences in November 1929; he produced his own very free orchestration (incorporating much re-composition) ten years later. Stokowski revised his version over the years, and made three gramophone recordings of it (1939, 1941 and 1965). The score was not printed until 1971. Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni StanisÅ‚aw BolesÅ‚awowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ... Conductor Leopold Stokowski first introduced Ravels orchestration of Mussorgskys Pictures at an Exhibition to Philadelphia audiences. ...


Many other orchestrations and arrangements have been created, and the original piano composition is also frequently performed and recorded. A brass ensemble arrangement was made by Elgar Howarth for the Philip Jones Brass Ensemble in the 1970s. There is even an adaptation for solo classical guitar by Kazuhito Yamashita. Elgar Howarth is an English conductor and composer. ... The Philip Jones Brass Ensemble, founded in 1951 by trumpeter Philip Jones, was one of the first modern classical brass ensembles to be formed. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. ... Kazuhito Yamashita is a Japanese classical guitarist. ...


There have also been several very different non-classical interpretations: one incorporating progressive rock, jazz and folk music elements by the British trio Emerson, Lake & Palmer in their 1971 album Pictures at an Exhibition, and an electronic music adaptation by Isao Tomita in 1975. A heavy metal arrangement of the entire suite was released by German band Mekong Delta. Another metal band, Armored Saint, use the "Great Gate of Kiev"'s main theme as the introduction to the track "March of the Saint". In 2002, electronic musician-composer Amon Tobin paraphrased Gnomus for the track Back From Space on his album Out from Out Where. In 2003, guitarist-composer Trevor Rabin released his electric guitar adaptation of "Promenade," once intended for the Yes album Big Generator, later included in his demo album 90124. For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term folk music was synonymous with the term Traditional music, also often including World Music and Roots music; the term Traditional music was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... See also: 1970 in music, other events of 1971, 1972 in music, 1970s in music and the list of years in music // February 8 - Bob Dylans hour-long documentary film, Eat the Document, premieres at New Yorks Academy of Music. ... Pictures at an Exhibition is an album by British progressive rock band Emerson, Lake & Palmer, released in 1972 as a live album and re-released in 2001 as a remastered edition including both live and studio versions of Mussorgskys classical piece Pictures at an Exhibition. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... Isao Tomita , born April 22, 1932), is a renowned Japanese electronic music composer. ... See also: 1970s in music. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Armored Saint is a Los Angeles, United States, based heavy metal band. ... See also: 2002 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 2002 Record labels established in 2002 // 2002 was marked by significant trends in rock music. ... Amon Tobin performing live. ... Out From Out Where was the fourth release by Amon Tobin on Ninja Tune. ... See also: 2003 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 2003 Record labels established in 2003 // January - following an investigation by The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry and London detectives, police raids in England and the Netherlands recover nearly 500 original Beatles studio tapes, recorded during the Let It... Trevor Rabin onstage with Yes, 1995 Trevor Rabin (born Trevor Charles Rabin on January 13, 1954) is a South African guitarist and film composer, best known for being the guitarist and songwriter for the progressive rock band Yes from 1983 - 1995, and since then, as a film composer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Big Generator is the twelfth studio album by progressive rock band Yes. ...


The theme is used in the computer game Spelunker by Tim Martin. Spelunker for the NES. Spelunker for the Commodore 64. ...


Orchestral arrangements

A listing of orchestral arrangements of Pictures at an Exhibition:

See also: 1885 in music, other events of 1886, 1887 in music and the list of years in music. Events Published popular music The Gladiators m. ... Sir Henry Wood Kt CH (3 March 1869 – 19 August 1944) was an English conductor, forever associated with the Promenade Concerts which he conducted for half a century. ... See also: 1914 in music, other events of 1915, 1916 in music and the list of years in music. // Events Tom Browns band from New Orleans goes to Chicago, Illinois and start advertising themselves as a Jass Band Published popular music Alabama Jubilee w. ... See also: 1921 in music, other events of 1922, 1923 in music and the list of years in music. // Events January 24 - Carl Nielsen conducts the premiere of his in Copenhagen. ... Maurice Ravel. ... See also: 1923 in music, other events of 1924, 1925 in music and the list of years in music. // Events October 17 - Leos Janaceks String Quartet No. ... Lucien Cailliet (May 27, 1897 - January 3, 1985) was an American composer, conductor, arranger and clarinetist. ... See also: 1936 in music, other events of 1937, 1938 in music and the list of years in music. Events January 21 - Paul Sacher conducts the world premiere of Béla Bartóks Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta in Basel June 2 - The incomplete version of Alban Berg... Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni StanisÅ‚aw BolesÅ‚awowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ... See also: 1937 in music, other events of 1938, 1939 in music and the list of years in music. // Events January 16 - Benny Goodman refuses to play Carnegie Hall because black members of his orchestra are banned. ... Walter Goehr was a German composer, born 1903 in Berlin, died 1960 in Sheffield. ... See also: 1941 in music, other events of 1942, 1943 in music and the list of years in music. // Events Bunk Johnson makes his first recordings Albums released Holiday Inn - Bing Crosby Top hit records Blues In the Night by Woody Herman Dont sit under the Apple Tree - Andrews... // Frank Sinatra wins the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in From Here to Eternity, 1953; resuscitating his singing career in the process Bing Crosby received a Best Actor nomination for his work in The Country Girl January 14 - First documented use of the abbreviated term Rock n Roll to... // Charles Wuorinen, aged 32, becomes the youngest composer ever to win the Pulitzer Prize for Music. ... // January - The Ramones form. ... Zdenek Macal (born January 8, 1936 in Brno) is a Czech conductor. ... See also: 1970s in music. ... Lawrence Leonard (born August 23, 1923, died January 4, 2001), British conductor, cellist, composer, teacher and writer. ... Vladimir Davidovich Ashkenazy (Russian: Влади́мир Дави́дович А́шкенази, Vladimir Davidovič AÅ¡kenasi) (b. ... See also: 1982 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1982 Record labels established in 1982 list of years in music // January 15 - K.C. and the Sunshine Bands Harry Wayne Casey is seriously injured in an automobile accident in Miami, Florida. ... See also: 1983 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1983 Record labels established in 1983 // Michael Jacksons Thriller, the most successful album not only of 1983, but of all time, was released in 1982 and began its epic domination of the music charts the following year, 1983. ... Thomas Wilbrandt (b. ... See also: 1992 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1992 Record labels established in 1992 // 1992 was a pivotal year in the development of music. ... See also: 1995 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1995 Record labels established in 1995 // January 18 - Jerry Garcia wrecks his rented BMW into a guard rail near Mill Valley, California. ... Mekong River Delta from space, February 1996 Mekong Delta, February 2005. ... See also: 1996 in music, other events of 1997, 1998 in music, 1990s in music and the list of years in music // Events January 9 - David Bowie performs his 50th Birthday Bash concert (the day after his birthday) at Madison Square Garden, with guests Frank Black, The Foo Fighters, Sonic... See also: 2002 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 2002 Record labels established in 2002 // 2002 was marked by significant trends in rock music. ... There are several men named Michael Allen, including: Ohio politician and attorney Michael K. Allen, who was Hamilton County, Ohio prosecuting attorney The spy Michael H. Allen. ...

Non-orchestral arrangements

A listing of non-orchestral arrangements of Pictures at an Exhibition:

  • Vladimir Horowitz (1946; revised version for solo piano. His performance of this arrangement at a 1951 concert in Carnegie Hall has been described as one of the greatest piano performances of all time; it was recorded for posterity)
  • Giuseppe Becce (1930; for piano trio)
  • Duke Ellington(date unknown; for big band)
  • Rudolf Wurthner (ca. 1954; for accordion orchestra; abridged version)
  • Ralph Burns (1957; for jazz orchestra)
  • Erik Leidzen (ca. 1960; for band)
  • Allyn Ferguson (ca. 1963; for jazz orchestra)
  • Mark Hindsley (ca. 1963; for band)
  • Dale Eymann (ca. 1965; for band; The Bogatyr Gates only)
  • B. Futerman (ca. 1968; Russian folk instruments orchestra, The Bogatyr Gates only)
  • Roger Boutry (ca. 1970; for band)
  • Emerson, Lake & Palmer (1971; rock group)
  • Harry van Hoof (ca. 1972; brass ensemble; The Bogatyr Gates only)
  • Isao Tomita (1975; for synthesizer)
  • Oskar Gottlieb Blarr (1976; for organ)
  • Elgar Howarth (ca. 1977; for brass ensemble)
  • Arthur Willis (1970s; for organ)
  • Dr. Keith Chapman (1970s; for the Wanamaker organ)
  • Günther Kaunzinger (1980; for organ)
  • Elgar Howarth (1981; for brass band)
  • Kazuhito Yamashita (1981; for classical guitar)
  • Reginald Haché (1982; for two pianos)
  • Henk de Vlieger (1984; for 14 percussion players, celesta and harp)
  • Arie Abbenes & Herman Jeurissen (ca. 1984; for carillon & band; The Bogatyr Gates only)
  • James Curnow (1985; for concert band; abridged version)
  • Jan Hala (ca. 1988; for guitar and pop orchestra; Baba-Yaga only)
  • Jean Guillou (ca. 1988; for organ)
  • Heinz Wallisch (ca. 1989; for two guitars)
  • Yuri Chernov (ca. 1991; for Russian folk instrument orchestra; The Bogatyr Gates only)
  • Gert van Keulen (1992; for band)
  • Hans Wilhelm Plate (1993; for 44 grand pianos and one prepared piano)
  • Jim Prime & Thom Hannum (ca. 1994; for brass quintet and band; abridged version)
  • Hans-Karsten Raecke (ca. 1994; for chorus, vocal soloists, synthesizers, brass and percussion)
  • Tangerine Dream (1994)
  • Trevor Parks (1994; for two pianos and wind band)
  • Elmar Rothe (1995; for three guitars)
  • Mekong Delta (1997; for metal band)
  • Joachim Linckelmann (ca. 1999 for wind quintet)
  • Vladimir Boyashov (ca. 2000 for Russian folk orchestra)
  • Tim Seddon (ca. 2002 two pianos)
  • Clare & Brent Fisher (2004; for jazz bigband)
  • Carl Simpson (2004; for wind orchestra)
  • Wayne Lytle, for the DVD Animusic 2 (2005; for synthesizer; Promenade + 3 movements)
  • Cameron Carpenter (2006, for organ)
  • Sergei V. Korschmin (2006; for brass ensemble)
  • David Aydelott (2006; for marching band)
  • Joseph Kreines (2006; for band, commissioned by the Timber Creek High School Wind Ensemble)
  • Ward Swingle (date unknown; for vocal ensemble, double bass and percussion; Limoges only)
  • John Boyd (date unknown; for band)
  • Vyacheslav Rozanov (date unknown; for bayan orchestra; The Old Castle only)
  • William Schmidt (date unknown; for saxophone choir);
  • Andres Segovia (date unknown; for guitar; The Old Castle only)
  • Elias Seppala (date unknown; for band)
  • Atsushi Sugahara (date unknown; for percussion ensemble)
  • Tohru Takahashi (date unknown; for band)
  • Simon Wright (date unknown; for band)
  • Akira Yodo (date unknown; for clarinet choir)
  • Michael Sweeney (date unknown; for band)
  • Dag Jensen (date unknown; for four bassoons and contrabassoon)
  • Massimo Gabba (2006; for organ)
  • Adam Berces (2007; for synthesizer - 'Pictures at an Exxhibition' album)
  • Nicholas Sprenger and Co-Arranger Carter Page (2007; for electric 7-String Guitar and electric 4-String Bass Guitar, Shortened versions of Promenade, The Old Castle, Bydlo and a reprise of Promenade in place of The Great Gate Of Kiev for the Experimental/Avant-Garde/Metal band KHAZM)
  • Mauricio Romero (2007; complete transcription for double bass alone)
  • Tony Matthews (2007; complete transcription for Brass Quintet)
  • Michael Allen (2000; for brass ensemble, recorded by the Burning River Brass)

Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) (1 October 1903 – 5 November 1989) was a Russian-American classical pianist. ... See also: 1945 in music, other events of 1946, 1947 in music and the list of years in music. // Events February 8 - Béla Bartóks Piano Concerto No. ... Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east stretch of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street. ... See also: 1929 in music, other events of 1930, 1931 in music and the list of years in music. // Events The BBC Symphony Orchestra is formed. ... This article is about the American Jazz composer and performer. ... // Frank Sinatra wins the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in From Here to Eternity, 1953; resuscitating his singing career in the process Bing Crosby received a Best Actor nomination for his work in The Country Girl January 14 - First documented use of the abbreviated term Rock n Roll to... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... See also: 1956 in music, other events of 1957, 1958 in music and the list of years in music // January 5 - Renato Carosone and his band start their American tour in Cuba. ... See also: 1959 in music, other events of 1960, 1961 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music // Events January 14 - Elvis Presley is promoted to Sergeant in the U.S. Army February 6 - Songwriter Jesse Belvin dies in an automobile accident in Los Angeles, California. ... See also: 1962 in music, other events of 1963, 1964 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music // January 1 - The Beatles start a 5 day tour in Scotland to support the release of their new single, Love Me Do. January 4 - At Cortina dAmpezzo... See also: 1964 in music, other events of 1965, 1966 in music, 1960s in music and the list of years in music // January 4 - Fender Guitars is sold to CBS for $13 million. ... // January 4 - Guitarist Jimi Hendrix is jailed by Stockholm police, after trashing a hotel room during a drunken fist fight with bassist Noel Redding. ... // Charles Wuorinen, aged 32, becomes the youngest composer ever to win the Pulitzer Prize for Music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... See also: 1970 in music, other events of 1971, 1972 in music, 1970s in music and the list of years in music // February 8 - Bob Dylans hour-long documentary film, Eat the Document, premieres at New Yorks Academy of Music. ... See also: other events of 1972 list of years in music 1970s in music // January 17 - Highway 51 South in Memphis, Tennessee is renamed Elvis Presley Blvd January 20 - Pink Floyd debuts Dark Side of the Moon during a performance at The Dome, in Brighton, but due to technical difficulties... Isao Tomita , born April 22, 1932), is a renowned Japanese electronic music composer. ... See also: 1970s in music. ... Elgar Howarth is an English conductor and composer. ... See also: 1970s in music. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... A view of the Grand Court in Macys department store in Philadelphia. ... See also: Musical groups established in 1980 Record labels established in 1980 list of years in music // January 1 - The year starts off with a strong disco backlash, which causes the majority of musicians to abandon the use of real instruments in an attempt to distant themselves from anything associated... Elgar Howarth is an English conductor and composer. ... See also: Musical groups established in 1981 Record labels established in 1981 list of years in music // January 10 - Revival of the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta The Pirates of Penzance opens at Broadways Uris Theatre, starring Linda Ronstadt and Rex Smith February 14 - Billy Idol leaves the band Generation... Kazuhito Yamashita is a Japanese classical guitarist. ... A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. ... See also: 1982 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1982 Record labels established in 1982 list of years in music // January 15 - K.C. and the Sunshine Bands Harry Wayne Casey is seriously injured in an automobile accident in Miami, Florida. ... See also: // January 21 - Relax by Frankie Goes to Hollywood reaches number one in the UK singles chart: it spends a total of forty-two weeks in the Top 40. ... See also: other events of 1985 Musical groups established in 1985 Record labels established in 1985 list of years in music 1980s in music // January 28 - Various artists, including Ray Charles, Bob Dylan, Michael Jackson, Billy Joel, Cyndi Lauper, Steve Perry, Kenny Loggins, Willie Nelson, Lionel Richie, Smokey Robinson, Kenny... See also: Musical groups established in 1988 Record labels established in 1988 // Peter Ruzicka becomes director of the Hamburg State Opera and State Philharmonic Orchestra. ... Jean Victor Arthur Guillou (born April 18, 1930 in Angers) is a French composer, organist, pianist, and pedagogue. ... See also: 1989 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1989 Record labels established in 1989 // January 7 - Genesis 88 and Sunrise/Back to the Future stage large-scale illegal Acid House party in London January 14 - Paul McCartney releases Снова в СССР exclusively in Russia. ... See also: 1991 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1991 Record labels established in 1991 // 1991 was the year that grunge music made its popular breakthrough. ... See also: 1992 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1992 Record labels established in 1992 // 1992 was a pivotal year in the development of music. ... See also: 1993 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1993 Record labels established in 1993 // Date Unknown- Christian Rock label Tooth and Nail Records is formed. ... A prepared piano is a piano that has had its sound altered by placing objects (preparations) between or on the strings or on the hammers or dampers. ... See also: 1994 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1994 Record labels established in 1994 // January 29 - The Supremes Mary Wilson is injured when her jeep hits a freeway median and flips over just outside of Los Angeles, California. ... Tangerine Dream is a German electronic music group founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... See also: 1995 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1995 Record labels established in 1995 // January 18 - Jerry Garcia wrecks his rented BMW into a guard rail near Mill Valley, California. ... Mekong River Delta from space, February 1996 Mekong Delta, February 2005. ... See also: 1996 in music, other events of 1997, 1998 in music, 1990s in music and the list of years in music // Events January 9 - David Bowie performs his 50th Birthday Bash concert (the day after his birthday) at Madison Square Garden, with guests Frank Black, The Foo Fighters, Sonic... See also: 1999 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1999 Record labels established in 1999 // January 7 After eight years of marriage, Rod Stewart and supermodel wife Rachel Hunter announce their separation. ... See also: 2000 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 2000 Record labels established in 2000 // John Tavener is knighted in the New Years Honours List. ... See also: 2002 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 2002 Record labels established in 2002 // 2002 was marked by significant trends in rock music. ... See also: 2004 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 2004 Record labels established in 2004 2000s in music. ... Wayne Lytle is the founder of Animusic. ... A still from Pogo Sticks, one of the animations from Animusic 2 Animusic is an American company specializing in the 3D visualization of MIDI-based music. ... See also: 2005 in heavy metal music 2005 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 2005 Record labels established in 2005 Albums released in 2005 January 1 - In most of Europe, copyright expired on a number of classic pop and rock-and-roll songs recorded in 1954 and earlier, including... See also: 2006 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 2006 Record labels established in 2006 Ti // January – James Nicholl, drummer of Pay*Ola became ill and was admitted to hospital. ... Timber Creek High School is a high school located in Orlando, Florida. ... Ward Swingle was the product of an unusually liberal musical education. ... There are several prominent people named John Boyd Sir John Boyd, British ambassador and master of Churchill College, Cambridge Col. ... The Burro Schmidt Tunnel, located in Kern County, California near Garlock, is a half-mile long tunnel dug entirely by hand, constructed between 1906-38 by William Burro H. Schmidt (1871-1954). ... Andr s Segovia (February 21, 1893 – June 3, 1987) was a Spanish classical guitarist and is generally considered to be the father of the modern classical guitar movement by most modern scholars. ... Simon Wright is also the name of the creator of Whirlpool. ... See also: 2007 in British music 2007 in hip hop Musical groups established in 2007 Record labels established in 2007 // January George Shearing is knighted for services to music in the Queens New Year Honours List. ... There are several men named Michael Allen, including: Ohio politician and attorney Michael K. Allen, who was Hamilton County, Ohio prosecuting attorney The spy Michael H. Allen. ...

Usage and Tributes

Atari AV self test screenshot
Atari AV self test screenshot
  • Gnomus, Tuileries and other excerpts were used extensively for the score of Hanna-Barbera’s cartoon series, The Smurfs.
  • An excerpt of the piece was used as part of the score in several episodes of the Warner Bros. animated television series Animaniacs.
  • An abridgement of the Promenade theme was the theme tune of the British political sit-com The New Statesman.
  • The Promenade theme was used in audio-visual mode in self-test software of 8-bit Atari computers (self test is built into ROM of the computer).
  • The movement Gnomus is played during the interpretive dance scene in the movie The Big Lebowski.
  • The Bogatyr Gates is used as the entrance theme to WWE wrestler and color commentator Jerry "The King" Lawler. Previously the company had used the same music as the entrance theme for other wrestlers portrayed as the "King of Wrestling," most notably Harley Race and Haku.
  • There is a society devoted to the promotion of performances and arrangements of the suite, International Kartinki's Vystavki Association (IKVA).
  • The "Promenade" theme is also a song that one may choose as the background music in the game Return of the Incredible Machine: Contraptions.
  • The "Promenade" was used for a comedy character's ("Horacio Cascarin") "Museum of Soccer" created by the Mexican genius Andres Bustamante
  • Animusic's Cathedral Pictures is based off of Pictures at an Exhibition.
  • Part of "The Hut on Hen's Legs" (Baba Yaga) was used as the theme music for the 1977 BBC documentary series The Secret War.
  • The Promenade theme is used at the opening of rapper Method Man's first solo album, Tical (album).
  • A short excerpt from "Baba Yaga" is used in the South Park episode "Tweek vs. Craig" as Kenny imagines all the sharp tools he'd be around if he transferred from Home Ec to Shop Class.
  • The most famous use of Promenade may be as the jingle (via synthesizer) in the ident logo for the now defunct World Northal Corporation, a distributor of foreign films during the 70s and 80s, most notably Kung Fu Theater type movies.

Image File history File links AtariSelftestAV.png Summary The Audio-visual test screen of built-in selftest mode on later models of Atari 8-bit computers (XL series onwards). ... Image File history File links AtariSelftestAV.png Summary The Audio-visual test screen of built-in selftest mode on later models of Atari 8-bit computers (XL series onwards). ... Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ... “Smurf” redirects here. ... “WB” redirects here. ... This article is about the television series. ... The New Statesman was an award-winning British sitcom of the late 1980s and early 1990s satirising the Conservative government of the time. ... An Atari 800XL, one of the most popular machines in the series. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... The Big Lebowski, a 1998 comedy film written and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, chronicles a few days in the life of a burned out, unemployed California slacker after he is mistaken for a millionaire with the same name. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... A color commentator (colour commentator in Canada), sometimes known as a color analyst, is a member of the broadcasting team for a sporting event who assists the play-by-play announcer by filling in any time when play is not in progress. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tonga Uliuli Fifita (born February 3, 1959 in Nukualofa, Tonga, then under British sovereignty) is a former professional wrestler for both World Championship Wrestling (WCW) and the World Wrestling Federation (WWF). ... A still from Pogo Sticks, one of the animations from Animusic 2 Animusic is an American company specializing in the 3D visualization of MIDI-based music. ... This article is about Method Man. ... Tical is the highly acclaimed debut album by Wu-Tang Clan member and hip hop artist Method Man. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Tweek, Token, Stan, Kyle Cartman and Pip. ... This article is about the year 70. ... Events By place Roman Empire The Emperor Titus inaugurates the Flavian Amphitheatre with 100 days of games. ... During the 1980s, many martial arts movies appeared on North American syndicated television nationwide. ...

Recordings

  • Link to download music - Pictures at an Exhibition recording from Musopen.

See also

The following are lists of solo piano pieces, where solo pieces here are defined as those either intentionally composed for solo piano, or where the piano is the major instrument of music. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Schonberg, Harold C. (1981). The Lives of the Great Composers, Revised, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, London, 370. ISBN 0-393-01302-2. 
  2. ^ Alfred Frankenstein, "Victor Hartman and Modeste Musorgsky," The Musical Quarterly 25 (1939), 282.

References

  • Calvocoressi, M.D., Abraham, G., Mussorgsky, 'Master Musicians' Series, London: J.M.Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1946
  • Calvocoressi, M.D., Modest Mussorgsky: His Life and Works, London: Rockliff, 1956
  • Frankenstein, Alfred. "Victor Hartmann and Modeste Musorgsky." The Musical Quarterly 25, no. 3 (1939): 268–291.
  • Russ, Michael. Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 1992). ISBN 0-521-38607-1 (paperback), ISBN 0-521-38442-7 (hardback).

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pictures at an Exhibition
  • Reproductions of Viktor Hartmann’s pictures
  • Another page with reproductions (German)
  • Another page with reproductions (Hungarian)
  • A page with additional pictures reproduced in higher resolution (Japanese site with English pages)

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


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