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Encyclopedia > Picornaviruses

Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) A bacteriophage virus A virus is a submicroscopic parasitic particle that infects cells in biological organisms. ... In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ...


Picornaviruses are classed under Baltimores viral classification system as group IV viruses as they contain a single stranded, positive sense RNA genome of between 7.2 and 8.5kb in length. Like most positive sense RNA genomes, the genetic material alone is infectious; although substantially less virulent than if contained within the viral particle, the RNA can have increased infectivity when transfected into cells. The genome itself is the same sense as mammalian mRNA, being read 5’ to 3’. Unlike mammalian mRNA Picornaviruses have not a 5’ CAP but a virally encoded protein known as VPg, however like mammalian mRNA the genome does have a poly A tail at the 3’ end. There is an untranslated region (UTR) at both ends of the Picornavirus genome. The 5’ UTR is longer, being around 600-1200 BP in length, compared to that of the 3’ UTR, which is around 50-100bp. It is thought that the 5’ UTR is important in translation and the 3’in negative strand synthesis; however the 5’ end may also have a role to play in virulence of the virus. The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5’ end and non-structural proteins at the 3’ end in a single polyprotein. This article is about the city in the US state of Maryland. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Virulence is a term used to refer to either the relative pathogenicity or the relative ability to do damage to the host of an infectious agent. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... The interaction of mRNA in a eukaryote cell. ...


Experimental data from single step growth curve like experiments have allowed scientists to look at the replication of the picronaviruses in great detail. The whole of replication occurs within the host cell cytoplasm and infection can even happen in cells that do not contain a nucleus (known as enucleated cells) and those treated with actinomycin D (this antibiotic would inhibit viral replication is this occurred in the nucleus.) Nucleus usually refers to the center of something, but can mean: In science: Atomic nucleus, the collection of protons and neutrons in the center of an atom that carries the bulk of the atoms mass and positive charge Cell nucleus, the membrane-bound subcellular organelle found in eukaryotes, visible... The antibiotic actinomycin D (produced by Streptomyces antibioticus) binds to DNA duplexes, thereby interfering with the action of enzymes engaged in replication and transcription. ...


Structure of the Picornaviruses

The capsid is an arrangement of 60 protomers in a tightly packed Icosahedral structure. Each protomer consists of 4 polypeptides known as VP (viral protein)1, 2, 3 and 4. All of these VP polypeptides originate form one protomer known as VP0 that is cleaved to give the different capsid components. The Icosahedral is said to have a triangulation number of 3, this means that in the icosahedral structure each of the 60 triangles that make up the capsid are slip into 3 little triangles with a subunit on the corner. The outer shell of a virus is called the capsid. ... An icosahedron [ˌaıkəsəhiːdrən] noun (plural: -drons, -dra [-drə]) is a polyhedron having 20 faces. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... Look up cleavage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An icosahedron [ˌaıkəsəhiːdrən] noun (plural: -drons, -dra [-drə]) is a polyhedron having 20 faces. ... An icosahedron [ˌaıkəsəhiːdrən] noun (plural: -drons, -dra [-drə]) is a polyhedron having 20 faces. ...


Depending on the type and degree of dehydration the viral partical is around 27-30nm in diameter. The viral genome is around 2500nm in length so we can therefore conclude that it must be tightly packaged within the caspid along with substances such as sodium ions in order to cancel out the negative charges on the RNA caused by the phosphate groups. General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... In inorganic chemistry, a phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. ...


Picornavirus replication

The viral particle binds to cell surface receptors. Once inside the cell the RNA uncoats and the genome is translated by host cell machinery in the cytoplasm. This is very rapid with the whole process of replication being competed on average within 8 hours. However as little as 30 minutes after initial infection, cell protein sythesis declines to almost zero output – essentially the macromolecular sythesis of cell proteins is “SHUT OFF”. Over the next 1-2 hours there is a loss of margination of chromatin and homogeneity in the nucleus, before the viral proteins start to be synthesised and a vacuole appears in the cytoplasm close to the nucleus that gradually starts to spread as the time after infection reaches around 3 hours. After this time the cell plasma membrane becomes permeable, at 4-6 hours the virus particles assemble, and can sometimes be seen in the cytoplasm. At around 8 hours the cell is effectively dead and lyses to release the viral particles. Chromatin is the structural building block of a chromosome. ... Homogeneity in physics In physics, homogeneity is the quality of having all properties independent of the position. ... Nucleus usually refers to the center of something, but can mean: In science: Atomic nucleus, the collection of protons and neutrons in the center of an atom that carries the bulk of the atoms mass and positive charge Cell nucleus, the membrane-bound subcellular organelle found in eukaryotes, visible...


Types of Picornavirus

Contained within this family are many genera that contain important vertebrate/human pathogens, such as: Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ...


 
 

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