FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pickup (music)
Three magnetic pickups on an electric guitar. From left to right they are a humbucker and two single coils.
Three magnetic pickups on an electric guitar. From left to right they are a humbucker and two single coils.

A pickup device acts as a transducer that captures mechanical vibrations (usually from suitably equipped stringed instruments such as the electric guitar, electric bass guitar or electric violin) and converts them to an electrical signal which can be amplified and recorded. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Left: Rosa Hurricane, a heavy metal-style solid body guitar. ... Traditional humbucker pickup, uncovered A conventional humbucker (or Humbucking pickup) is a type of electric guitar pickup that uses two coils, both generating string signal. ... A magnetic cartridge is a device used for the playback of gramophone records on a turntable or phonograph. ... Pickup or pick-up may refer to: Pickup, a device which detects vibrations from music instruments Pickup truck, a light truck with an open-top rear cargo area. ... A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... Left: Rosa Hurricane, a heavy metal-style solid body guitar. ... Martin EB18 Bass Guitar in flight case. ... This electric violin, made by Leo Fender in the late 1950s, has a non-traditional design. ... An instrument amplifier is an electronic amplifier designed for use with an electric or electronic musical instrument, such as an electric guitar. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ...

Contents

Magnetic pickups

A magnetic pickup consists of a permanent magnet wrapped with a coil of a few thousand turns of fine enameled copper wire. The pickup is most often mounted on the body of the instrument, but can be attached to the neck and/or pickguard, as on many electro-acoustic archtop jazz guitars. The vibration of the nearby soft-magnetic strings modulates the magnetic flux linking the coil, thereby inducing an alternating voltage through the coil of wire. This signal is then carried to amplification or recording equipment via a cable (or by radio transmission). There may also be an internal preamplifier stage between the pickup and cable. More generally, the pickup operation can be described using the concept of a magnetic circuit. In this description, the motion of the string varies the magnetic reluctance in the circuit created by the permanent magnet. Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper A magnet is an object that has a magnetic field. ... A coil is a series of loops. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Magnetism. ... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Magnetic flux, represented by the Greek letter Φ known as phi, is a measure of quantity of magnetism, taking account of the strength and the extent of a magnetic field. ... Faradays law of induction (more generally, the law of electromagnetic induction) states that the induced emf (electromotive force) in a closed loop equals the negative of the time rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. ... Electromotive force (emf) is the amount of energy gained per unit charge that passes through a device in the opposite direction to the electric field existing across that device. ... An instrument amplifier is an electronic amplifier designed for use with an electric or electronic musical instrument, such as an electric guitar. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... 6 or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. ... An example of a typical high-end stereo preamplifier. ... A magnetic circuit is a closed path containing a magnetic flux. ... Magnetic reluctance can be thought of as having an analogous function to resistance in an electrical circuit except that it cannot consume energy. ...


Output

The output voltage of pickups varies between 100 mV rms to over 1 V rms for some of the higher output types. Some high-output pickups achieve this by employing very strong magnets thus creating more flux and thereby more output. These can be detrimental to the final sound because the magnets can tend to attract the strings and damp them thus greatly reducing sustain. Other high-output pickups have more turns of wire to increase the voltage generated by the string's movement. However, this also increases the pickup's output resistance/impedance, which can affect high frequencies if the pickup is not isolated by a buffer amplifier. In mathematics, the root mean square or rms is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. ... Damping is any effect, either deliberately engendered or inherent to a system, that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations of an oscillatory system. ... A buffer amplifier (sometimes simply called a buffer) is one that provides impedance transformation from high to low between one circuit and another. ...


Pickup sound

The turns of wire in close proximity to each other have an equivalent self-capacitance which, when added to any cable capacitance present, resonates with the inductance of the winding. This resonance can accentuate certain frequencies, giving the pickup a characteristic tonal quality. The more turns of wire in the winding, the higher the output voltage but the lower this resonant frequency. The inductive source impedance inherent in this type of transducer makes it less linear than other forms of pickups, such as piezo-electric or optical. The tonal quality produced by this nonlinearity is, however, subject to taste, and may therefore also be considered by some to be aesthetically superior to that of a more linear transducer. Capacitance is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. ... Inductance (or electric inductance) is a measure of the amount of magnetic flux produced for a given electric current. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... The output impedance, source impedance, or internal impedance of an electronic device is the opposition exhibited by its output terminals to the flow of an alternating current (AC) of a particular frequency as a result of resistance, induction and capacitance. ... A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. ...


The external load usually consists of resistance (the volume and tone potentiometer in the guitar, and any resistance to ground at the amplifier input) and capacitance between the hot lead and shield in the guitar cable. The cable capacitance has a large effect and must not be neglected. This arrangement of passive components forms a resistively-damped second-order low-pass filter. Electromagnetic pickups are usually designed to feed a high input impedance, typically a megaohm or more and a low impedance load will reduce the high-frequency response of the pickup because of the filtering effect of the inductance. A low-pass filter passes low frequencies fairly well, but attenuates, or blocks, high frequencies. ... Television signal splitter consisting of a hi-pass and a low-pass filter. ... The input impedance or sometimes loading impedance of a circuit or electronic device is the impedance actually experienced by a signal which is connected to its input. ... The ohm is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance (derived from the ampere and the watt). ...


Humbuckers

Main article: Humbucker
PRS's Dragon humbucker
PRS's Dragon humbucker

One problem with electromagnetic pickups is that — along with the musical signal — they also pick up mains hum. Mains hum consists of a fundamental signal at a nominal 50 or 60 Hz, depending on local alternating current frequency, and usually some harmonic content. The changing magnetic flux caused by the mains current links with the windings of the pickup, inducing a voltage by transformer action. Traditional humbucker pickup, uncovered A conventional humbucker (or Humbucking pickup) is a type of electric guitar pickup that uses two coils, both generating string signal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... PRS Dragon III PRS Guitars is an American company, based in Stevensville, Maryland, that mostly makes high-quality, high-priced guitars. ... Type F Mains power plug & socket The term “mains” usually refers to the general purpose AC electrical power supply (as in “Ive connected the appliance to the mains”). The term is not usually used in the United States and Canada. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... For other uses, see transformers. ...


To overcome this effect, the humbucking pickup was developed, concurrently and independently by Seth Lover of Gibson and Ray Butts, working for Gretsch. Who developed it first is a matter of some debate, but Seth Lover was awarded the first patent. Ultimately, both men developed essentially the same concept. Traditional humbucker pickup, uncovered A conventional humbucker (or Humbucking pickup) is a type of electric guitar pickup that uses two coils, both generating string signal. ... Seth Lover (born January 1st, 1910 in Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA; died January 31st, 1997 in Garden Grove, California, USA) is most famous for inventing the humbucker or hum-cancelling electric stringed instrument pickup, most often used on the electric guitar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gretsch is a U.S. musical instrument manufacturer currently being distributed by guitar company Fender and drum craft company Kaman. ...


A humbucking pickup, shown in the image at the top of this page, generally comprises two standard pickups wired together with identical coils of opposite magnetic polarity. Any ambient noise, such as hum from power-supply transformers, radio frequencies, or any electrical devices (Brosnac 20) will induce an electrical current of equal but opposite magnitude in each coil. Therefore, the interfering signals are canceled. However, the vibrations of the guitar strings do not cancel out. The vibrating steel strings disturb both magnetic fields, and because of the reversed polarity of the coils, the magnetic fields of the magnet are also in opposite directions. They induce equal and opposite currents in the two coils. However, since the coils were also "out of phase" to begin with, the resulting induced currents are in-phase. Therefore, the only signals picked up are the result of electromagnetic induction from the string vibration. All other noise is canceled out by the inversed polarity of the coils.


A side-effect of this technique is that, when wired in series, as is most common, the overall inductance of the pickup is increased, which lowers its resonant frequency and attenuates the higher frequencies, giving a fatter and less trebly tone than either of the two component single-coil pickups would give singly. This is the essence of the "humbucker tone." Inductance (or electric inductance) is a measure of the amount of magnetic flux produced for a given electric current. ... In music, timbre, also timber (from Fr. ...


Construction

With a notable exception of rail pickups, pickups have magnetic polepieces — one or two for each string. These polepiece centers should be perfectly aligned with strings, or else sound will be suboptimal as pickup would capture only a part of vibrational energy.


String spacing is not even on most guitars: it starts with minimal spacing at nut and ends with maximal at bridge. So, bridge, neck and middle pickups should have a different polepiece spacing on the same guitar.


There are several standards on pickup sizes and string spacing between the poles. Spacing is measured either as a distance between 1st to 6th polepieces' centers (this is also called "E-to-E" spacing), or as a distance between adjacent polepieces' centers.

1st-to-6th Adjacent
Standard spacing
(Vintage Gibson guitars)
1.90"
48 mm
0.380"
9.6 mm
F-spacing
(Most Fender guitars, modern Gibson, Floyd Rose bridges)
2.01"
51 mm
0.402"
10.2 mm
Very close to bridge, extra pickup
(Roland guitar synth hex pickups)
2.060"
52.3 mm
0.412"
10.5 mm
Telecaster spacing
(Fender Telecaster guitars)
2.165"
55 mm
0.433"
11 mm

Floyd Rose Original Floyd Rose is the organization that licenses, distributes and manufactures the Floyd Rose Locking Tremolo invented by Floyd D. Rose. ...

Notation

Usually an electric guitar has more than one magnetic pickup. A combination of pickups is called a pickup configuration. It is usually notated by just writing out the pickup types, using "S" for single-coil and "H" for humbucker, in order from neck pickup to bridge pickup. Popular pickup configurations include:

Less frequently found configurations are: The Fender Telecaster, also known as a Tele, is a typically dual-pickup, solid-body electric guitar made by Fender. ... “Stratocaster” redirects here. ... For the jazz guitarist, see Les Paul The Gibson Les Paul is one of the most recognized solid-body electric guitar designs. ... The Ibanez JEM is a recogniseable example of a super strat, showing some of the features mentioned in the comparison table. ...

  • S (Fender Esquire)
  • S (Gibson Les Paul Junior)
  • H-H-H (Some Gibson Les Paul Gold Tops and Customs)

Piezoelectric pickups

A piezoelectric pickup on a classical guitar.
A piezoelectric pickup on a classical guitar.

More recently, many semi-acoustic and acoustic guitars, and some electric guitars and basses, have been fitted with piezoelectric pickups instead of, or in addition to, magnetic pickups. These have a very different sound which some prefer, and also have the advantage of not picking up unwanted magnetic fields, such as mains hum and feedback from hearing-aid loops. Image File history File links Piezoelectric_pickup1. ... Image File history File links Piezoelectric_pickup1. ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of crystals, certain ceramic materials, (and to some degree, all materials) to generate a voltage in response to applied mechanical stress. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Feedback loop. ...


Preamps

Piezoelectric pickups have a very high output impedance and appear as a capacitance in series with a voltage source. They must therefore have an instrument-mounted buffer amplifier fitted if the sound is to retain its full frequency response. Piezo pickups are usually mounted under the bridge and sometimes form part of the bridge assembly itself. The output impedance, source impedance, or internal impedance of an electronic device is the opposition exhibited by its output terminals to the flow of an alternating current (AC) of a particular frequency as a result of resistance, induction and capacitance. ... Capacitance is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. ... A voltage source is any device or system that produces an electromotive force between its terminals OR derives a secondary voltage from a primary source of the electromotive force. ... A buffer amplifier (sometimes simply called a buffer) is one that provides impedance transformation from high to low between one circuit and another. ... A Violin Bridge blank and finished bridge A bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a stringed instrument and transmitting the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument in order to transfer the sound to the surrounding air balls. ...


The piezo pickup gives a very wide frequency range output compared to the magnetic types and can give large amplitude signals from the strings. For this reason, it is usually necessary to run the buffer amplifier from relatively high voltage rails (about ±9 V) to avoid distortion due to clipping. Some musicians prefer a preamp that isn't as linear (like a single-FET amplifier) so that the clipping is "softer", although such an amplifier starts to distort sooner, this makes the distortion less "buzzy" and less audible than a more linear, but less forgiving op-amp [1]. However, at least one study [2] indicates that most people can't tell the difference between FET and op-amp circuits in blind listening comparisons of electric instrument preamps, a finding which correlates with results of formal studies done in other types of audio devices. Sometimes, piezoelectric pickups are used in conjunction with magnetic types to give a wider range of available sounds. Amplitude is a nonnegative scalar measure of a waves magnitude of oscillation, that is, magnitude of the maximum disturbance in the medium during one wave cycle. ... A distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of an object, image, sound, waveform or other form of information or representation. ... Clipping is a form of distortion that occurs when an amplifier is overdriven, which happens when it attempts to increase voltage or current beyond its limits. ... A preamplifier (preamp), as its name suggests, is an amplifier which precedes another amplifier. ... Large power N-channel field effect transistor The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a channel in a semiconductor material. ... An operational amplifier or op-amp is an electronic circuit module (normally built as an integrated circuit, but occasionally with discrete transistors or vacuum tubes) which has a non-inverting input (+), an inverting input (-) and one output. ...


For early pick-up devices using the piezoelectric effect, see phonograph. Edison cylinder phonograph ca. ...


Multi-transducer pickups

Roland GK-3 hexaphonic pickup
Roland GK-3 hexaphonic pickup

Hexaphonic pickups (also called divided pickups and polyphonic pickups) have a separate output for each string (Hexaphonic assumes six strings, as on a guitar). This allows for separate processing and amplification for each string. It also allows a converter to sense the pitch coming from individual string signals for producing note commands, typically according to the MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) protocol. A hexaphonic pickup and a converter are usually components of a guitar/synthesizer. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Polyphony is the property of an electronic musical instrument which describes how many notes it can sound at one time. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... A guitar/synthesizer (also guitar synthesizer, guitar/synth, or guitar synth) is any one of a number of systems originally conceived to allow a guitarist to play synthesizers. ...


Such pickups are relatively uncommon (compared to normal ones), and only a few notable models exists. Hexaphonic pickups can be either electromagnetic or piezoelectric.


Electromagnetic

  • Roland GK-2 (single coil) and GK-2a (humbucking) are one of the most famous models, factory-installed on many guitars. Compatible with popular Roland GR series of guitar synthesizers.
  • Copeland Hex (by Rick Copeland). [3]

Roland Corporation TYO: 7944 is a Japanese manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, electronic equipment and software. ...

Piezoelectric

  • Shadow GTM-6
  • AXON AIX-101
  • Zeta Strados (violin) [4]
  • Barbera transducers (violin, cello, bass etc.) [5]
  • RMC Acoustic Gold pickup saddles & Poly-Drive II remote preamp (for acoustic guitar) [6]
  • RMC Acoustic Gold pickup saddles & Poly-Drive IV onboard preamp (for acoustic guitar) [7]
  • RMC Pow'r Bridge G pickup saddles (tune-o-matic) & Poly-Drive 1 onboard preamp (for electric guitar) [8]
  • RMC Pow'r Bridge ST pickup saddles (strat-style) & Poly-Drive 1 onboard preamp (for electric guitar) [9]
  • RMC Pow'r Bridge W pickup saddles (wilkinson) & Poly-Drive 1 onboard preamp (for electric guitar) [10]
  • Ghost Bass Bridge [11]

This electric violin, made by Leo Fender in the late 1950s, has a non-traditional design. ...

Optical

Optical pickups are a fairly recent development that work by sensing the interruption of a light beam by the string. The light source is usually a LED, and the detector is a photodiode or phototransistor. These pickups have complete insensitivity to magnetic or electric interference and also have a very wide and flat frequency response unlike magnetic pickups. A photodiode Photodiode closeup A photodiode is a semiconductor diode that functions as a photodetector. ... The fact that traditional transistors (these days called “Bipolar Junction Transistors” or BJTs) are photosensitive has been known ever since they were invented. ...


Optical pickup guitars were first shown at the 1969 NAMM in Chicago, by Ron Hoag [12] For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... The NAMM (National Association of Musical Merchants) Show is the largest musical trade show in the world. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ...


Active and passive pick-ups

Pick-ups can be either active or passive. Pickups, apart from optical types, are inherently passive transducers. So-called active pickups incorporate electronic circuitry to modify the signal. Passive pick-ups are usually wire wound around a magnet. They can generate electric potential without need for external power, though their output is relatively low, and the harmonic content of output depends greatly on the winding. Electric potential is the potential energy per unit of charge associated with a static (time-invariant) electric field, also called the electrostatic potential, typically measured in volts. ...


Passive pick-ups are very convenient as they require no power source to operate. They are the most popular and widely used pick-up type on electric guitars, and their frequency response curve is unique to the type and manufacturer. Frequency response is the measure of any systems response to frequency, but is usually used in connection with electronic amplifiers and similar systems, particularly in relation to audio signals. ...

EMG 85 — one of the most famous active pickups in the world
EMG 85 — one of the most famous active pickups in the world

Active pick-ups require an electrical source of energy to operate and include an electronic preamp, active filters, active EQ and other sound-shaping features. They can sometimes give much higher possible output (in comparison to passive) and much flatter frequency response curve. They also are less affected in tone by varying lengths of amplifier lead, and amplifier input characteristics. Magnetic pick-ups used with 'active' circuitry usually feature a lower inductance (and initially lower output) winding that tends to give a flatter frequency response curve. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 770 KB) Summary EMG-85 pickup image, made by flickr user spacelion (http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 770 KB) Summary EMG-85 pickup image, made by flickr user spacelion (http://www. ... EMG 85 is a famous active humbucker guitar pickup manufactured by EMG. It is usually considered as a rhythm pickup for use in neck position, paired with EMG 81 as a lead pickup in bridge position. ... A preamplifier (preamp), as its name suggests, is an amplifier which precedes another amplifier. ... For information about computer bandwidth management, see Equalization (computing). ...


The disadvantages of active pick-ups are the power source (usually either a battery or phantom power), cost, and less defined unique tonal signature. They are more popular on bass guitars, because of their solid tone; most high-end bass guitars feature an active pick-up. Most piezoelectric and all optical pick-ups are active and include some sort of preamp. Four double-A (AA) rechargeable batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores chemical energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... Phantom power (labeled as +48 V on some audio equipment) is a method that sends an electrical current through microphone cables. ...


See also

This closeup shows three traditional single coil pickups on a Stratocaster guitar. ... Traditional humbucker pickup, uncovered A conventional humbucker (or Humbucking pickup) is a type of electric guitar pickup that uses two coils, both generating string signal. ... A magnetic circuit is a closed path containing a magnetic flux. ... In 2006 luthier Yuri Landman built the Moodswinger, a 12 string overtone zither for Aaron Hemphill of the noiseband Liars The Moodswinger is a custom made string instrument made by Yuri Landman. ... The Lace Sensor is a guitar pickup designed by Don Lace and manufactured by AGI (Antodyne General International). ... Lipstick-tube pickups on a Danelectro electric guitar A lipstick guitar pickup is a form of single-coil magnetic guitar pickup having its electronics totally encased in a chrome-plated metal tube. ... This is a list of communications, computers, electronic circuits, fiberoptics, microelectronics, medical electronics, reliablity, and semiconductors. ... For other uses, see transformers. ... In electrical engineering or audio, the nominal impedance of an input or output is the equivalent impedance of all of the output or input circuitry of a device lumped into one (imaginary) component. ... This article is about audio effect. ... An instrument amplifier is an electronic amplifier designed for use with an electric or electronic musical instrument, such as an electric guitar. ... A preamplifier (preamp), as its name suggests, is an amplifier which precedes another amplifier. ...

References

  • Brosnac, Donald (1980). Guitar Electronics: A Workbook. Ojai, CA: d.B. Music Co.. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
wsbradio.com: News Pickup Seat-Belt Bill (0 words)
The Senate Public Safety and Homeland Security Committee passed Senate Bill 86 on a vote of 9-2.
By using this website, you accept the terms of our Visitor Agreement.
Portions of content provided by All Music Guide®, a trademark of All Media Guide, LLC.
Pickup Notes and Measures (591 words)
If there is a pickup measure, the final measure of the piece should be shortened by the length of the pickup measure (although this rule is sometimes ignored in less formal written music).
A piece that is using pickup measures or pickup notes may also sometimes place a double bar (with or without repeat signs) inside a measure, in order to make it clear which phrase and which section of the music the pickup notes belong to.
Figure 4: At the ends of sections of the music, a measure may be interrupted by a double bar that places the pickup notes in the correct section and assures that repeats have the correct number of beats.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m