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Encyclopedia > Picidae
Picidae
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker(Sphyrapicus varius)
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
(Sphyrapicus varius)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Piciformes
Family: Picidae
Vigors, 1825
Genera

About 30, see text Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus, 1766) The Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius, is a medium-sized woodpecker. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Families Galbulidae Bucconidae Capitonidae Ramphastidae Picidae Indicatoridae For prehistoric taxa, see text Six families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. ... Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – October 26, 1840) was an Irish zoologist and politician. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

The avian family Picidae includes the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks. Members of this family are found worldwide, except for Australia, Madagascar, and the extreme polar regions. Most species live in forests or woodland habitats, although a few species are known to live in desert areas. In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Genera Picumnus Verreauxia Sasia The piculets are a distinctive subfamily of small woodpeckers which occur mainly in tropical South America, with just three Asian and one African species. ... Species The wrynecks are a small but distinctive group of small Old World woodpeckers. ... This article is about forests as a massing of trees. ... Limber Pine woodland, Toiyabe Range, central Nevada Biologically, a woodland is a treed area differentiated from a forest. ...


The Picidae is just one of the eight families in the order Piciformes. Members of the order Piciformes, such as the jacamars, puffbirds, barbets, toucans and honeyguides, have traditionally been thought to be very closely related to the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks. Recent molecular studies[citation needed] have strengthened this view. Families Galbulidae Bucconidae Capitonidae Ramphastidae Picidae Indicatoridae For prehistoric taxa, see text Six families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. ... Genera Galbalcyrhynchus Brachygalba Jacamaralcyon Galbula Jacamerops The jacamars are near passerine birds from tropical South America, extending up to Mexico. ... Genera Notharchus Bucco Nystalus Hypnelus Micromonacha Nonnula Hapaloptila Chelidoptera Malacoptila Monasa The puffbirds and their relatives in the near passerine bird family Bucconidae are tropical near passerine birds from South America, extending up to Mexico. ... This article is about the Barbet family of birds. ... Genera Aulacorhynchus Pteroglossus Baillonius Andigena Selenidera Ramphastos Toucans (in Portuguese: Tucano, Spanish: Tucán) are tropical near passerine birds from South America. ... Genera Indicator Melichneutes Prodotiscus Honeyguides (family Indicatoridae) are near passerine birds of the order Piciformes. ...

Contents


There are about over 200 species and about 30 genera in this family (for the full species list, see Woodpecker). Many species are threatened or endangered due to loss of habitat or habitat fragmentation. Two species of woodpeckers, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker and the Imperial Woodpecker, have been considered extinct for about 30 years (there has been some controversy recently whether these species still exist). Genera Melanerpes Sphyrapicus Xiphidiopicus Dendropicos Dendrocopos Picoides Veniliornis Campethera Geocolaptes Dinopium Meiglyptes Hemicircus Micropternus Picus Mulleripicus Dryocopus Celeus Piculus Colaptes Campephilus Chrysocolaptes Reinwardtipicus Blythipicus Gecinulus Sapheopipo For other uses, see Woodpecker (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Campephilus principalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) is a very large and extremely rare member of the woodpecker family, Picidae; it is officially listed as an endangered species, but by the end of the 20th century had widely been considered extinct. ... Binomial name Campephilus imperialis (Gould, 1832) The Imperial Woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis) is (or was) a member of the woodpecker family Piciformes. ...


The smallest woodpecker is the Bar-breasted Piculet, at 7 g and 8 cm (3.2 inches). The largest woodpecker was the Imperial Woodpecker, at an average of 58 cm (23 inches) and probably over 600 g (1.3 lbs). The Ivory-billed Woodpecker is (or was) slightly smaller at 50 cm (20 inches) and a weight of 500 g (1.1 lbs). If both the Ivory-billed and Imperial Woodpeckers are indeed extinct, the largest extant woodpecker is the Great Slaty Woodpecker of Southeast Asia, at about 50 cm (20 inches) and 450 g (1 lb). Most species possess predominantly white, black and brown feathers, although many piculets show a certain amount of gray and olive green. In woodpeckers, many species exhibit patches of red and yellow on their heads and bellies. Although the genders of a species tend to look alike, male woodpeckers will have brighter reds and yellows than the females. Binomial name Campephilus imperialis (Gould, 1832) The Imperial Woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis) is (or was) a member of the woodpecker family Piciformes. ... Binomial name Campephilus principalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) is a very large and extremely rare member of the woodpecker family, Picidae; it is officially listed as an endangered species, but by the end of the 20th century had widely been considered extinct. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


Members of the family Picidae have strong bills for drilling and drumming on trees and long sticky tongues for extracting food. Woodpecker bills are typically longer, sharper and stronger than the bills of piculets and wrynecks, however their morphology is very similar. Due to their smaller bill size, many piculets and wrynecks will forage in decaying wood more often than woodpeckers. The long sticky tongues, which possess bristles, aid these birds in grabbing and extracting insects deep within a hole of a tree. The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... A bristle is a stiff hair or feather. ...


Woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks all possess zygodactyl feet. Zygodacytl feet consist of four toes, two facing frontward and two facing back. This type of foot arrangement is good for grasping the limbs and trunks of trees. Members of this family can walk vertically up a tree trunk, which is beneficial for activities such as foraging for food or nest excavation. In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits (fingers and toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of an animal. ...


The diet of these birds consists mainly of insects, such as ants and beetles, nuts, seeds, berries, some fruit and sap. Species may feed generally on all of these, or may specialize on one or two.


All members of the family Picidae nest in cavities. Woodpeckers and piculets will excavate their own nests, but wrynecks will not. The excavated nest is usually only lined from the wood chips produced as the hole was made. Many species of woodpeckers excavate one hole per breeding season, sometimes after multiple attempts. It takes around a month to finish the job. Abandoned holes are used by many other birds and animals, such as flying squirrels. A basket style nest A nest is place of refuge built to hold an animals eggs and/or provide a place to raise their offspring. ... Two groups of rodents are referred to as flying squirrels. ...


Members of Picidae are typically monogamous. A pair will work together to help build the nest, incubate the eggs and raise their altricial young. However, in most species the male does most of the nest excavation and takes the night shift while incubating the eggs. A nest will usually consist of 2-5 round white eggs. Since these birds are cavity nesters their eggs do not need to be camouflaged and the white color helps the parents to see them in dim light. The eggs are incubated for about 11-14 days before the chicks are born. It takes about 18-30 days before the young are ready to leave the nest. In monogamy (Greek: monos = single/only and gamos = marriage) a person has only one spouse at a time (as opposed to polygamy). ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ... In bird and mammal biology, altricial species are those whose newly hatched or born young are relatively immobile, have closed eyes, lack hair or down, and must be cared for by the adults. ...


Picidae species can either be sedentary or migratory. Many species are known to stay in the same area year around while others, such as the Eurasian Wryneck and the Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, travel great distances from their breeding grounds to their wintering ground. Migration occurs when living things move from one biome to another. ... Species The wrynecks are a small but distinctive group of small Old World woodpeckers. ... Binomial name Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus, 1766) The Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius, is a medium-sized woodpecker. ...


Systematics and evolution

The phylogeny has been updated according to new knowledge about convergence patterns and evolutionary history (Benz et al., 2006; Moore et al., 2006). Most notably, the relationship of the picine genera has been largely clarified, and it was determined that the Antillean Piculet is a surviving offshoot of proto-woodpeckers. In the absence of a more specific context, convergence denotes the approach toward a definite value, as time goes on; or to a definite point, a common view or opinion, or toward a fixed or equilibrium state. ...


The evolutionary history of this group is not well documented, but the known fossils allow some preliminary conclusions: the earliest known modern picids were piculet-like forms of the Late Oligocene (c. 25 mya). By that time, however, the group was already present in the Americas and Europe, and it is hypothesized that they actually evolved much earlier, maybe as early as the Early Eocene (50 mya). The modern subfamilies appear to be rather young by comparison; until the mid-Miocene (10-15 mya), all picids seem to have been small or mid-sized birds similar to a mixture between a piculet and a wryneck. An enigmatic form based on a coracoid found in Pliocene deposits of New Providence, Bahamas, has been described as Bathoceleus hyphalus and probably also is a woodpecker (Cracraft & Morony, 1969). The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1], Central America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... In human beings, the coracoid process is a small hook-like structure that comes off the scapula to point forward. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... (This article is about the island in the Bahamas. ...


Prehistoric forms of the extant genera are treated in the corresponding genus articles.


Prehistoric taxa

Basal

  • Genus Palaeopicus (Late Oligocene of France)
The Eurasian Wryneck ( Jynx torquilla), a relative of the woodpeckers
The Eurasian Wryneck ( Jynx torquilla), a relative of the woodpeckers

Not assigned to subfamily Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1532x1038, 246 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Picidae Wryneck ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1532x1038, 246 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Picidae Wryneck ... Species The wrynecks are a small but distinctive group of small Old World woodpeckers. ...

  • Picidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene of New Mexico, USA)
  • Picidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Gargano Peninsula, Italy)

Subfamily Jynginae: Wrynecks

  • Genus Jynx (2 species)

Species The wrynecks (genus Jynx) are a small but distinctive group of small Old World woodpeckers. ... Species The wrynecks (genus Jynx) are a small but distinctive group of small Old World woodpeckers. ...

Subfamily Picumninae: Piculets

Genus Picumnus - American Piculets (c.27 species) Genera Picumnus Sasia Nesoctites The piculets are a distinctive group of small woodpeckers which occur mainly in tropical South America, with just three Asian and one African species elsewhere. ...


Genus Verreauxia - African Piculet (sometimes included in Sasia)


Genus Sasia - Asian Piculets (2 species)


Subfamily Nesoctitinae: Antillean Piculet

  • Genus Nesoctites - Antillean Piculet

Subfamily Picinae: Woodpeckers

Unassigned fossil forms Genera Melanerpes Sphyrapicus Xiphidiopicus Dendropicos Dendrocopos Picoides Veniliornis Campethera Geocolaptes Dinopium Meiglyptes Hemicircus Micropternus Picus Mulleripicus Dryocopus Celeus Piculus Colaptes Campephilus Chrysocolaptes Reinwardtipicus Blythipicus Gecinulus Sapheopipo For other uses, see Woodpecker (disambiguation). ...

  • Genus Palaeonerpes (Ogalalla Early Pliocene of Hitchcock County, USA) - possibly dendropicine
  • Genus Pliopicus (Early Pliocene of Kansas, USA) - possibly dendropicine
  • cf. Colaptes DMNH 1262 (Early Pliocene of Ainsworth, USA) - malarpicine?
Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major)
Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major)

Tribe Dendropicini Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 338 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 338 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Dendrocopos major (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) is a member of the woodpecker family, Picidae. ...

  • Genus Xiphidiopicus - Cuban Woodpecker (Placement in Dendropicini tentative)
  • Genus Dendropicos (15 species)
  • Genus Picoides (presently 12 species; maybe only 3 belong here) - this genus is in need of revision (Moore et al., 2006). See the genus article for more.
  • Genus Veniliornis (14 species)
Female Yellow-shafted Flicker (Colaptes auratus auratus)
Female Yellow-shafted Flicker (Colaptes auratus auratus)

Tribe Malarpicini Species See text. ... Species Sphyrapicus varius Sphyrapicus nuchalis Sphyrapicus ruber The Sapsuckers form the genus Sphyrapicus within the woodpecker family Picidae. ... Species Dendrocopos dorae Dendrocopos leucotos Dendrocopos mahrattensis Dendrocopos major Dendrocopos medius Dendrocopos nanus Dendrocopos syriacus . ... Picoides is a Genus of woodpeckers (family Picidae) found primarily in North America. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 680 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Yellow-shafted Flicker. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 680 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Yellow-shafted Flicker. ... Binomial name Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) is a medium-sized woodpecker. ...

  • Genus Campethera (12 species)
  • Genus Geocolaptes - Ground Woodpecker
  • Genus Dinopium - malarpicine flamebacks (4 species)
  • Genus Meiglyptes (3 species)
  • Genus Hemicircus (2 species; placement in Malarpicini tentative)
  • Genus Micropternus - Rufous Woodpecker (formerly in Celeus)
The famous Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campaphilus principalis) may or may not be extinct
The famous Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campaphilus principalis) may or may not be extinct

Tribe Picini Species The flamebacks are large woodpeckers which are resident breeders in tropical southern Asia. ... Binomial name Micropternus brachyurus (Vieillot, 1818) The Rufous Woodpecker Micropternus brachyurus is a brown woodpecker found in South Asia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Campephilus principalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) is a very large and extremely rare member of the woodpecker family, Picidae; it is officially listed as an endangered species, but by the end of the 20th century had widely been considered extinct. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ...

  • Genus Picus (c.15 species)
  • Genus Mulleripicus (3 species)
  • Genus Celeus (11 species)
  • Genus Piculus (7 species)
  • Genus Colaptes - flickers (about one dozen species)

Tribe Megapicini species see list Picus is a genus of birds in the woodpecker family. ... Species See text Dryocopus is a genus of very large woodpeckers. ... Species See text A genus of bird encompassing many members of the woodpecker family. ...

  • Genus Reinwardtipicus - Orange-backed Woodpecker
  • Genus Blythipicus (2 species)
  • Genus Gecinulus (2 species; placement in Megapicini tentative)
  • Genus Sapheopipo - Okinawa Woodpecker (Placement in Megapicini tentative)

Campephilus is a genus of woodpeckers in the family Picidae. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Species The flamebacks are large woodpeckers which are resident breeders in tropical southern Asia. ... Binomial name Sapheopipo noguchii (Seebohm, 1887) The Okinawa Woodpecker (Sapheopipo noguchii) is a woodpecker endemic to the island of Okinawa in Japan. ...

References

  • Benz, Brett W.; Robbins, Mark B. & Peterson, A. Townsend (2006): Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): Placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 389–399. DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.021
  • Cracraft, Joel & Morony, John J. Jr. (1969): A new Pliocene woodpecker, with comments on the fossil Picidae. American Museum Novitates 2400: 1-8. PDF fulltext
  • Johansson, U. S. & Ericson, G. P. (2003): Molecular support for a sister group relationship between Pici and Galbulae (Piciformes sensu Wetmore 1960). Journal of Avian Biology 34: 185-197. PDF fulltext
  • Koenig, W. D. & Haydock, J. (1999): Oaks, acorns, and the geographical ecology of acorn woodpeckers. J. Biogeogr. 26(1): 159-165. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2699.1999.00256.x (HTML abstract)
  • Lemaitre, J. & Villard, M. A. (2005): Foraging patterns of pileated woodpeckers in a managed Acadian forest: a resource selection function. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35(10): 2387-2393. HTML abstract
  • Michalek, K. G. & Winkler, H. (2001): Parental care and parentage in monogamous great spotted woodpeckers (Picoides major) and middles spotted woodpeckers (Picoides medius). Behaviour 138(10): 1259-1285. DOI:10.1163/15685390152822210 (HTML abstract)
  • Moore, William S.; Weibel, Amy C. & Agius, Andrea (2006): Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of the woodpecker genus Veniliornis (Picidae, Picinae) and related genera implies convergent evolution of plumage patterns. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 87: 611–624. PDF fulltext
  • Stark, R. D.; Dodenhoff, D. J. & Johnson, E. V. (1998): A quantitative analysis of woodpecker drumming. Condor 100(2): 350-356. PDF fulltext
  • Villard, P.; Cuisin, J. & Karasov, W. H. (2004). How do woodpeckers extract grubs with their tongues? A study of the Guadeloupe woodpecker (Melanerpes herminieri) in the French Indies. Auk 121: 509-514. DOI:10.1642/0004-8038(2004)121[0509:HDWEGW]2.0.CO;2 HTML abstract
  • Webb, Daniel Matthew & Moore, William S. (2005): A phylogenetic analysis of woodpeckers and their allies using 12S, Cyt b, and COI nucleotide sequences (class Aves; order Piciformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 233-248. PDF fulltext
  • Wiebe, K.L. & Swift, T. L. (2001): Clutch size relative to tree cavity size in northern flickers. Journal of Avian Biology 32(2): 167. DOI:10.1034/j.1600-048X.2001.320210.x (HTML abstract)
  • Wiktander, U.; Olsson, O. & Nilsson, S.F. (2000) Parental care and social mating system in the lesser spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos minor. Journal of Avian Biology 31(4): 447. DOI:10.1034/j.1600-048X.2000.310003.x (HTML abstract)
  • Yom-Tov, Y. & Ar, A. (1993): Incubation and fledging durations of woodpeckers. Condor 95(2): 282-287. PDF fulltext

  Results from FactBites:
 
Picidae - encyclopedia article about Picidae. (2222 words)
Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are between about 8,800-10,200 living bird species (and about 120-130 which have become extinct in the span of human history) in the world, making them the most diverse class of terrestrial vertebrates.
Piciformes Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives.
Nearly all Piciformes, like the owls and parrots, have zygodactyl feet—two toes forward and two back, an arrangement that has obvious advantages for birds that spend much of their time on tree trunks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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