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Encyclopedia > Piano
Piano
A piano on stage.
A piano on stage.
Classification

Keyboard instrument
(Hornbostel-Sachs: 314.122-4-8) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Fortepiano by Paul McNulty after Walter & Sohn, ca. ... The word piano has several meanings: A piano is a musical instrument. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ... Hornbostel-Sachs (or Sachs-Hornbostel) is a system of musical instrument classification devised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, and first published in the Zeitschrift für Musik in 1914. ...

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The piano is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with felt hammers. The hammers immediately rebound allowing the strings to continue vibrating at their resonant frequency.[1] These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies them. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... A diatonic hammered dulcimer made by Masterworks The hammered dulcimer is a stringed musical instrument with the strings stretched over a trapezoidal sounding board. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... Large five-octave unfretted clavichord by Paul Maurici, after J.A. Haas The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Aeolian (1868) Albrecht, Charles [1779] American Piano Company (1908) Astin Weight (1959) Babcock (Boston, 1810) Baldwin (1890) Bechstein (1853) Blüthner (1853) Bösendorfer (1828) Boston (1991) Brinsmead (London, 1835) Broadwood and Sons (London, 1783) Challen (1804) Chappell Pianos (London, 1811) Chickering and Sons (Boston, 1823) Clementi Decker Brothers (New... Piano acoustics are those physical properties of the piano which affect its acoustics. ... This is a virtual piano with 88 keys tuned to A440, showing the frequencies, in cycles per second (Hz), of each note (i. ... An equal temperament is a musical temperament — that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation — in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... A Violin Bridge blank and finished bridge A bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a stringed instrument and transmitting the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument in order to transfer the sound to the surrounding air balls. ... The sounding board is the largest part of a string musical instruments body. ...


The piano is widely used in Western music for solo performance, ensamble use, chamber music, and accompaniment. It is also very popular as an aid to composing and rehearsal. Although not portable and often expensive, the piano's versatility and ubiquity have made it one of the most familiar musical instruments. It is sometimes classified as both a percussion and a stringed instrument. According to the Hornbostel-Sachs method of music classification, it is grouped with Chordophones. Western music is the genres of music originating in the Western world (Europe and its former colonies) including Western classical music, American Jazz, Country and Western, pop music and rock and roll. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... A typical accompaniment pattern of a Mozart concert or aria. ... Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ... 82. ... At various times, and in various different cultures, various schemes of musical instrument classification have been used. ... Percussion redirects here. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... Hornbostel-Sachs (or Sachs-Hornbostel) is a system of musical instrument classification devised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, and first published in the Zeitschrift für Musik in 1914. ... A chordophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points. ...


The word piano is a shortened form of the word pianoforte, which is seldom used except in formal language and derived from the original Italian name for the instrument, clavicembalo [or gravicembalo] col piano e forte (literally harpsichord with soft and loud). This refers to the instrument's responsiveness to keyboard touch, which allows the pianist to produce notes at different dynamic levels by controlling the speed with which the hammers hit the strings. Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ...

Contents

History

Early history

See also: Fortepiano and Bartolomeo Cristofori
Early piano replica by the modern builder Paul McNulty, after Walter & Sohn, 1805
Early piano replica by the modern builder Paul McNulty, after Walter & Sohn, 1805

Although there were earlier attempts to make stringed keyboard instruments with struck strings,[2] most notably hammered dulcimers such as the santur and santoor,[3] the invention of the modern piano is credited to Bartolomeo Cristofori of Padua, Italy, who was employed by Prince Ferdinand de Medici as the Keeper of the Instruments. It is not known exactly when Cristofori first built a piano. An inventory made by his employers, the Medici family, indicates the existence of a piano by the year 1700; another document of doubtful authenticity indicates a date of 1698.[citation needed] The three Cristofori pianos that survive today date from the 1720s.[citation needed] Fortepiano by Paul McNulty after Walter & Sohn, ca. ... Bartolomeo Cristofori di Francesco (May 4, 1655 - January 27, 1731) was an Italian maker of musical instruments, generally regarded as the inventor of the piano. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 901 pixel, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of a replica fortepiano made by Paul McNulty, following an 1804 original by the Viennese maker Anton Walter. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 901 pixel, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of a replica fortepiano made by Paul McNulty, following an 1804 original by the Viennese maker Anton Walter. ... A diatonic hammered dulcimer made by Masterworks The hammered dulcimer is a stringed musical instrument with the strings stretched over a trapezoidal sounding board. ... Santur Woman playing the santur in a painting from the Hasht-Behesht Palace in Isfahan Iran, 1669 The santur (سنتور – also santūr, santour, santoor) is a hammered dulcimer of Iran. ... The santoor is a trapezoid-shaped hammered dulcimer often made of walnut, with seventy strings. ... Bartolomeo Cristofori di Francesco (May 4, 1655 - January 27, 1731) was an Italian maker of musical instruments, generally regarded as the inventor of the piano. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ...


Like many other inventions, the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations. The mechanisms of keyboard instruments such as the clavichord and the harpsichord were well known. In a clavichord the strings are struck by tangents, while in a harpsichord they are plucked by quills. Centuries of work on the mechanism of the harpsichord in particular had shown the most effective ways to construct the case, soundboard, bridge, and keyboard. Cristofori, himself an expert harpsichord maker, was well acquainted with this body of knowledge. Large five-octave unfretted clavichord by Paul Maurici, after J.A. Haas The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... A tangent, when referred to in the context of the action of a clavichord, refers to the small piece of metal similar in shape and size to the head of a regular (not philips) screwdriver. ...


Cristofori's great success was in solving, without any prior example, the fundamental mechanical problem of piano design: the hammers must strike the string, but not remain in contact with the string (as a tangent remains in contact with a clavichord string) because this would damp the sound. Moreover, the hammers must return to their rest position without bouncing violently, and it must be possible to repeat a note rapidly. Cristofori's piano action served as a model for the many different approaches to piano actions that followed. While Cristofori's early instruments were made with thin strings and were much quieter than the modern piano, compared to the clavichord (the only previous keyboard instrument capable of minutely controlled dynamic nuance through the keyboard) they were considerably louder and had more sustaining power. Damping is any effect, either deliberately engendered or inherent to a system, that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations of an oscillatory system. ... Action of a circa 1907 upright piano The action of a piano is the mechanical assembly which translates the depression of the piano keys into a felt hammer striking the strings. ...


Cristofori's new instrument remained relatively unknown until an Italian writer, Scipione Maffei, wrote an enthusiastic article about it (1711), including a diagram of the mechanism. This article was widely distributed, and most of the next generation of piano builders started their work because of reading it. One of these builders was Gottfried Silbermann, better known as an organ builder. Silbermann's pianos were virtually direct copies of Cristofori's, with one important addition: Silbermann invented the forerunner of the modern damper pedal, which lifts all the dampers from the strings at once. Scipione Maffei (b. ... Gottfried Silbermann (January 14, 1683-August 4, 1753) was an influential German constructor of keyboard instruments. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... A sustain or sustaining pedal (also damper pedal or loud pedal) is the most commonly-used pedal in a modern piano. ...


Silbermann showed Johann Sebastian Bach one of his early instruments in the 1730s, but Bach did not like it at that time, claiming that the higher notes were too soft to allow a full dynamic range. Although this earned him some animosity from Silbermann, the criticism was apparently heeded. Bach did approve of a later instrument he saw in 1747, and even served as an agent in selling Silbermann's pianos.[citation needed] “Bach” redirects here. ... Events and Trends The Great Awakening - A Protestant religious movement active in the British colonies of North America Sextant invented (probably around 1730) independently by John Hadley in Great Britain and Thomas Godfrey in the American colonies World leaders Louis XV King of France (king from 1715 to 1774) George...


Piano making flourished during the late 18th century in the Viennese school, which included Johann Andreas Stein (who worked in Augsburg, Germany) and the Viennese makers Nannette Streicher (daughter of Johann Andreas Stein) and Anton Walter. Viennese-style pianos were built with wood frames, two strings per note, and had leather-covered hammers. Some of these Viennese pianos had the opposite coloring of modern-day pianos; the natural keys were black and the accidental keys white.[4] It was for such instruments that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed his concertos and sonatas, and replicas of them are built today for use in authentic-instrument performance of his music. The pianos of Mozart's day had a softer, clearer tone than today's pianos or English pianos, with less sustaining power. The term fortepiano is nowadays often used to distinguish the 18th-century instrument from later pianos. The First Viennese School is a name sometimes given to a collection of classical music composers who wrote in the classical music era in the late eighteenth century in Vienna. ... Johann Andreas Stein, (1728-1792), German maker of keyboard instruments and a friend of Mozart. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... A piano concerto is a concerto for solo piano and orchestra. ... A piano sonata is a sonata written for unaccompanied piano. ... The authentic performance movement is an effort on the part of musicians and scholars to perform works of classical music in ways similar to how they were performed when they were originally written. ... Fortepiano by Paul McNulty after Walter & Sohn, ca. ...


Development of the modern piano

Comparison of piano sound
  • 19th century piano sound
    Frédéric Chopin's Étude Op. 25, No. 12, on an Erard piano made in 1851
    Modern piano sound
    The same piece, on a modern piano
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.
For more details on this topic, see Innovations in the piano.

In the period lasting from about 1790 to 1860, the Mozart-era piano underwent tremendous changes that led to the modern form of the instrument. This revolution was in response to a consistent preference by composers and pianists for a more powerful, sustained piano sound, and made possible by the ongoing Industrial Revolution with technological resources such as high-quality steel, called piano wire, for strings, and precision casting for the production of iron frames. Over time, the tonal range of the piano was also increased from the five octaves of Mozart's day to the 7⅓ or more octaves found on modern pianos. Image File history File links Frederic_Chopin_-_Opus_25_-_Twelve_Grand_Etudes_-_c_minor. ... Chopin redirects here. ... Étude Op. ... Sébastien Érard (born Sébastien Erhard, 5 April 1752 - 5th August 1831) was a French instrument maker of German origin who specialised in the production of pianos and harps, developing the capacities of both instruments and pioneering the modern piano. ... This article covers a number of innovations from recent times in the building of pianos. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Piano wire is a specialized type of wire made for use in piano and other musical instrument strings, as well as many other purposes. ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ...

Broadwood grand square action
Broadwood grand square action

Early technological progress owed much to the English firm of Broadwood, who already had a reputation for the splendour and powerful tone of its harpsichords. Broadwood constructed instruments that were progressively larger, louder, and more robustly constructed. They sent pianos to both Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven, and were the first firm to build pianos with a range of more than five octaves: five octaves and a fifth during the 1790s, six octaves by 1810 (Beethoven used the extra notes in his later works), and seven octaves by 1820. The Viennese makers similarly followed these trends, however the two schools used different piano actions: Broadwoods were more robust, Viennese instruments were more sensitive. Broadwood and Sons is the oldest and one of the most prestigious piano companies in the world, named after its founder John Broadwood. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... Haydn redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...

Erard double pilot action
Erard double pilot action

By the 1820s, the center of innovation had shifted to Paris, where the Érard firm manufactured pianos used by Frédéric Chopin and Franz Liszt. In 1821, Sébastien Érard invented the double escapement action, which permitted a note to be repeated even if the key had not yet risen to its maximum vertical position. This facilitated rapid playing. When the invention became public, as revised by Henri Herz, the double escapement action gradually became standard in grand pianos, and is still incorporated into all grand pianos currently produced. This article is about the capital of France. ... Chopin redirects here. ... Liszt redirects here. ... Sébastien Érard (born Sébastien Erhard, 5 April 1752 - 5th August 1831) was a French instrument maker of German origin who specialised in the production of pianos and harps, developing the capacities of both instruments and pioneering the modern piano. ... Action of a circa 1907 upright piano The action of a piano is the mechanical assembly which translates the depression of the piano keys into a felt hammer striking the strings. ... Henri Herz (January 6, 1803–January 5, 1888) was an Austrian pianist and composer. ...


One of the major technical innovations that helped to create the sound of the modern piano was the use of a strong iron frame. Also called the "plate", the iron frame sits atop the soundboard, and serves as the primary bulwark against the force of string tension. The increased structural integrity of the iron frame allowed the use of thicker, tenser, and more numerous strings. In a modern grand the total string tension can approach 20 tons. The single piece cast iron frame was patented in 1825 in Boston by Alpheus Babcock, combining the metal hitch pin plate (1821, claimed by Broadwood on behalf of Samuel Hervé) and resisting bars (Thom and Allen, 1820, but also claimed by Broadwood and Érard). Babcock later worked for the Chickering & Mackays firm who patented the first full iron frame for grand pianos in 1843. Composite forged metal frames were preferred by many European makers until the American system was fully adopted by the early 20th century. The sounding board is the largest part of a string musical instruments body. ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Boston redirects here. ... Alpheus Babcock (1785-1842) was a piano and music instrument maker in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during the early 1800s. ... Chickering and Sons was an American piano manufacturer located in Boston, known for producing award-winning instruments of superb quality and design. ...


Other innovations for the mechanism included the use of felt hammer coverings instead of layered leather hammers. Felt hammers, which were first introduced by Henri Pape in 1826, were a more consistent material, permitting wider dynamic ranges as hammer weights and string tension increased. The sostenuto pedal (see below), invented in 1844 by Jean Louis Boisselot and improved by the Steinway firm in 1874, allowed a wider range of effects. In music, sostenuto is a term from Italian which means sustained, and occasionally also implies a slowing of tempo. ... Steinway & Sons grand piano on stage Steinway & Sons is a piano maker, since 1853 in New York City. ...


Other important technical innovations of this era included changes to the way the piano was strung, such as the use of a "choir" of three strings rather than two for all but the lower notes, and the use of different stringing methods. With the over strung scale, also called "cross-stringing", the strings are placed in a vertically overlapping slanted arrangement, with two heights of bridges on the soundboard instead of just one. This permits larger, but not necessarily longer, strings to fit within the case of the piano. Over stringing was invented by Jean-Henri Pape during the 1820s, and first patented for use in grand pianos in the United States by Henry Steinway Jr. in 1859. A Violin Bridge blank and finished bridge A bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a stringed instrument and transmitting the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument in order to transfer the sound to the surrounding air balls. ... Henri Pape(1787-1875) was distinguished piano maker in the early 1800s. ... Henry E. Steinway (February 17, 1797 – February 7, 1871) was a German American piano manufacturer and the founder of Steinway & Sons. ...

Duplex scaling: Treble strings of a 182 cm. grand piano. From lower left to upper right: dampers, main sounding length of strings, treble bridge, duplex string length, duplex bridge (long bar perpendicular to strings), hitchpins.
Duplex scaling: Treble strings of a 182 cm. grand piano. From lower left to upper right: dampers, main sounding length of strings, treble bridge, duplex string length, duplex bridge (long bar perpendicular to strings), hitchpins.

With duplexes or aliquot scales, which was patented in 1872 by Theodore Steinway, the different components of string vibrations are controlled by tuning their secondary parts in octave relationships with the sounding lengths. Similar systems developed by Blüthner (1872), as well as Taskin (1788), and Collard (1821) used more distinctly ringing undamped vibrations to modify tone. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 429 KB)Digital photograph taken by User:Opus33. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 429 KB)Digital photograph taken by User:Opus33. ... Aliquot stringing is the use of extra unstruck strings in the piano for the purpose of enriching the tone. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Some early pianos had shapes and designs that are no longer in use. The square piano had horizontal strings arranged diagonally across the rectangular case above the hammers and with the keyboard set in the long side. This design is variously attributed to Silbermann and Frederici and was improved by Guillaume-Lebrecht Petzold and Alpheus Babcock. Built in quantity through the 1890s (in the United States), Steinways celebrated iron framed over strung squares and were more than two and a half times the size of Zumpe's wood framed instruments that were successful a century before. Their overwhelming popularity was due to inexpensive construction and price, with performance and sonority frequently restricted by simple actions and closely spaced strings. The square piano had horizontal strings arranged diagonally across the rectangular case above the hammers and with the keyboard set in the long side, it is variously attributed to Silbermann and Frederici and was improved by Petzold and Babcock. ... Guillaume-Lebrecht Petzold was a piano maker in Paris in the early 1800s. ... Alpheus Babcock (1785-1842) was a piano and music instrument maker in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during the early 1800s. ...

The mechanism in upright pianos is perpendicular to the keys.
The mechanism in upright pianos is perpendicular to the keys.

The tall, vertically strung upright was arranged with the soundboard and bridges perpendicular to keys, and above them so that the strings did not extend to the floor. Diagonally strung Giraffe, pyramid and lyre pianos employed this principle in more evocatively shaped cases. The term was later revived by many manufacturers for advertising purposes.


The very tall cabinet piano introduced by Southwell in 1806 and built through the 1840s had strings arranged vertically on a continuous frame with bridges extended nearly to the floor, behind the keyboard and very large sticker action. The short cottage upright or pianino with vertical stringing, credited to Robert Wornum around 1815, was built into the 20th century. They are informally called birdcage pianos because of their prominent damper mechanism. Pianinos were distinguished from the oblique, or diagonally strung upright made popular in France by Roller & Blanchet during the late 1820s. The tiny spinet upright was manufactured from the mid-1930s until recent times. The low position of the hammers required the use of a "drop action" to preserve a reasonable keyboard height. Robert Wornum (1780-1852) was a piano maker working in London during the first half of the 19th century. ... A spinet is a smaller type of harpsichord or other keyboard instrument, such as a piano or organ. ...


Modern upright and grand pianos attained their present forms by the end of the 19th century. Improvements have been made in manufacturing processes, and many individual details of the instrument continue to receive attention.


History and musical performance

Much of the most widely admired piano repertoire, for example, that of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, was composed for a type of instrument that is rather different from the modern instruments on which this music is normally performed today. Even the music of the Romantics, including Liszt, Chopin, Robert Schumann, Felix Mendelssohn and Johannes Brahms, was written for pianos substantially different from ours. The piano has evolved technologically more than any other musical instrument, giving rise to difficult issues involving the performance of music written for earlier pianos. ... Original Handwritten MS of Beethovens Great Op. ... Haydn redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Liszt redirects here. ... Chopin redirects here. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ...


Modern piano

A schematic depiction of the construction of a pianoforte.
A schematic depiction of the construction of a pianoforte.

Image File history File links Fortepian_-_schemat. ... Image File history File links Fortepian_-_schemat. ...

Types

Modern pianos come in two basic configurations (with subcategories): the grand piano and the upright piano.


Grand

Grand piano
Grand piano

Grand pianos have the frame and strings placed horizontally, with the strings extending away from the keyboard. This makes the grand piano a large instrument, for which the ideal setting is a spacious room with high ceilings for proper resonance. There are several sizes of grand piano. Manufacturers and models vary, but a rough generalization distinguishes the "concert grand", (between about 2.2 m to 3 m long) from the "parlor grand" (about 1.7 m to 2.2 m) and the smaller "baby grand" (which may be shorter than it is wide).


All else being equal, longer pianos with longer strings have better sound and lower inharmonicity of the strings. Inharmonicity is the degree to which the frequencies of overtones (known as partials, partial tones, or harmonics) depart from whole multiples of the fundamental frequency. Pianos with shorter, thicker, and stiffer strings (e.g., baby grands) have more inharmonicity. The longer strings on a concert grand can vibrate more freely than the shorter, thicker strings on a baby grand, which means that a concert grand's strings will have truer overtones. This is partly because the strings will be tuned closer to equal temperament in relation to the standard pitch with less "stretching" in the piano tuning (See: Piano tuning). Full-size grands are usually used for public concerts, whereas smaller grands, introduced by Sohmer & Co. in 1884, are often chosen for domestic use where space and cost are considerations. In music, inharmonicity is the degree to which the frequencies of the overtones of a fundamental differ from whole number multiples of the fundamentals frequency. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... Approximate harmonic overtones on a string An overtone is a natural resonance or vibration frequency of a system. ... This article is about the components of sound. ... The whole numbers are the nonnegative integers (0, 1, 2, 3, ...) The set of all whole numbers is represented by the symbol = {0, 1, 2, 3, ...} Algebraically, the elements of form a commutative monoid under addition (with identity element zero), and under multiplication (with identity element one). ... An equal temperament is a musical temperament — that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation — in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... Piano tuner “Piano tuner” redirects here. ... A 1901 Sohmer Grand (source: Kunkels Musical Review, June 1901) Hugo Sohmer (1845 - 1913) was born in the Black Forest, Germany. ...


Upright

Upright piano
Upright piano

Upright pianos, also called vertical pianos, are more compact because the frame and strings are placed vertically, extending in both directions from the keyboard and hammers. It is considered harder to produce a sensitive piano action when the hammers move horizontally, as the vertical hammer return is dependent on springs which are prone to wear and tear. The grand piano hammers return by gravity, hence their return will always remain more consistent than the vertical hammers, thus giving pianists better control of their playing. However, a well-regulated vertical piano will probably play smoother than a grand piano that has not been regulated for years, and the very best upright pianos now approach the level of some grand pianos of the same size in tone quality and responsiveness.


One noticeable advantage that the grand piano action has over the vertical action is that all grand pianos have a special repetition lever in the playing action that is absent in all verticals. This repetition lever, a separate one for every key, catches the hammer close to the strings as long as the keys are played repeatedly and fairly quickly. In this position, with the hammer resting on the lever, a pianist can play repeated notes, staccato, and trills with much more speed and control than is possible on a vertical piano. For recent advances, see Innovations in the piano. The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale (compare mordent and tremolo). ... This article covers a number of innovations from recent times in the building of pianos. ...


Other types

Player piano
Player piano

Toy pianos began to be manufactured in the 19th century. In 1863, Henri Fourneaux invented the player piano, which "plays itself" from a piano roll without the need for a pianist. The player piano is a piano that records a performance using rolls of paper with perforations, and then replays the performance using pneumatic devices. A modern equivalent for the player piano is the Yamaha Disklavier system, which uses solenoids and midi instead of pneumatics and rolls. Silent pianos, which allow a regular piano to be used converted to a digital instrument, are a recent innovation and are becoming more popular. Pooh Poppin Piano -- a diatonic one octave toy piano Child playing Keyskills 30 key toy piano The toy piano is a musical instrument, made as a childs toy, but which has also been used in more serious musical contexts. ... The player piano is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist to depress the normal keys or pedals. ... It has been suggested that Music roll be merged into this article or section. ... The player piano is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist to depress the normal keys or pedals. ... The trade name Disklavier (DISC-lah-veer) refers to a family of piano-related products [1] originated and continuously manufactured by Yamaha Corporation, based in Hamamatsu, Japan, with branches and subsidiaries worldwide. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Irving Berlin played a special piano called the transposing piano, which was invented in 1801 by Edward Ryley. It had a lever under the keyboard used to alter the music to any key. One of Berlin's pianos is in the Smithsonian Museum. For much of his career, Berlin only knew how to play the black keys. But with his 'trick piano' he was no longer limited to the key of F-sharp. Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was a Russian-born naturalized American composer and lyricist, and one of the most prolific American songwriters in history. ...


A relatively recent development is the prepared piano, which is used in contemporary art music. A prepared piano is a standard grand piano which has had objects placed inside it before a performance in order to alter its sound, or which has had its mechanism changed in some way. The scores for music for prepared piano often instruct the pianist to insert pieces of rubber or small pieces of metal (screws or washers) in between the strings. These added items either mute the strings or create unusual vibrating sounds. A prepared piano is a piano that has had its sound altered by placing objects (preparations) between or on the strings or on the hammers or dampers. ...


Since the 1980s, digital pianos have been available, which use digital sampling technology to reproduce the sound of each piano note. The best digital pianos are sophisticated, with features including working pedals, weighted keys, multiple voices, and MIDI interfaces. However, with current technology, it remains difficult to duplicate a crucial aspect of acoustic pianos, namely that when the damper pedal (see below) is depressed, the strings not struck vibrate sympathetically when other strings are struck, as well as the unique instrument-specific mathematical non-linearity of partials on any given unison. Since this sympathetic vibration is considered central to piano tone, many digital pianos do not sound the same as the best acoustic pianos. Progress is being made in this area by including physical models of sympathetic vibration in the synthesis software. Some higher end digital pianos, such as the Yamaha Clavinova series, produced in the last few years incorporate string resonance technology to overcome this limitation. A digital piano is a modern electronic musical instrument designed to serve primarily as an alternative to a traditional piano, both in the way it feels to play and in the sound produced. ... In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... Sympathetic strings are strings on musical instruments which begin resonating, not due to any external influence such as picking or bowing, but due to another note (or frequency). ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... Physical modelling synthesis is the synthesis of sound by using a set of equations and algorithms to simulate a physical source of sound. ...


Keyboard

Further information: Musical keyboard
Keyboard
Keyboard

Almost every modern piano has 36 black keys and 52 white keys for a total of 88 keys (seven octaves plus a minor third, from A0 to C8). Many older pianos only have 85 keys (seven octaves from A0 to A7), while some manufacturers extend the range further in one or both directions. The layout of a typical musical keyboard A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers on a musical instrument which cause the instrument to produce sounds. ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ...


Some Bösendorfer pianos extend the normal range downwards to F0, with one other model going as far as a bottom C0, making a full eight octave range. These extra keys are sometimes hidden under a small hinged lid that can be flipped down to cover the keys in order to avoid visual disorientation in a pianist unfamiliar with the extended keyboard. On others, the colours of the extra white keys are reversed (black instead of white). Bösendorfer (L. Bösendorfer Klavierfabrik GmbH) is an Austrian piano manufacturer, now a wholly owned subsidiary of Yamaha[1]. Bösendorfer pianos are noted for their dark, full-bodied sound compared with other top models. ...


The extra keys are added primarily for increased resonance from the associated strings; that is, they vibrate sympathetically with other strings whenever the damper pedal is depressed and thus give a fuller tone. Only a very small number of works composed for piano actually use these notes. More recently, the Stuart and Sons company has also manufactured extended-range pianos. On their instruments, the range is extended both down the bass to F0 and up the treble to F8 for a full eight octaves. The extra keys are the same as the other keys in appearance. Stuart and Sons is a manufacturer of pianos based in Maryville, a suburb of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. ...


Small studio upright acoustical pianos with only 65 keys have been manufactured for use by roving pianists. Known as "gig" pianos and still containing a cast iron harp, these are comparatively lightweight and can be easily transported to and from engagements by only two men. As their harp is longer than that of a spinet or console piano, they have a stronger base sound that to some pianists is well worth the trade-off in range that a reduced key-set offers.


Pedals

Standard pedals

Piano pedals from left to right: una corda, sostenuto, and damper.
Piano pedals from left to right: una corda, sostenuto, and damper.
Main article: Piano pedals

Pianos have had pedals, or some close equivalent, since the earliest days. (In the 18th century, some pianos used levers pressed upward by the player's knee instead of pedals.) Most grand pianos have three pedals: soft pedal (una corda), sostenuto, and sustain pedal (from left to right, respectively). Most modern upright pianos, have three pedals: soft pedal, practice pedal and sustain pedal, though older or cheaper models may lack the practice pedal. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2464x1643, 535 KB) Piano pedals on a Grand Piano. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2464x1643, 535 KB) Piano pedals on a Grand Piano. ... The soft pedal (or una corda pedal) is one of the standard pedals on a piano, generally placed to the left of the pedals. ... In music, sostenuto is a term from Italian which means sustained, and occasionally also implies a slowing of tempo. ... A sustain or sustaining pedal (also damper pedal or loud pedal) is the most commonly used pedal in a modern piano. ... // The development of the piano’s pedals is an evolution that began from the very earliest days of the piano, and continued through the late nineteenth century. ...


The sustain pedal (or, damper pedal) is often simply called "the pedal", since it is the most frequently used. It is placed as the rightmost pedal in the group. It lifts the dampers from all keys, sustaining all played notes, and altering the overall tone. A sustain or sustaining pedal (also damper pedal or loud pedal) is the most commonly used pedal in a modern piano. ...


The soft pedal or una corda pedal is placed leftmost in the row of pedals. In grand pianos, it shifts the entire action, including the keyboard, to the right, so that the hammers hit only one of the three strings for each note (hence the name una corda, or 'one string'). The effect is to soften the note as well as to change the tone. In uprights, this action is not possible, and so the pedal moves the hammers closer to the strings, allowing the hammers to hit the strings with less force and produce a softer sound. The soft pedal (or una corda pedal) is one of the standard pedals on a piano, generally placed to the left of the pedals. ...


On grand pianos, the middle pedal is a sostenuto pedal. This pedal keeps raised any damper that was already raised at the moment the pedal is depressed. This makes it possible to sustain some notes (by depressing the sostenuto pedal before notes to be sustained are released) while the player's hands are free to play other notes. This can be useful for musical passages with pedal points and other otherwise tricky or impossible situations. In tonal music, a pedal point (also pedal tone, organ point, or just pedal) is a sustained tone, typically in the bass, during which at least one foreign, i. ...


On many upright pianos, there is a middle pedal called the 'practice' or celeste pedal. This drops a piece of felt between the hammers and strings, greatly muting the sounds.


There are also non-standard variants. On vertical pianos, the middle pedal can be a bass sustain pedal: that is, when it is depressed, the dampers lift off the strings only in the bass section. This pedal would be used only when a pianist needs to sustain a single bass note or chord over many measures, while playing the melody in the treble section. On the largest Fazioli piano, there is a fourth pedal to the left of the principal three. This fourth pedal works in the same way as the soft pedal of an upright piano, moving the hammers closer to the strings.[5] The Fazioli logo Fazioli is a piano manufacturing company based in Sacile, Italy. ...


Unusual pedals

An upright pedal piano
An upright pedal piano

The rare transposing piano, of which Irving Berlin possessed an example, had a middle pedal that functioned as a clutch which disengages the keyboard from the mechanism, enabling the keyboard to be moved to the left or right with a lever. The entire action of the piano is thus shifted to allow the pianist to play music written in one key so that it sounds in a different key. The pedal piano, or pedalier piano, is a rare type of piano that includes a pedalboard, enabling bass register notes to be played with the feet, as is standard on the organ. There are two types of pedal piano: the pedal board may be an integral part of the instrument, using the same strings and mechanism as the manual keyboard, or, less frequently, it may consist of two independent pianos (each with its separate mechanics and strings) which are placed one above the other, a regular piano played by the hands and a bass-register piano played by the feet. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 528 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1502 × 1705 pixel, file size: 779 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An upright piano with pedal board. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 528 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1502 × 1705 pixel, file size: 779 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An upright piano with pedal board. ... A Transposing piano is a special piano which can be adjusted by the player (e. ... Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was a Russian-born naturalized American composer and lyricist, and one of the most prolific American songwriters in history. ... For other uses, see Clutch (disambiguation). ... An upright pedal piano Another view The pedal piano is a kind of piano that includes a pedalboard, enabling notes to be played with the feet, as is standard on the organ. ... The 30-note pedalboard of a Rieger organ with expression pedal and coupler switches. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ...


Construction

Many parts of a piano are made of materials selected for extreme sturdiness. In quality pianos, the outer rim of the piano is made of a hardwood, normally maple or beech. According to Harold A. Conklin, the purpose of a sturdy rim is so that "the vibrational energy will stay as much as possible in the soundboard instead of dissipating uselessly in the case parts, which are inefficient radiators of sound."

View from below of a 182-cm grand piano. In order of distance from viewer: softwood braces, tapered soundboard ribs, soundboard. The metal rod at lower right is a humidity control device.
View from below of a 182-cm grand piano. In order of distance from viewer: softwood braces, tapered soundboard ribs, soundboard. The metal rod at lower right is a humidity control device.

The rim is normally made by laminating flexible strips of hardwood to the desired shape, a system that was developed by Theodore Steinway in 1880. The thick wooden braces at the bottom (grands) or back (uprights) of the piano are not as acoustically important as the rim, and are often made of a softwood, even in top-quality pianos, in order to save weight. The requirement of structural strength, fulfilled with stout hardwood and thick metal, makes a piano heavy; even a small upright can weigh 136 kg (300 lb), and the Steinway concert grand (Model D) weighs 480 kg (990 lb). The largest piano built, the Fazioli F308, weighs 691 kg (1520 lb). Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 336 KB)View of soundboard, braces, and ribs of a grand piano. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 336 KB)View of soundboard, braces, and ribs of a grand piano. ... The Fazioli logo Fazioli is a piano manufacturing company based in Sacile, Italy. ...


The pinblock, which holds the tuning pins in place, is another area of the piano where toughness is important. It is made of hardwood, (often maple) and generally is laminated (built of multiple layers) for additional strength and gripping power. Piano strings (also called piano wire), which must endure years of extreme tension and hard blows, are made of high quality steel. They are manufactured to vary as little as possible in diameter, since all deviations from uniformity introduce tonal distortion. The bass strings of a piano are made of a steel core wrapped with copper wire, to increase their flexibility. For the acoustic reasons behind this, see Piano acoustics. For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... Piano wire is a specialized type of wire made for use in piano and other musical instrument strings, as well as many other purposes. ... Piano acoustics are those physical properties of the piano which affect its acoustics. ...


The plate, or metal frame, of a piano is usually made of cast iron. It is advantageous for the plate to be quite massive. Since the strings are attached to the plate at one end, any vibrations transmitted to the plate will result in loss of energy to the desired (efficient) channel of sound transmission, namely the bridge and the soundboard. Some manufacturers now use cast steel in their plates, for greater strength. The casting of the plate is a delicate art, since the dimensions are crucial and the iron shrinks by about one percent during cooling. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ...


The inclusion in a piano of an extremely large piece of metal is potentially an aesthetic handicap, which piano makers overcome by polishing, painting and decorating the plate. Plates often include the manufacturer's ornamental medallion and can be strikingly attractive. In an effort to make pianos lighter, Alcoa worked with Winter and Company piano manufacturers to make pianos using an aluminum plate during the 1940s. The use of aluminum for piano plates, however, did not become widely accepted and was discontinued. This article is about the company. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The numerous grand parts and upright parts of a piano action are generally hardwood (e.g. maple, beech. hornbeam). However, since World War II, plastics have become available. Early plastics were incorporated into some pianos in the late 1940s and 1950s, but proved disastrous because they crystallized and lost their strength after only a few decades of use. The Steinway firm once incorporated Teflon, a synthetic material developed by DuPont, for some grand action parts in place of cloth, but ultimately abandoned the experiment due to an inherent "clicking" which invariably developed over time. (Also Teflon is "humidity stable" whereas the wood adjacent to the Teflon will swell and shrink with humidity changes, causing problems.) More recently, the Kawai firm has built pianos with action parts made of more modern and effective plastics such as carbon fiber; these parts have held up better and have generally received the respect of piano technicians[citation needed]. Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Steinway & Sons is a piano manufacturing firm, currently based in New York and Hamburg, Germany. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... This article is about E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ... The Kawai Musical Instruments Mfg. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ...

Ivorite and ebony keys on a modern Steinway & Sons concert grand piano.
Ivorite and ebony keys on a modern Steinway & Sons concert grand piano.

The part of the piano where materials probably matter more than anywhere else is the soundboard. In quality pianos, this is made of solid spruce (that is, spruce boards glued together at their edges). Spruce is chosen for its high ratio of strength to weight. The best piano makers use close-grained, quarter-sawn, defect-free spruce, and make sure that it has been carefully dried over a long period of time before making it into soundboards. In cheap pianos, the soundboard is often made of plywood. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The sounding board is the largest part of a string musical instruments body. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ...


Piano keys are generally made of spruce or basswood, for lightness. Spruce is normally used in high-quality pianos. Traditionally, the black keys were made from ebony and the white keys were covered with strips of ivory, but since ivory-yielding species are now endangered and protected by treaty, plastics are now almost exclusively used. Also, ivory tends to chip more easily than plastic. Legal ivory can still be obtained in limited quantities. At one time, the Yamaha firm innovated a plastic called "Ivorine" or "Ivorite", since imitated by other makers, that mimics the look and feel of ivory. Basswood is the common name of timbers of Tilia species. ... For other uses, see Ebony (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The headquarters of Yamaha Corporation Yamaha redirects here. ...


Note by Note: The Making of Steinway L1037, a documentary from Steinway and Sons, describes the entire process of making one of their pianos. Steinway & Sons is a piano manufacturing firm, currently based in New York and Hamburg, Germany. ...


Care and maintenance

A piano tuner
A piano tuner

Pianos need regular tuning to keep them up to pitch, which is usually the internationally recognized standard concert pitch of A4 = 440 Hz. The hammers of pianos are voiced to compensate for gradual hardening, and other parts also need periodic regulation. Aged and worn pianos can be rebuilt or reconditioned. Often, by replacing a great number of their parts, they can be made to perform as well as new pianos. It is often felt, however, that older pianos are more settled and produce a warmer tone. The piano requires various forms of maintenance to produce its best sound. ... Piano tuner “Piano tuner” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1428x952, 962 KB) Description: Piano tuner Source: photo taken by Barbara Mürdter Date: March 10, 2006 Author: Barbara Mürdter Permission: Barbara Mürdter put it under the CC-BY-SA File links The following pages link to this file... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1428x952, 962 KB) Description: Piano tuner Source: photo taken by Barbara Mürdter Date: March 10, 2006 Author: Barbara Mürdter Permission: Barbara Mürdter put it under the CC-BY-SA File links The following pages link to this file... A440 is the 440 Hz tone that serves as the standard for musical pitch. ...


Piano moving should be done by trained piano movers using adequate manpower and the correct equipment for any particular piano's size and weight. Pianos are heavy yet delicate instruments. Over the years, professional piano movers have developed special techniques for transporting both grands and uprights which prevent damages to the case and to the piano's mechanics. The wikibook on packing and moving household goods mentioned here has a section devoted to piano moving with a section regarding the risks and dangers of DIY piano moving. See also: DIY Network, a cable TV network. ...


Role of the piano

See also: Social history of the piano
The piano at the social center in the 19th century (Moritz von Schwind, 1868)
The piano at the social center in the 19th century (Moritz von Schwind, 1868)

The piano is a crucial instrument in Western classical music, jazz, film, television, and most other complex western musical genres. Since a large number of composers are proficient pianists – and because the piano keyboard offers an easy means of complex melodic and harmonic interplay – the piano is often used as a tool for composition. This social history article treats the role of the piano in the home, from its invention in the early 18th century to the present day. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Moritz von Schwind (1804-1871), Austrian painter, was born in Vienna. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... A film score is the background music in a film, generally specially written for the film and often used to heighten emotions provoked by the imagery on the screen or by the dialogue. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ...


Pianos were, and still are, popular instruments for private household ownership, especially among the middle and upper classes. Hence, pianos have gained a place in the popular consciousness, and are sometimes referred to by nicknames including: "the ivories", "the joanna", "the eighty-eight", and "the black(s) and white(s)", "the little joe(s)". Playing the piano is sometimes referred to as "tickling the ivories".

See also

Related lists

Related instruments

A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Piano acoustics are those physical properties of the piano which affect its acoustics. ... This is a virtual piano with 88 keys tuned to A440, showing the frequencies, in cycles per second (Hz), of each note (i. ... An equal temperament is a musical temperament — that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation — in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... A piano trio is a group of piano and two other instruments, almost always a violin and a cello, or a piece of music written for such a group. ... String piano is a term coined by American composer-theorist Henry Cowell to collectively describe those pianistic techniques in which sound is produced by direct manipulation of the strings, rather than by striking of the pianos keys. ... String resonance occurs on string instruments. ... The following is a list of films about pianists or in which pianists play a significant role. ... The following are lists of solo piano pieces, where solo pieces here are defined as those either intentionally composed for solo piano, or where the piano is the major instrument of music. ... Aeolian (1868) Albrecht, Charles [1779] American Piano Company (1908) Astin Weight (1959) Babcock (Boston, 1810) Baldwin (1890) Bechstein (1853) Blüthner (1853) Bösendorfer (1828) Boston (1991) Brinsmead (London, 1835) Broadwood and Sons (London, 1783) Challen (1804) Chappell Pianos (London, 1811) Chickering and Sons (Boston, 1823) Clementi Decker Brothers (New... This article is a list of piano brand names from all over the world. ... This is a list of pianists of whom recordings survive who play or played classical music. ... A diatonic hammered dulcimer made by Masterworks The hammered dulcimer is a stringed musical instrument with the strings stretched over a trapezoidal sounding board. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... Large five-octave unfretted clavichord by Paul Maurici, after J.A. Haas The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ...

References

  1. ^ "Hammer Time" by John Kiehl, The Wolfram Demonstrations Project.
  2. ^ Pollens, 1995. chp. 1
  3. ^ David R. Peterson (1994), "Acoustics of the hammered dulcimer, its history, and recent developments", The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 95 (5), p. 3002.
  4. ^ The Viennese Piano. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  5. ^ Fourth pedal. Fazioli. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
  • The authoritative New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (available online by subscription), contains a wealth of information. Main article: "Pianoforte".
  • The Encyclopædia Britannica (available online by subscription) also includes much information on the piano. In the 1988 edition, the primary article can be found in "Musical Instruments".
  • The Piano Book by Larry Fine (4th ed. Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts: Brookside Press, 2001; ISBN 1-929145-01-2) gives the basics of how pianos work, and a thorough evaluative survey of current pianos and their manufacturers. It also includes advice on buying and owning pianos.
  • Giraffes, black dragons, and other pianos: a technological history from Cristofori to the modern concert grand by Edwin M. Good (1982, second ed., 2001, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press) is a standard reference on the history of the piano.
  • The Early Pianoforte by Stewart Pollens (1995, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) is an authoritative work covering the ancestry of the piano, its invention by Cristofori, and the early stages of its subsequent evolution.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fazioli logo Fazioli is a piano manufacturing company based in Sacile, Italy. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is a dictionary of music and musicians, generally considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

Further reading

  • Banowetz, Joseph; Elder, Dean (1985). The pianist's guide to pedaling. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34494-8. 
  • Parakilas, James (1999). Piano roles : three hundred years of life with the piano. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08055-7. 
  • Reblitz, Arthur A. (1993). Piano Servicing, Tuning and Rebuilding: For the Professional, the Student, and the Hobbyist. Vestal, NY: Vestal Press. ISBN 1-879511-03-7. 
  • Carhart, Thad [2001] (2002). The Piano Shop on the Left Bank. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-75862-3. 
  • Loesser, Arthur [1954] (1991). Men, Women, and Pianos: A Social History. New York: Dover Publications. 
  • (Dutch) Lelie, Christo (1995). Van Piano tot Forte (The History of the Early Piano). Kampen: Kok-Lyra. 
  • Fine, Larry; Gilbert, Douglas R (2001). The Piano Book: Buying and Owning a New or Used Piano (4th edition). Jamaica Plain, MA: Brookside Press. ISBN 1-929145-01-2. 

External links

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PIANO PAGE - Piano Technicians Guild - Everything about Pianos, Tuner, Technicians, Service, Repair, History, Find a ... (299 words)
It provides information and illustrations on piano care and maintenance as well as piano competitions around the world.
The most important thing we do is to qualify technicians as Registered Piano Technicians to assure quality piano service by requiring that a technician pass a rigorous set of examinations.
The Piano Technicians Guild has put a lot of time and effort into its examinations to establish a good set of standardized tests which will help insure quality piano service.
Welmar Piano Factory Tour (0 words)
For added strength the structure is made from laminated wood where the laminations are glued together round the clock' in 16 or 18 layers, which will later serve to hold the pins that secure the strings.
The action and hammers are individually fitted to each piano and undergo over 1,000 adjustments every one of the 88 notes has 12 points that need regulating.
Finally the voice of the piano is determined in the toning department where the top layer is removed from each hammer which is then manipulated with pins to soften the felt.
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