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Encyclopedia > Phytochemical

Phytochemicals are plant or fruit derived chemical compounds. "Phytonutrients" refer to phytochemicals or compounds that come from edible plants. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

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Phytochemicals as therapeutics

There is abundant evidence from epidemiological studies that the phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables can significantly reduce the risk of cancer, probably due to polyphenol antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Molecular structure of flavone, a common Polyphenol antioxidant Polyphenol antioxidant is a class of multi-phenolic compounds known for their role of down-regulating free radical formation in mammals . ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ...


Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. For example, Hippocrates in 400 BC used to prescribe willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, with potent anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the White Willow Tree and later synthetically produced to become the staple over the counter drug called Aspirin.


The number one drug for cancer worldwide Taxol (paclitaxel), is a phytochemical initially extracted and purified from the Pacific Yew Tree.


Among edible plants with health promoting phytochemicals, Diindolylmethane, from Brassica vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts) is currently used as a treatment for Recurring Respiratory Papillomatosis tumors (caused by the Human Papilloma Virus), it is in Phase III clinical trials for Cervical Dysplasia (a precancerous condition caused by the Human Papilloma Virus) and is in clinical trials sponsored by the National Cancer Institute of the United States for a variety of cancers (breast, prostate, lung, colon, and cervical). The compound has potent anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer properties through a variety of pathways and it has also been shown to synergize with Taxol in its anti-cancer properties, making it potentially a very important anti-cancer phytonutrient as taxol resistance is a major problem for cancer patients worldwide.


Sometimes some of the compounds in plants with potent medicinal properties may not necessarily be chemicals, but may be elements, such as selenium found abundantly in Brassica vegetables with potent anti-viral and anti-cancer properties. In a human clinical trials, selenium supplementation has been shown to reduce the HIV viral load and is currently being recommended worldwide by physicians as an adjuvant nutritional supplement to AIDS treatments. It has also been shown to reduce mortality among prostate cancer patients.


There are currently many other phytochemicals with potent medicinal properties that are in clinical trials for a variety of diseases. Lycopene, for example, from tomatoes is in clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases and prostate cancer. Human clinical trials have demonstrated that lycopene helps to improve blood flow through the heart and clinical studies suggest anti-cancer activity against prostate cancer. Lutein and zeaxanthin from spinach have been shown through clinical trials to directly improve human visual performance and help prevent the onset of macular degeneration and cataracts.


In a landmark nutritional sciences study, scientists demonstrated that a diet rich in tomotoes and broccoli was more effective in inhibiting prostate cancer growth than a leading drug for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, following extensive evaluation of scientific and clinical evidence, the United States Food and Drug Administration has denied applications for health claims about the benefits of tomato consumption against prostate cancer, allowing only a limited statement on food product labels[1]. It reads: “FDA” redirects here. ...


"Very limited and preliminary scientific research suggests that eating one-half to one cup of tomatoes and/or tomato sauce a week may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. FDA concludes that there is little scientific evidence supporting this claim."


Clinical investigations are ongoing worldwide on thousands of phytochemicals with medicinal properties.


Food processing and phytochemicals

Phytochemicals in freshly harvested plant foods may be destroyed or removed by modern processing techniques, possibly including cooking[2][3]. For this reason, industrially processed foods likely contain fewer phytochemicals and may thus be less beneficial than unprocessed foods. Absence or deficiency of phytochemicals in processed foods is believed to have contributed to the increased prevalence of the above-cited preventable or treatable causes of death in contemporary society[citation needed]. Interestingly though, lycopene, a phytochemical present in tomatoes, is concentrated in processed foods such as spaghetti sauce and ketchup, making those foods better sources of lycopene than fresh tomatoes[citation needed]. Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spaghetti (disambiguation). ... This article is about the condiment. ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ...


List of foods high in phytonutrients

Foods high in phytonutrients, or superfoods[4], are: A superfood is a type of food that is believed to have more significant health benefits than any other type of food due to their specific phytonutrient content. ...


The top 10 phytonutrient rich foods

Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Protease inhibitors are a class of medication used to treat or prevent viral infections. ... β-sitosterol Phytosterols (also called plant sterols) are a group of steroid alcohol, phytochemicals naturally occurring in plants. ... Saponins are the glycosides of 27 carbon atom steroids, or 30 carbon atom triterpenes. ... Phytic acid (known as phytate when its salt form) is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially seeds. ... The chemical structure of the isoflavone backbone (3-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyr-4-one) Isoflavones are a class of organic compounds and biomolecules related to the flavonoids [1]. They act as phytoestrogens in mammals. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... This article is about the nutrient. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Sulforaphane is an anticancer compound found in broccoli. ... Not to be confused with Lignin. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Limonene is a hydrocarbon, classed as a terpene. ... Molecular structure of flavone Flavonoids are a large group of low molecular weight polyphenolic phytochemicals found in all vascular plants. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Lignin. ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... Coumarin is a chemical compound; a toxin found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. ... Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Furelic acid protects our cells form ultraviolet rays. ... Oxalic acid (IUPAC name: ethanedioic acid, formula C2H2O4) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure (HOOC)-(COOH). ... For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation). ... This is a bottle of tannic acid. ... A lignan is a chemical compound found in plants. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Binomial name (L.) Lam. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... The chile pepper (also chili or chilli; from Spanish chile) is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family (Solanaceae). ... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Lens culinaris. ... Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Saponins are the glycosides of 27 carbon atom steroids, or 30 carbon atom triterpenes. ... Epicatechin (EC) Epigallocatechin (EGC) Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites, specifically flavonoids called flavan-3-ols. ... Molecular structure of flavone Flavonoids are a large group of low molecular weight polyphenolic phytochemicals found in all vascular plants. ... Lutein (LOO-teen) (from Latin lutea meaning yellow) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... A lignan is a chemical compound found in plants. ...

Other foods rich in phytonutrients or superfoods

Some animal derived foods are also considered superfoods. Beginning in 2005, there has been a rapidly growing recognition of several common and exotic fruits recognized for their nutrient richness and antioxidant qualities, with over 900 new product introductions worldwide[5]. More than a dozen industry publications on functional foods and beverages have referred to various exotic or antioxidant species as superfruits (see References[5]), some of which are shown in the list below. Look up rich in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Functional food or medicinal food is any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing property beyond the basic nutritional function of supplying nutrients, although there is no consensus on an exact definition of the term. ...

This article is about the fruit. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ... Epicatechin (EC) Epigallocatechin (EGC) Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites, specifically flavonoids called flavan-3-ols. ... Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... Omega-6 fatty acids are fatty acids where the term omega-6 signifies that the first double bond in the carbon backbone of the fatty acid, counting from the end opposite the acid group, occurs in the sixth carbon-carbon bond. ... β-sitosterol is one of several phytosterols with chemical structures similar to that of cholesterol. ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... Artichoke may refer to any of three types of vegetables. ... Silibinin (INN) (silybin, Legalon®) is the major active constituent of silymarin, the mixture of flavonolignans extracted from plant Milk thistle (Silybum marianum). ... Caffeic acid, C9H8O4 is a naturally occurring phenolic compound, (formerly called a carbolic acid), which is found in many fruits, vegetables, and herbs, including coffee, although varying in amounts depending on the plant. ... Furelic acid protects our cells form ultraviolet rays. ... Species See text. ... Kale or Borecole is a form of cabbage (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group), green in color, in which the central leaves do not form a head. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Cultivar Group Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group The Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group) is a cultivar group of cabbage cultivated for its small (typically 2. ... Cauliflower within Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. ... Lutein (LOO-teen) (from Latin lutea meaning yellow) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Binomial name Daucus carota A carrot (Daucus Carota) is a root vegetable, typically orange or white in color with a woody texture. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... Epicatechin Epigallocatechin Catechins are bioflavonoids, polyphenols and powerful anti-oxidants. ... “Cranberries” redirects here. ... Ellagic acid C14 H6 O8 CAS No. ... Anthocyanin is a pigment that reflects the red to blue range of the visible spectrum. ... Aubergine redirects here. ... Binomial name (Lour. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... Species Lycium barbarum L. Lycium chinense Mill. ... Species Lycium barbarum L. Lycium chinense Mill. ... Ellagic acid C14 H6 O8 CAS No. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment. ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. ... Lutein (LOO-teen) (from Latin lutea meaning yellow) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... Binomial name Citrus paradisi Macfad. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Molecular structure of flavone Flavonoids are a large group of low molecular weight polyphenolic phytochemicals found in all vascular plants. ... Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ... Catechin is a bioflavonoid and a powerful anti-oxidant. ... Ellagic acid C14 H6 O8 CAS No. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Molecular structure of flavone Flavonoids are a large group of low molecular weight polyphenolic phytochemicals found in all vascular plants. ... Catechin is a bioflavonoid and a powerful anti-oxidant. ... Oxalic acid (IUPAC name: ethanedioic acid, formula C2H2O4) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure (HOOC)-(COOH). ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment. ... Binomial name L. The mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical evergreen tree, believed to have originated in the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas. ... Xanthone is a natural chemical compound and type of antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. ... Look up nut in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ... Phytic acid (known as phytate when its salt form) is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially seeds. ... β-sitosterol Ergosterol. ... Protease inhibitor can refer to: Protease inhibitor (pharmacology): a class of medication that inhibits viral protease Protease inhibitor (biology): a group of proteins that inhibit proteases. ... Species References ITIS 41455 2002-09-22 Oats are the seeds of any of several cereal grains in the genus Avena. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Binomial name (L.) Moench Okra (American English: , British English ), also known as ladys finger[1], bhindi and gumbo, is a flowering plant valued for its edible green fruits. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Lutein (LOO-teen) (from Latin lutea meaning yellow) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... Molecular structure of flavone Flavonoids are a large group of low molecular weight polyphenolic phytochemicals found in all vascular plants. ... Binomial name L. This article is about the fruit. ... Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment. ... Binomial name Capsicum annuum L. For green peppercorns, see Black pepper. ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For the color, see Pomegranate (color). ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Tannins are astringent, bitter-tasting plant polyphenols that bind and precipitate proteins. ... Punicalagins are tannins, large polyphenol compound which are isomers of 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-4,6-(S,S)-gallagyl-D-glucose, hydrolysable tannins with a molecular weight of 1038. ... For other uses, see Pumpkin (disambiguation). ... A lignan is a chemical compound found in plants. ... Carotene is an orange photosynthetic pigment that is important for photosynthesis. ... Binomial name Willd. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... Not to be confused with Lignin. ... Shiitake mushrooms The shiitake mushroom (Japanese: 椎茸; Chinese: 香菇; pinyin: ) (Lentinus edodes or Lentinula edodes), more rarely called the black forest mushroom, is an edible mushroom typically cultivated on the shii tree (Pasania cuspidata — a relative of the oak). ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Oxalic acid (IUPAC name: ethanedioic acid, formula C2H2O4) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure (HOOC)-(COOH). ... Lutein (LOO-teen) (from Latin lutea meaning yellow) is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... For the political designation, see Eco-socialism. ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. ... Sulforaphane is an anticancer compound found in broccoli. ... R-phrases S-phrases , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Indole-3-carbinol (C9H9NO) is produced by the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucobrassicin which can be found at relatively high levels in cruciferous vegetables. ... Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt (see spelling below), is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Spirulina may refer to: Spirulina (dietary supplement), a popular health-food supplement made from the Arthrospira genus of cyanobacteria. ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ...

See also

Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ... The following is a list of phytochemicals present in commonly consumed foods. ... Secondary metabolites, also known as natural products, are those products (chemical compounds) of metabolism that are not essential for normal growth, development or reproduction of an organism. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Qualified Health Claims: Letter Regarding Tomatoes and Prostate Cancer (Lycopene Heath Claim Coalition) FDA Docket No. 2004Q-0201 November 2005[1]
  2. ^ [2] Cooking and nutrient loss, World's Healthiest Foods
  3. ^ [3] How processing affects berry nutrients, The Berry Doctor's Journal, August 2007
  4. ^ Pratt S, Matthews K. SuperFoods Rx (2004) HarperCollins Books, New York ISBN 0060535679 [4]
  5. ^ Starling, Shane. "Superfruits — superheroes of functionality", Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 2006-04. Retrieved on 2007-07-08. (English) 
  6. ^ Schauss AG, Wu X, Prior RL, Ou B, Huang D, Owens J, Agarwal A, Jensen GS, Hart AN, Shanbrom E. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai). J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Nov 1;54(22):8604-10.Abstract.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Page 213 of, "Nutrition for Life" by Hark & Deen published 2006 by Dorling Kindersley
  • Activation and potentiation of interferon-gamma signaling by 3,3'-diindolylmethane in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Riby JE, Xue L, Chatterji U, Bjeldanes EL, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, 94720-3104, USA. Molecular Pharmacology. 2006 Feb;69(2):430-9.
  • DIM stimulates IFNgamma gene expression in human breast cancer cells via the specific activation of JNK and p38 pathways. Xue L, Firestone GL, Bjeldanes LF. Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, 119 Morgan Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3104, USA. Oncogene. 2005 Mar 31;24(14):2343-53.
  • 3,3′-Diindolylmethane and Paclitaxel Act Synergistically to Promote Apoptosis in HER2/Neu Human Breast Cancer Cells. Journal of Surgical Research, 2006 May 15;132(2):208-13. K. McGuire, N. Ngoubilly, M. Neavyn, S. Lanza-Jacoby Department of Surgery, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107.
  • Pilot study: effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane supplements on urinary hormone metabolites in postmenopausal women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. Journal of Nutrition and Cancer. 2004;50(2):161-7. Dalessandri KM, Firestone GL, Fitch MD, Bradlow HL, Bjeldanes LF Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 94720-3200, USA.
  • Estrogen metabolism and risk of breast cancer: a prospective study of the 2:16alpha-hydroxyestrone ratio in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Epidemiology. 2000 Nov;11(6):635-40. Muti P, Bradlow HL, Micheli A, Krogh V, Freudenheim JL, Schunemann HJ, Stanulla M, Yang J, Sepkovic DW, Trevisan M, Berrino F. Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA, Epidemiology Division of the National Cancer Institute (Istituto Nazionale Tumori), Milan, Italy, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Medical School of Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
  • Lycopene. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 2006;51:99-164. Rao AV, Ray MR, Rao LG, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  • Tomato lycopene and its role in human health and chronic diseases. CMAJ 2000 Sep 19;163(6):739-44 Agarwal S., Rao AV., Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto.
  • Combinations of Tomato and Broccoli Enhance Antitumor Activity in Dunning R3327-H Prostate Adenocarcinomas. Canene-Adams K, Lindshield B, Wang S, Jeffery E, Clinton S, Erdman J., Cancer Res 2007; 67: (2). January 15, 2007
  • Selenium: from cancer prevention to DNA damage. Journal of Toxicology, 2006 October 3;227(1-2):1-14. Letavayova L., Vichova V., Brozmanova J. Laboratory of Molecular Genetic, Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 833 91 Bratislava, Slovak Republic.
  • Low serum selenium and total carotenoids predict mortality among older women living in the community. Journal of Nutrition. 2006 Jan;136(1):172-6. Ray AL, Semba RD, Walston J., Ferrucci L, Cappola AR, Ricks MO, Xue QL, Fried LP. The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.
  • Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2007 Jan 22;167(2):148-54. Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Lllabre MM, Gonzalez A, Lawrence PJ, Maher KJ, Greenson JM, Baum MK, Shor-Posner G, Skyler JS, Schneiderman N.
  • Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Yoshizawa K, Willett WC, Morris SJ, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90(16):1219-1224.
  • Supplementation with the carotenoids lutein or zeaxanthin improves human visual performance. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. Kvansakul J, Rodriguez-Carmona M., Edgar DF, Barker FM, Kapcke W., Schalch W., Barbur JL. Applied Vision Research Centre, Department of Optometry and Visual Science, City University, London, UK.
  • Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. Journal of the American Medical Association.1994 Nov 9;272(18):1413-20. Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, Hiller R, Blair N, Burton TC, Farber MD, Gragoudas ES, Haller J., Miller DT. Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston 02114.

Dorling Kindersley (DK) is an international publishing company specialising in reference books for adults and children. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nutrition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6135 words)
One of the principal classes of phytochemicals are polyphenol antioxidants, chemicals which are known to provide certain health benefits to the cardiovascular system and immune system.
Perhaps the most rigorously tested phytochemical is zeaxanthin, a yellow-pigmented carotenoid present in many yellow and orange fruits and vegetables.
The correlations between the ingestion of some phytochemicals and the prevention of disease are, in some cases, enormous in magnitude.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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