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Encyclopedia > Physiology
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, an important early achievement in the study of physiology.
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, an important early achievement in the study of physiology.

Physiology (Greek: Φυσιολογία; physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (894x1250, 147 KB)Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (894x1250, 147 KB)Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci. ... The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ... The Vitruvian Man is a world renowned drawing with accompanying notes created by Leonardo da Vinci around the year 1492 as recorded in one of his journals. ...


Physiology has traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology but the principles of physiology are universal, no matter what particular organism is being studied. For example, what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells may also apply to human cells. In botany, plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology, of plants. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or formerly cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline that studies cells. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ...


The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human animal species. Plant physiology also borrows techniques from both fields. Its scope of subjects is at least as diverse as the tree of life itself. Due to this diversity of subjects, research in animal physiology tends to concentrate on understanding how physiological traits changed throughout the evolutionary history of animals. Other major branches of scientific study that have grown out of physiology research include biochemistry, biophysics, paleobiology, biomechanics, and pharmacology. Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... The Tree-of-Life is a fictional plant (the ancestor of yams, with similar appearance and taste) in Larry Nivens Known Space universe, for which all Hominids have an in-built genetic craving. ... This timeline of the evolution of life outlines the major events in the development of life on the planet Earth. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physics, to questions of biology. ... Paleobiology (sometimes spelled palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakos (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ...

Contents

History

It was Abu Bakr Al Razi (popularly known as Rhazes) who described certain physiological parameters when he went to establish a hospital at Baghdad in the eighth century AD. Razi was followed by Al Kindi, who wrote a treatise on human physiology. Anatomist William Harvey described blood circulation in the 17th century, providing the beginning of experimental physiology. Herman Boerhaave is sometimes referred to as the father of physiology due to his exemplary teaching in Leiden and textbook 'Institutiones medicae'(1708). Not to be confused with Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. ... Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytonomy). ... William Harvey William Harvey (April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English medical doctor, who is credited with being the first to correctly describe, in exact detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Herman Boerhaave (December 31, 1668 - September 23, 1738) was a Dutch humanist and physician of European fame. ...


Areas of physiology

Human and animal

Main article: Human physiology

Human physiology is the most complex area in physiology. This area has several subdivisions which overlap with each other. Many animals have similar anatomy to humans and so share many of these areas. Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...

A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for thought. ... A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers or axons, which includes the glia that ensheath the axons in myelin. ... Cell physiology is the study of its mechanism and interaction in its environment. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. POOP Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Comparative physiology is a subdiscipline of physiology that studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms. ... Ecophysiology or environmental physiology is a biological discipline which studies the adaptation of organisms physiology to environmental conditions. ... // As the name implies, evolutionary physiology represents the hybridization of two scientific disciplines that had previously witnessed relatively little interchange. ... // In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Renal physiology is the study of the physiology of the kidneys. ... The kidneys filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system. ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ... The reproduction of many organisms follows a cyclical pattern, known as the reproductive cycle, which regulates the conception and birth of offspring. ... Exercise physiology is the identification of physiological mechanisms underlying physical activity, the comprehensive delivery of treatment services concerned with the analysis, improvement, and maintenance of health and fitness, rehabilitation of heart disease and other chronic diseases and/or disabilities, and the professional guidance and counsel of athletes and others interested... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ...

Plant

Plant physiology has differing subdivisions. For example, since plants do not have muscles and nerves, neither myophysiology nor neurophysiology applies. In botany, plant physiology is the study of the function, or physiology, of plants. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ...

Transpiration is the evaporation of water into the atmosphere from the leaves and stems of plants. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is the most important carbohydrate in biology. ...

Microorganisms

In microorganism physiology, some areas of both plant and animal physiology are relvant, in addition to areas of physiology specific to microorganisms, below: A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ...

  • Microbial physiology, a subfield of microbiology, is the study of how microorganisms function
  • Similarly, bacteria physiology, a subfield of bacteriology, is the study of how bacteria function
  • Microbe-host interactions deals with the physiology of microorganisms and higher organisms in intimate contact, sometimes in symbiotic or transient relationships.
  • Likewise, bacteria–host interactions deal with the physiology of bacteria and higher organisms, as in bacteria in the human body[1]
  • Biofilm physiology is the study of how microorganisms function together in a specialized community, or biofilm

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... The human body contains a large number of bacteria, most of them performing tasks that are useful or even essential to human survival. ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ...

See also

// Physiology, the study of how living organisms function, emerged during the early to middle 1800s as an independent, experimentally-based science. ... The physiome of an individuals or species physiological state is the description of its functional behavior. ... The term Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) indicates a shared resource formed by a federation of disparate but integrated computer models of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living human body in both physiological and pathological conditions. ... Claude Bernard Claude Bernard (July 12, 1813 - February 10, 1878) was a French physiologist. ... August Krogh in 1929 stated that For a large number of problems there will be some animal of choice or a few such animals on which it can be most conveniently studied. ...

References

  1. ^ The Influence of Cooperative Bacteria on Animal Host Biology cited on 2007-04-14

External links

Look up physiology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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