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Encyclopedia > Physics
A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect.
A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect.

Physics is the science of matter[1] and its motion,[2][3] as well as space and time[4][5] — the science that deals with concepts such as force, energy, mass, and charge. Physics is an experimental science;[6] it is the general analysis of nature, conducted to understand how the world around us behaves.[7] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,400 × 1,716 pixels, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{Information |Description={{fr|[[Meissner effect|Effet Meissner: lévitation dun aimant au dessus dun supra-conducteur}} Meissner effect: levitation of a... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,400 × 1,716 pixels, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{Information |Description={{fr|[[Meissner effect|Effet Meissner: lévitation dun aimant au dessus dun supra-conducteur}} Meissner effect: levitation of a... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... Unsolved problems in physics: Why do certain materials exhibit superconductivity at temperatures much higher than 50 kelvins? The term high-temperature superconductor was initially employed to designate the new family of cuprate-perovskite ceramic materials discovered by J.G. Bednorz and K.A. Müller in 1986. ... Diagram of the Meissner effect. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the idea of space. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the physical universe. ...


Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, having emerged as a modern science in the 17th century,[8] and through its modern subfield of astronomy, it may be the oldest of all.[9] Those who work professionally in the field are known as physicists. This article is about the period or event in history. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ...


Advances in physics often translate to the technological sector, and sometimes influence the other sciences, as well as mathematics and philosophy. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism have led to the widespread use of electrically driven devices (televisions, computers, home appliances etc.); advances in thermodynamics led to the development of motorized transport; and advances in mechanics led to the development of calculus, quantum chemistry, and the use of instruments such as the electron microscope in microbiology. Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ...


Today, physics is a broad and highly developed subject. Research is often divided into four subfields: condensed matter physics; atomic, molecular, and optical physics; high-energy physics; and astronomy and astrophysics. Most physicists also specialize in either theoretical or experimental research, the former dealing with the development of new theories, and the latter dealing with the experimental testing of theories and the discovery of new phenomena. Despite important discoveries during the last four centuries, there are a number of unsolved problems in physics, and many areas of active research. Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... Experimental physics is the part of physics that deals with experiments and observations pertaining to natural/physical phenomena, as opposed to theoretical physics. ... This is a list of some of the unsolved problems in physics. ...

Contents

Branches of Physics

Domains of physics theories
Domains of physics theories

Although physics encompasses a wide variety of phenomena, the fundamental branches of physics are classical mechanics, electromagnetism (including optics), relativity, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics. Each of these theories has been tested in numerous experiments and proven to be an accurate model of nature within its domain of validity. For example, classical mechanics correctly describes the motion of objects in everyday experience, but it breaks down at the atomic scale, where it is superseded by quantum mechanics, and at speeds approaching the speed of light, where relativistic effects become important. While these theories have long been well-understood, they continue to be areas of active research — for example, a remarkable aspect of classical mechanics known as chaos theory was developed in the 20th century, three centuries after the original formulation of mechanics by Isaac Newton (1642–1727). The basic theories form a foundation for the study and research of more specialized topics. A table of these theories, along with many of the concepts they employ, can be found here. Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... The table below lists the core theories along with many of the concepts they employ. ...

Classical mechanics

Main article: Classical mechanics
A pulley uses the principle of mechanical advantage so that a small force over a large distance can lift a heavy weight over a shorter distance.
A pulley uses the principle of mechanical advantage so that a small force over a large distance can lift a heavy weight over a shorter distance.

Classical mechanics is a model of the physics of forces acting upon bodies. It is often referred to as "Newtonian mechanics" after Isaac Newton and his laws of motion. Mechanics is subdivided into statics, which models objects at rest, kinematics, which models objects in motion, and dynamics, which models objects subjected to forces. The classical mechanics of continuous and deformable objects is continuum mechanics, which can itself be broken down into solid mechanics and fluid mechanics according to the state of matter being studied. The latter, the mechanics of liquids and gases, includes hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, pneumatics, aerodynamics, and other fields. Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the band, see Pulley (band). ... In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force put into it. ... Classical mechanics (commonly confused with Newtonian mechanics, which is a subfield thereof) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... Statics is the branch of physics concerned with physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at rest under the action of external forces of equilibrium. ... Kinematics (Greek κινειν,kinein, to move) is a branch of mechanics which describes the motion of objects without the consideration of the masses or forces that bring about the motion. ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... Continuum mechanics is a branch of physics (specifically mechanics) that deals with continuous matter, including both solids and fluids (i. ... Solid mechanics is the branch of physics and mathematics that concern the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e. ... This box:      Fluid mechanics is the study of how fluids move and the forces on them. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Hydrostatics, also known as fluid statics, is the study of fluids at rest. ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ... Pneumatics is the use of pressurized air to effect mechanical motion. ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ...


Classical mechanics produces accurate results within the domain of everyday experience. It is superseded by relativistic mechanics for systems moving at large velocities near the speed of light, quantum mechanics for systems at small distance scales, and relativistic quantum field theory for systems with both properties. Nevertheless, classical mechanics is still useful, because it is much simpler and easier to apply than these other theories, and it has a very large range of approximate validity. Classical mechanics can be used to describe the motion of human-sized objects (such as tops and baseballs), many astronomical objects (such as planets and galaxies), and certain microscopic objects (such as organic molecules). Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... For other uses, see Top (disambiguation). ... A baseball A baseball, is a ball used primarily in the sport of the same name, baseball. ...


An important concept of mechanics is the identification of conserved energy and momentum, which lead to the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of Newton's laws. Theories such as fluid mechanics and the kinetic theory of gases result from applying classical mechanics to macroscopic systems. A relatively recent result of considerations concerning the dynamics of nonlinear systems is chaos theory, the study of systems in which small changes in a variable may have large effects. Newton's law of universal gravitation, formulated within classical mechanics, explained Kepler's laws of planetary motion and helped make classical mechanics an important element of the Scientific Revolution. This article is about momentum in physics. ... Lagrangian mechanics is a re-formulation of classical mechanics that combines conservation of momentum with conservation of energy. ... Hamiltonian mechanics is a re-formulation of classical mechanics that was invented in 1833 by William Rowan Hamilton. ... This box:      Fluid mechanics is the study of how fluids move and the forces on them. ... Kinetic theory or kinetic theory of gases attempts to explain macroscopic properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, or volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation (part of classical mechanics) states the following: Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line combining the two. ... Illustration of Keplers three laws with two planetary orbits. ... This article is about the period or event in history. ...


Electromagnetism

Main article: Electromagnetism
See also: Optics
Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper
Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper

Electromagnetism describes the interaction of charged particles with electric and magnetic fields. It can be divided into electrostatics, the study of interactions between charges at rest, and electrodynamics, the study of interactions between moving charges and radiation. The classical theory of electromagnetism is based on the Lorentz force law and Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Image File history File links Magnet0873. ... Image File history File links Magnet0873. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... The magnitude of an electric field surrounding two equally charged (repelling) particles. ... Electrostatics (also known as static electricity) is the branch of physics that deals with the phenomena arising from what seem to be stationary electric charges. ... This box:      Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... Lorentz force. ... For thermodynamic relations, see Maxwell relations. ...


Electrostatics is the study of phenomena associated with charged bodies at rest. As described by Coulomb’s law, such bodies exert forces on each other. Their behavior can be analyzed in terms of the concept of an electric field surrounding any charged body, such that another charged body placed within the field is subject to a force proportional to the magnitude of its own charge and the magnitude of the field at its location. Whether the force is attractive or repulsive depends on the polarity of the charge. Electrostatics has many applications, ranging from the analysis of phenomena such as thunderstorms to the study of the behavior of electron tubes. Electrostatics (also known as static electricity) is the branch of physics that deals with the phenomena arising from what seem to be stationary electric charges. ... Coulombs torsion balance Coulombs law, developed in the 1780s by French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb, may be stated as follows: This is analogous to Newtons third law of motion in mechanics. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ...


Electrodynamics is the study of phenomena associated with charged bodies in motion and varying electric and magnetic fields. Since a moving charge produces a magnetic field, electrodynamics is concerned with effects such as magnetism, electromagnetic radiation, and electromagnetic induction, including such practical applications as the electric generator and the electric motor. This area of electrodynamics, known as classical electrodynamics, was first systematically explained by James Clerk Maxwell, and Maxwell’s equations describe the phenomena of this area with great generality. A more recent development is quantum electrodynamics, which incorporates the laws of quantum theory in order to explain the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Dirac, Heisenberg, and Pauli were pioneers in the formulation of quantum electrodynamics. Relativistic electrodynamics accounts for relativistic corrections to the motions of charged particles when their speeds approach the speed of light. It applies to phenomena involved with particle accelerators and electron tubes carrying high voltages and currents. Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... This box:      Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ... Generator redirects here. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is a relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... Dirac is a prototype algorithm for the encoding and decoding (see codec) of raw video and sound. ... Werner Heisenberg Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics. ... This article is about Austrian-Swiss physicist Wolfgang Pauli. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... A particle accelerator uses electric fields to propel charged particles to great energies. ... In the physical sciences, potential difference is the difference in potential between two points in a conservative vector field. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ...


Electromagnetism encompasses various real-world electromagnetic phenomena. For example, light is an oscillating electromagnetic field that is radiated from accelerating charged particles. Aside from gravity, most of the forces in everyday experience are ultimately a result of electromagnetism. A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... The electromagnetic field is a physical field that is produced by electrically charged objects and which affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ...


The principles of electromagnetism find applications in various allied disciplines such as microwaves, antennas, electric machines, satellite communications, bioelectromagnetics, plasmas, nuclear research, fiber optics, electromagnetic interference and compatibility, electromechanical energy conversion, radar meteorology, and remote sensing. Electromagnetic devices include transformers, electric relays, radio/TV, telephones, electric motors, transmission lines, waveguides, optical fibers, and lasers. This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna is a transducer designed to transmit or receive radio waves which are a class of electromagnetic waves. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications using radio at microwave frequencies. ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real... For other uses, see Transformer (disambiguation). ... Automotive style miniature relay A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. ... See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... A transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of energy, such as electromagnetic waves or acoustic waves, as well as electric power transmission. ... Look up waveguide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ...


Relativity

High-precision test of general relativity by the Cassini space probe (artist's impression): radio signals sent between the Earth and the probe (green wave) are delayed by the warpage of space and time (blue lines).
High-precision test of general relativity by the Cassini space probe (artist's impression): radio signals sent between the Earth and the probe (green wave) are delayed by the warpage of space and time (blue lines).

Relativity is a generalization of classical mechanics that describes fast-moving or very massive systems. It includes special and general relativity. For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 924 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artists concept of general relativity experiment. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 924 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artists concept of general relativity experiment. ... Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... In General relativity, the Shapiro effect, or gravitational time delay, is one of the four classic solar system tests of general relativity. ... In special relativity and general relativity, time and three-dimensional space are treated together as a single four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold called spacetime. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ...


The theory of special relativity was proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein in his article "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies". The title of the article refers to the fact that special relativity resolves an inconsistency between Maxwell's equations and classical mechanics. The theory is based on two postulates: (1) that the mathematical forms of the laws of physics are invariant in all inertial systems; and (2) that the speed of light in a vacuum is constant and independent of the source or observer. Reconciling the two postulates requires a unification of space and time into the frame-dependent concept of spacetime. For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin, Annus mirabilis, for extraordinary year) are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik Scientific journal in 1905. ... For thermodynamic relations, see Maxwell relations. ... See also: Special relativity Postulates of special relativity 1. ... For a list of set rules, see Laws of science. ... An inertial frame of reference, or inertial reference frame, is one in which Newtons first and second laws of motion are valid. ... The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness.[1] It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, in a vacuum. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the idea of space. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... For other uses of this term, see Spacetime (disambiguation). ...


Special relativity has a variety of surprising consequences that seem to violate common sense, but all have been experimentally verified. It overthrows Newtonian notions of absolute space and time by stating that distance and time depend on the observer, and that time and space are perceived differently, depending on the observer. The theory leads to the assertion of change in mass, dimension, and time with increased velocity. It also yields the equivalence of matter and energy, as expressed in the mass-energy equivalence formula E = mc2, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum. Special relativity and the Galilean relativity of Newtonian mechanics agree when velocities are small compared to the speed of light. Special relativity does not describe gravitation; however, it can handle accelerated motion in the absence of gravitation.[10] Classical mechanics is a model of the physics of forces acting upon bodies. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... This article is about velocity in physics. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... 15ft sculpture of Einsteins 1905 E = mc² formula at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Germany In physics, mass-energy equivalence is the concept that all mass has an energy equivalence, and all energy has a mass equivalence. ... In general, the principle of relativity is the requirement that the laws of physics be the same for all observers. ...


General relativity is the geometrical theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915/16.[11][12] It unifies special relativity, Newton's law of universal gravitation, and the insight that gravitation can be described by the curvature of space and time. In general relativity, the curvature of space-time is produced by the energy of matter and radiation. General relativity is distinguished from other metric theories of gravitation by its use of the Einstein field equations to relate space-time content and space-time curvature. Local Lorentz Invariance requires that the manifolds described in GR be 4-dimensional and Lorentzian instead of Riemannian. In addition, the principle of general covariance forces that mathematics be expressed using tensor calculus. For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... Gravity redirects here. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation (part of classical mechanics) states the following: Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force pointing along the line combining the two. ... In mathematics, curvature refers to any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry. ... This article is about the idea of space. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... In special relativity and general relativity, time and three-dimensional space are treated together as a single four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold called spacetime. ... In mathematics a metric or distance function is a function which defines a distance between elements of a set. ... The Einstein field equations (EFE) or Einsteins equations are a set of ten equations in Einsteins theory of general relativity in which the fundamental force of gravitation is described as a curved spacetime caused by matter and energy. ... Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (July 18, 1853, Arnhem – February 4, 1928, Haarlem) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and elucidation of the Zeeman effect. ... In Riemannian geometry, a Riemannian manifold is a real differentiable manifold in which each tangent space is equipped with an inner product in a manner which varies smoothly from point to point. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For more technical Wiki articles on tensors, see the section later in this article. ...


The first success of general relativity was in explaining the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury. Then in 1919, Sir Arthur Eddington announced that observations of stars near the eclipsed Sun confirmed general relativity's prediction that massive objects bend light. Since then, many other observations and experiments have confirmed many of the predictions of general relativity, including gravitational time dilation, the gravitational redshift of light, signal delay, and gravitational radiation. In addition, numerous observations are interpreted as confirming one of general relativity's most mysterious and exotic predictions, the existence of black holes. This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... Precession redirects here. ... This article is about the planet. ... One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... This article is about astronomical eclipses. ... Sol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Tests of Einsteins general theory of relativity did not provide an experimental foundation for the theory until well after it was introduced in 1915. ... Gravitational time dilation is a consequence of Albert Einsteins theories of relativity and related theories which causes time to pass at different rates in regions of a different gravitational potential; the higher the local distortion of spacetime due to gravity, the slower time passes. ... Graphic representing the gravitational redshift of a neutron star (not exact) In physics, light or other forms of electromagnetic radiation of a certain wavelength originating from a source placed in a region of stronger gravitational field (and which could be said to have climbed uphill out of a gravity well... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Black hole (disambiguation). ...


Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics

Typical thermodynamic system - heat moves from hot (boiler) to cold (condenser) and work is extracted
Typical thermodynamic system - heat moves from hot (boiler) to cold (condenser) and work is extracted

Thermodynamics studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale, and the transfer of energy as heat.[13][14] Historically, thermodynamics developed out of need to increase the efficiency of early steam engines.[15] Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Image File history File links Triple_expansion_engine_animation. ... Image File history File links Triple_expansion_engine_animation. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... In thermodynamics, work is the quantity of energy transferred from one system to another without an accompanying transfer of entropy. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... Macroscopic is commonly used to describe physical objects that are measurable and observable by the naked eye. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Thermodynamic efficiency (e) is defined as: where W is the absolute value of the work done in one thermodynamic cycle. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ...


The starting point for most thermodynamic considerations are the laws of thermodynamics, which postulate that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as heat or work.[16] They also postulate the existence of a quantity named entropy, which can be defined for any system.[17] In thermodynamics, interactions between large ensembles of objects are studied and categorized. Central to this are the concepts of system and surroundings. A system is composed of particles, whose average motions define its properties, which in turn are related to one another through equations of state. Properties can be combined to express internal energy and thermodynamic potentials, which are useful for determining conditions for equilibrium and spontaneous processes. The laws of thermodynamics, in principle, describe the specifics for the transport of heat and work in thermodynamic processes. ... In physics, mechanical work is the amount of energy transferred by a force. ... For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ... In thermodynamics, a thermodynamic system is defined as that part of the universe that is under consideration. ... In a thermodynamics problem, the surroundings, or environment, are anything not part of the system. ... In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a relation between state variables. ... In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a thermodynamic system, or a body with well-defined boundaries, denoted by U, or sometimes E, is the total of the kinetic energy due to the motion of molecules (translational, rotational, vibrational) and the potential energy associated with the vibrational and electric energy of... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A dynamic equilibrium occurs when two reversible processes occur at the same rate. ... A spontaneous process in chemical reaction terms is one which occurs with the system releasing free energy in some form (often, but not always, heat) and moving to a lower energy, hence more thermodynamically stable, state. ...


Statistical mechanics analyzes macroscopic systems by applying statistical principles to their microscopic constituents. It provides a framework for relating the microscopic properties of individual atoms and molecules to the macroscopic or bulk properties of materials that can be observed in everyday life. Thermodynamics can be explained as a natural result of statistics and mechanics (classical and quantum) at the microscopic level. In this way, the gas laws can be derived, from the assumption that a gas is a collection of individual particles, as hard spheres with mass. Conversely, if the individual particles are also considered to have charge, then the individual accelerations of those particles will cause the emission of light. It was these considerations which caused Max Planck to formulate his law of blackbody radiation,[18] but only with the assumption that the spectrum of radiation emitted from these particles is not continuous in frequency, but rather quantized.[19] Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Macroscopic is commonly used to describe physical objects that are measurable and observable by the naked eye. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... The gas laws are a set of laws that describe the relationship between thermodynamic temperature (T), pressure (P) and volume (V) of gases. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... This box:      Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... “Planck” redirects here. ... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ...


Quantum mechanics

Main article: Quantum mechanics
The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density
The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density

Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics treating atomic and subatomic systems and their interaction with radiation in terms of observable quantities. It is based on the observation that all forms of energy are released in discrete units or bundles called "quanta". Remarkably, quantum theory typically permits only probable or statistical calculation of the observed features of subatomic particles, understood in terms of wavefunctions. The Schrödinger equation plays the role in quantum mechanics that Newton's laws and conservation of energy serve in classical mechanics — i.e., it predicts the future behavior of a dynamic system — and is a wave equation in terms of the wavefunction which predicts analytically and precisely the probability of events or outcomes. For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Image File history File links HAtomOrbitals. ... Image File history File links HAtomOrbitals. ... Depiction of a hydrogen atom showing the diameter as about twice the Bohr model radius. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex-valued function that describes an uncertain or unknown quantity. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Helium atom (schematic) Showing two protons (red), two neutrons (green) and two electrons (yellow). ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... In physics, particularly in quantum physics, a system observable is a property of the system state that can be determined by some sequence of physical operations. ... In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is an indivisible entity of energy. ... Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... This article discusses the concept of a wavefunction as it relates to quantum mechanics. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... This article is about the law of conservation of energy in physics. ... The Lorenz attractor is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. ... The wave equation is an important partial differential equation that describes the propagation of a variety of waves, such as sound waves, light waves and water waves. ...


According to the older theories of classical physics, energy is treated solely as a continuous phenomenon, while matter is assumed to occupy a specific region of space and to move in a continuous manner. According to the quantum theory, energy is held to be emitted and absorbed in tiny, discrete amounts. An individual bundle or packet of energy, called a quantum (pl. quanta), thus behaves in some situations much like particles of matter; particles are found to exhibit certain wavelike properties when in motion and are no longer viewed as localized in a given region but rather as spread out to some degree. For example, the light or other radiation given off or absorbed by an atom has only certain frequencies (or wavelengths), as can be seen from the line spectrum associated with the chemical element represented by that atom. The quantum theory shows that those frequencies correspond to definite energies of the light quanta, or photons, and result from the fact that the electrons of the atom can have only certain allowed energy values, or levels; when an electron changes from one allowed level to another, a quantum of energy is emitted or absorbed whose frequency is directly proportional to the energy difference between the two levels. Classical physics is physics based on principles developed before the rise of quantum theory, usually including the special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. ... Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... Extremely high resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ...


The formalism of quantum mechanics was developed during the 1920s. In 1924, Louis de Broglie proposed that not only do light waves sometimes exhibit particle-like properties, as in the photoelectric effect and atomic spectra, but particles may also exhibit wavelike properties. Two different formulations of quantum mechanics were presented following de Broglie’s suggestion. The wave mechanics of Erwin Schrödinger (1926) involves the use of a mathematical entity, the wave function, which is related to the probability of finding a particle at a given point in space. The matrix mechanics of Werner Heisenberg (1925) makes no mention of wave functions or similar concepts but was shown to be mathematically equivalent to Schrödinger’s theory. A particularly important discovery of the quantum theory is the uncertainty principle, enunciated by Heisenberg in 1927, which places an absolute theoretical limit on the accuracy of certain measurements; as a result, the assumption by earlier scientists that the physical state of a system could be measured exactly and used to predict future states had to be abandoned. Quantum mechanics was combined with the theory of relativity in the formulation of P. A. M. Dirac (1928), which, in addition, predicted the existence of antiparticles. Other developments of the theory include quantum statistics, presented in one form by Einstein and S. N. Bose (the Bose-Einstein statistics) and in another by Dirac and Enrico Fermi (the Fermi-Dirac statistics); quantum electrodynamics, concerned with interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields; its generalization, quantum field theory; and quantum electronics. The discovery of quantum mechanics in the early 20th century revolutionized physics, and quantum mechanics is fundamental to most areas of current research. Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th duc de Broglie, generally known as Louis de Broglie (August 15, 1892–March 19, 1987), was a French physicist and Nobel Prize laureate. ... The wave equation is an important partial differential equation which generally describes all kinds of waves, such as sound waves, light waves and water waves. ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... In quantum physics, the outcome of even an ideal measurement of a system is not deterministic, but instead is characterized by a probability distribution, and the larger the associated standard deviation is, the more uncertain we might say that that characteristic is for the system. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... For each kind of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass but opposite electromagnetic, weak, and strong charges, as well as spin. ... Statistics of interacting identical particles (=when their wave functions overlap). ... Satyendra Nath Bose /sɐθ. ... In statistical mechanics, Bose-Einstein statistics determines the statistical distribution of identical indistinguishable bosons over the energy states in thermal equilibrium. ... Fermi redirects here. ... Fermi-Dirac distribution as a function of ε/μ plotted for 4 different temperatures. ... Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is a relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... Quantum electronics is an area of physics dealing with the effect of quantum mechanics on the behaviour of electrons in solid-state matter. ...


Research

Theory and experiment

The culture of physics research differs from most sciences in the separation of theory and experiment. Since the twentieth century, most individual physicists have specialized in either theoretical physics or experimental physics. The great Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (19011954), who made fundamental contributions to both theory and experimentation in nuclear physics, was a notable exception. In contrast, almost all the successful theorists in biology and chemistry (e.g. American quantum chemist and biochemist Linus Pauling) have also been experimentalists, although this is changing as of late. The word theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... Experimental physics is the part of physics that deals with experiments and observations pertaining to natural/physical phenomena, as opposed to theoretical physics. ... Fermi redirects here. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Quantum chemistry is a branch of theoretical chemistry, which applies quantum mechanics and quantum field theory to address issues and problems in chemistry. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American scientist, peace activist, author and educator of German ancestry. ...


Theorists seek to develop mathematical models that both agree with existing experiments and successfully predict future results, while experimentalists devise and perform experiments to test theoretical predictions and explore new phenomena. Although theory and experiment are developed separately, they are strongly dependent upon each other. Progress in physics frequently comes about when experimentalists make a discovery that existing theories cannot explain, or when new theories generate experimentally testable predictions. Theorists working closely with experimentalists frequently employ phenomenology. A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... The term phenomenology in modern science, especially in physics, is used to describe a body of knowledge which relates several different empirical observations of phenomena to each other, in a way which is consistent with fundamental theory, but is not directly derived from theory. ...


Theoretical physics is closely related to mathematics, which provides the language of physical theories, and large areas of mathematics, such as calculus, have been invented specifically to solve problems in physics. Theorists may also rely on numerical analysis and computer simulations, which play an ever richer role in the formulation of physical models. The fields of mathematical and computational physics are active areas of research. Theoretical physics has historically rested on philosophy and metaphysics; electromagnetism was unified this way.[20] Thus physicists may speculate with multidimensional spaces and parallel universes, and from this, hypothesize theories. Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... Numerical analysis is the study of approximate methods for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). ... This article is about the general term. ... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories. ... Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical algorithms in order to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... The many-worlds interpretation or MWI (also known as relative state formulation, theory of the universal wavefunction, many-universes interpretation, Oxford interpretation or many worlds), is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that claims to resolve all the paradoxes of quantum theory by allowing every possible outcome to every event to...


Experimental physics informs, and is informed by, engineering and technology. Experimental physicists involved in basic research design and perform experiments with equipment such as particle accelerators and lasers, whereas those involved in applied research often work in industry, developing technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transistors. Feynman has noted that experimentalists may seek areas which are not well explored by theorists. In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ...


Research fields

Contemporary research in physics can be broadly divided into condensed matter physics; atomic, molecular, and optical physics; particle physics; and astrophysics. Some physics departments also support research in Physics education. Since the twentieth century, the individual fields of physics have become increasingly specialized, and today most physicists work in a single field for their entire careers. "Universalists" such as Albert Einstein (18791955) and Lev Landau (19081968), who worked in multiple fields of physics, are now very rare.[21] A table of the major fields of physics, along with their subfields and the theories they employ, can be found here. Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ... Atomic, molecular, and optical physics is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions on the scale of single atoms or structures containing a few atoms. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... Physics education refers both to the methods currently used to teach physics and to an area of pedagogical research that seeks to improve those methods. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Specialization, also spelled Specialisation, is an important way to generate propositional knowledge, by applying general knowledge, such as the theory of gravity, to specific instances, such as when I release this apple, it will fall to the floor. Specialization is the opposite of generalization. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Lev Davidovich Landau Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian language: Ле́в Дави́дович Ланда́у) (January 22, 1908 – April 1, 1968) was a prominent Soviet physicist, who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The table below lists many of the fields and subfields of physics along with the theories and concepts they employ. ...


Condensed matter

Velocity-distribution data of a gas of rubidium atoms, confirming the discovery of a new phase of matter, the Bose–Einstein condensate
Velocity-distribution data of a gas of rubidium atoms, confirming the discovery of a new phase of matter, the Bose–Einstein condensate

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. In particular, it is concerned with the "condensed" phases that appear whenever the number of constituents in a system is extremely large and the interactions between the constituents are strong. The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids, which arise from the bonding and electromagnetic force between atoms. More exotic condensed phases include the superfluid and the Bose-Einstein condensate found in certain atomic systems at very low temperature, the superconducting phase exhibited by conduction electrons in certain materials, and the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases of spins on atomic lattices. Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ... Bose-Einstein condensate from http://www. ... Bose-Einstein condensate from http://www. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter formed by a system of bosons confined in an external potential and cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero (0 kelvin or −273. ... Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... In physics, the electromagnetic force is the force that the electromagnetic field exerts on electrically charged particles. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Helium II will creep along surfaces in order to find its own level - after a short while, the levels in the two containers will equalize. ... A Bose–Einstein condensate is a phase of matter formed by bosons cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero (0 kelvins or -273. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... Electrical conduction is the current (movement of charged particles) through a material in response to an electric field. ... A ferromagnet is a piece of ferromagnetic material, in which the microscopic magnetized regions, called domains, have been aligned by an external magnetic field (e. ... In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the spins of magnetic electrons align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins pointing in opposite directions. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ...


Condensed matter physics is by far the largest field of contemporary physics. Much progress has also been made in theoretical condensed matter physics. By one estimate, one third of all American physicists identify themselves as condensed matter physicists. Historically, condensed matter physics grew out of solid-state physics, which is now considered one of its main subfields. The term condensed matter physics was apparently coined by Philip Anderson when he renamed his research group — previously solid-state theory — in 1967. In 1978, the Division of Solid State Physics at the American Physical Society was renamed as the Division of Condensed Matter Physics.[22] Condensed matter physics has a large overlap with chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology and engineering. Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... Philip Warren Anderson (born December 13, 1923) is one of the most influential theoretical physicists of the 20th century. ... The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds second largest organization of physicists. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ...


Atomic, molecular, and optical

A military scientist operates a laser on an optical table.
A military scientist operates a laser on an optical table.

Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions on the scale of single atoms or structures containing a few atoms. The three areas are grouped together because of their interrelationships, the similarity of methods used, and the commonality of the energy scales that are relevant. All three areas include both classical and quantum treatments; they can treat their subject from a microscopic view (in contrast to a macroscopic view). Atomic, molecular, and optical physics is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions on the scale of single atoms or structures containing a few atoms. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 1023 KB) Summary Very likely an argon ion laser. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x1960, 1023 KB) Summary Very likely an argon ion laser. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... An optical table is a piece of equipment for optics experiments and technologies. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... Classical physics is physics based on principles developed before the rise of quantum theory, usually including the special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. ... Fig. ...


Atomic physics studies the electron hull of atoms. Current research focuses on activities in quantum control, cooling and trapping of atoms and ions, low-temperature collision dynamics, the collective behavior of atoms in weakly interacting gases (Bose-Einstein Condensates and dilute Fermi degenerate systems), precision measurements of fundamental constants, and the effects of electron correlation on structure and dynamics. Atomic physics is influenced by the nucleus (see, e.g., hyperfine splitting), but intra-nuclear phenomenon such as fission and fusion are considered part of high energy physics. Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems comprised of electrons and an atomic nucleus. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... In atomic physics, hyperfine structure is a small perturbation in the energy levels (or spectrum) of atoms or molecules due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, arising from the interaction of the nuclear magnetic dipole with the magnetic field of the electron. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them. ...


Molecular physics focuses on multi-atomic structures and their internal and external interactions with matter and light. Optical physics is distinct from optics in that it tends to focus not on the control of classical light fields by macroscopic objects, but on the fundamental properties of optical fields and their interactions with matter in the microscopic realm. Molecular physics is the study of the physical properties of molecules and of the chemical bonds between atoms that bind them into molecules. ... Optical physics is subfield of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... The optical field is a term used in physics and vector calculus to designate the electric field shown as E in the electromagnetic wave equation which can be derived from Maxwells Equations. ...


High energy/particle physics

Main article: Particle physics
A simulated event in the CMS detector of the Large Hadron Collider, featuring the appearance of the Higgs boson.
A simulated event in the CMS detector of the Large Hadron Collider, featuring the appearance of the Higgs boson.

Particle physics is the study of the elementary constituents of matter and energy, and the interactions between them. It may also be called "high energy physics", because many elementary particles do not occur naturally, but are created only during high energy collisions of other particles, as can be detected in particle accelerators. Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... , The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and Hadron collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other uses, see Collision (disambiguation). ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ...


Currently, elementary particles are classified using what is called "The Standard Model." The Standard Model defines the strong, weak, and electromagnetic fundamental forces, by describing the particles, called gauge bosons, that these forces use to interact with matter. The types of gauge bosons are gluons, W- and W+ and Z bosons, and the photon. The model also contains 24 fundamental particles (12 particle/anti-particle pairs), which are the constituents of matter. The Standard Model also predicts a particle known as the Higgs boson, the existence of which has not yet been verified. The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ... Gauge bosons are bosonic particles which act as carriers of the fundamental forces of Nature. ... In particle physics, gluons are subatomic particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... In physics, the W and Z bosons are the elementary particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle is a particle of which other, larger particles are composed. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... The Higgs boson, also known as the God particle, is a hypothetical massive scalar elementary particle predicted to exist by the Standard Model of particle physics. ... In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. ...


Astrophysics

Main articles: Astrophysics and Physical cosmology
The deepest visible-light image of the universe, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field
The deepest visible-light image of the universe, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

Astrophysics and astronomy are the application of the theories and methods of physics to the study of stellar structure, stellar evolution, the origin of the solar system, and related problems of cosmology. Because astrophysics is a broad subject, astrophysicists typically apply many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... This article is about the physics subject. ... Download high resolution version (900x900, 105 KB)Description: Galaxies, galaxies everywhere - as far as NASAs Hubble Space Telescope can see. ... Download high resolution version (900x900, 105 KB)Description: Galaxies, galaxies everywhere - as far as NASAs Hubble Space Telescope can see. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This high-resolution image of the HUDF includes galaxies of various ages, sizes, shapes, and colors. ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... The simplest commonly used model of stellar structure is the spherically symmetric quasi-static model, which assumes that a star is very close to an equilibrium state, and that it is spherically symmetric. ... Projected timeline of the Suns life In astronomy, stellar evolution is the process by which a star undergoes a sequence of radical changes during its lifetime. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... This article is about the physics subject. ...


Astrophysics developed from the ancient science of astronomy. Astronomers of early civilizations performed methodical observations of the night sky, and astronomical artifacts have been found from much earlier periods. After centuries of developments by Babylonian and Greek astronomers, western astronomy lay dormant for fourteen centuries until Nicolaus Copernicus modified the Ptolemaic system by placing the sun at the center of the universe. Tycho Brahe's detailed observations led to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, and Galileo's telescope helped the discipline develop into a modern science. Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation provided a physical, dynamic basis for Kepler's laws. By the early 19th cent., the science of celestial mechanics had reached a highly developed state at the hands of Leonhard Euler, J. L. Lagrange, P. S. Laplace, and others. Powerful new mathematical techniques allowed solution of most of the remaining problems in classical gravitational theory as applied to the solar system. At the end of the 19th century, the discovery of spectral lines in sunlight proved that the chemical elements found in the Sun were also found on Earth. Interest shifted from determining the positions and distances of stars to studying their physical composition (see stellar structure and stellar evolution). Because the application of physics to astronomy became increasingly important throughout the 20th century, the distinction between astronomy and astrophysics has faded. Copernicus redirects here. ... Mediaeval drawing of the Ptolemaic system. ... This article is about the astronomer. ... Illustration of Keplers three laws with two planetary orbits. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Euler redirects here. ... Joseph-Louis, comte de Lagrange (January 25, 1736 Turin, Kingdom of Sardinia - April 10, 1813 Paris) was an Italian-French mathematician and astronomer who made important contributions to all fields of analysis and number theory and to classical and celestial mechanics as arguably the greatest mathematician of the 18th century. ... Pierre-Simon Laplace Pierre-Simon Laplace (March 23, 1749 – March 5, 1827) was a French mathematician and astronomer, the discoverer of the Laplace transform and Laplaces equation. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... The simplest commonly used model of stellar structure is the spherically symmetric quasi-static model, which assumes that a star is very close to an equilibrium state, and that it is spherically symmetric. ... Projected timeline of the Suns life In astronomy, stellar evolution is the process by which a star undergoes a sequence of radical changes during its lifetime. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ...


The discovery by Karl Jansky in 1931 that radio signals were emitted by celestial bodies initiated the science of radio astronomy. Most recently, the frontiers of astronomy have been expanded by space exploration. Perturbations and interference from the earth’s atmosphere make space-based observations necessary for infrared, ultraviolet, gamma-ray, and X-ray astronomy. The Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, has made possible visual observations of a quality far exceeding those of earthbound instruments; earth-bound observatories using telescopes with adaptive optics will now be able to compensate for the turbulence of Earth's atmosphere. Karl Guthe Jansky (October 22, 1905 – February 14, 1950), was the American physicist and radio engineer who in 1932 discovered that the Milky Way galaxy emanates radio waves; he did not follow up his discovery, but it marked the birth of radio astronomy. ... The Very Large Array, a radio interferometer in New Mexico, USA Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics which deals with objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation. ... UV astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics which deals with objects visible in ultraviolet (UV) radiation. ... Gamma-ray astronomy is the astronomical study of the cosmos with gamma rays. ... ROSAT image of X-ray fluorescence of, and occultation of the X-ray background by, the Moon. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Atmosphere (disambiguation). ...


Physical cosmology is the study of the formation and evolution of the universe on its largest scales. Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity plays a central role in all modern cosmological theories. In the early 20th century, Hubble's discovery that the universe was expanding, as shown by the Hubble diagram, prompted rival explanations known as the steady state universe and the Big Bang. The Big Bang was confirmed by the success of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1964. The Big Bang model rests on two theoretical pillars: Albert Einstein's general relativity and the cosmological principle. Cosmologists have recently established a precise model of the evolution of the universe, which includes cosmic inflation, dark energy and dark matter. This article is about the physics subject. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer. ... Hubbles law is the statement in astronomy that the redshift in light coming from distant galaxies is proportional to their distance. ... HELLO EVERYONE!! Steady state is a more general situation than Dynamic equilibrium. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... In cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (or primordial nucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than H-1, the normal, light hydrogen, during the early phases of the universe, shortly after the Big Bang. ... WMAP image of the CMB anisotropy,Cosmic microwave background radiation(June 2003) The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is a form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the whole of the universe. ... The Cosmological Principle is a principle invoked in cosmology that severely restricts the large variety of possible cosmological theories: On large scales, the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. ... A pie chart indicating the proportional composition of different energy-density components of the universe. ... In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation is the idea that the nascent universe passed through a phase of exponential expansion that was driven by a negative-pressure vacuum energy density. ... In physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. ... For other uses, see Dark matter (disambiguation). ...


Applied physics

Main article: Applied Physics

Applied physics is a general term for physics which is intended for a particular use. Applied is distinguished from pure by a subtle combination of factors such as the motivation and attitude of researchers and the nature of the relationship to the technology or science that may be affected by the work.[23] It usually differs from engineering in that an applied physicist may not be designing something in particular, but rather is using physics or conducting physics research with the aim of developing new technologies or solving a problem. The approach is similar to that of applied mathematics. Applied physicists can also be interested in the use of physics for scientific research. For instance, people working on accelerator physics might seek to build better particle detectors for research in theoretical physics. Cutout of the ITER project Applied physics is physics that is intended for a particular technological or practical use, as for example in engineering, as opposed to basic research. ... Cutout of the ITER project Applied physics is physics that is intended for a particular technological or practical use, as for example in engineering, as opposed to basic research. ... For other uses, see Utility (disambiguation). ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains. ... Accelerator physics deals with the problems of building and operating particle accelerators. ...


Physics is used heavily in engineering. For example, statics, a subfield of mechanics, is used in the building of bridges or other structures, while acoustics is used to design better concert halls. An understanding of physics is important to the design of realistic flight simulators, video game physics engines, and movies. Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Statics is the branch of physics concerned with physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at rest under the action of external forces of equilibrium. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... Acoustics is the branch of physics concerned with the study of sound (mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... For flight simulator software from Microsoft, see Microsoft Flight Simulator. ... A physics engine is a computer program that simulates Newtonian physics models, using variables such as mass, velocity, friction and wind resistance. ...


Physics Education

Main article: Physics education

Physics education refers both to the methods currently used to teach physics, and to an area of pedagogical research that seeks to improve those methods. Historically, physics has been taught at the high school and university level primarily by the lecture method, together with laboratory exercises aimed at verifying concepts taught in the lectures. Physics education refers both to the methods currently used to teach physics and to an area of pedagogical research that seeks to improve those methods. ... Physics education refers both to the methods currently used to teach physics and to an area of pedagogical research that seeks to improve those methods. ...


References

  1. ^ R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, M. Sands (1963), The Feynman Lectures on Physics, ISBN 0-201-02116-1 Hard-cover. p.1-1 Feynman begins with the atomic hypothesis, as his most compact statement of all scientific knowledge: "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations ..., what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is ... that all things are made up of atoms -- little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another. ..." vol. I p. I-2
  2. ^ James Clerk Maxwell (1876), Matter and Motion. Notes and appendices by Joseph Larmor. "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events". p.1
  3. ^ "Give me matter and motion, and I will construct the universe." --Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
  4. ^ Inquiring Minds
  5. ^ E.F. Taylor, J.A. Wheeler (2000), Exploring Black Holes: Introduction to General Relativity, ISBN 0-201-38423-X Hard-cover. Back cover: "Spacetime tells matter how to move; mass tells spacetime how to curve."
  6. ^ H.D. Young & R.A. Freedman, University Physics with Modern Physics: 11th Edition: International Edition (2004), Addison Wesley. Chapter 1, section 1.1, page 2 has this to say: "Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns and principles that relate these phenomena. These patterns are called physical theories or, when they are well established and of broad use, physical laws or principles."
  7. ^ Steve Holzner, Physics for Dummies (2006), Wiley. Chapter 1, page 7 says: "Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." See Amazon Online Reader: Physics For Dummies (For Dummies(Math & Science)), last viewed 24 Nov 2006.
  8. ^ Francis Bacon (1620), Novum Organum was critical in the development of scientific method.
  9. ^ Evidence exists that the earliest civilizations dating back to beyond 3000BC, such as the Sumerians, Ancient Egyptians, and the Indus Valley Civilization, all had a predictive knowledge and a basic understanding of the motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars.
  10. ^ Taylor, Edwin F. & Wheeler, John Archibald (1966), Spacetime Physics, San Francisco: W.H. Freeman and Company, ISBN 0-7167-0336-X See, for example, The Relativistic Rocket, Problem #58, page 141, and its worked answer.
  11. ^ Einstein, Albert (November 25, 1915). "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation". Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin: 844-847. Retrieved on 2006-09-12. 
  12. ^ Einstein, Albert (1916). "The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity" (PDF). Annalen der Physik. Retrieved on 2006-09-03. 
  13. ^ Perrot, Pierre (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-856552-6. 
  14. ^ Clark, John, O.E. (2004). The Essential Dictionary of Science. Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0-7607-4616-8. 
  15. ^ Clausius, Ruldolf (1850). On the Motive Power of Heat, and on the Laws which can be deduced from it for the Theory of Heat. Poggendorff's Annalen der Physick, LXXIX (Dover Reprint). ISBN 0-486-59065-8. 
  16. ^ Van Ness, H.C. (1969). Understanding Thermodynamics. Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 0-486-63277-6. 
  17. ^ Dugdale, J.S. (1998). Entropy and its Physical Meaning. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 0-7484-0569-0. 
  18. ^ Max Planck (1925), A Survey of Physical Theory derives his law of blackbody radiation in the notes on pp. 115-116, ISBN 0-486-67867-9
  19. ^ Feynman Lectures on Physics, vol I p. 41-6, ISBN 0-201-02010-6
  20. ^ See, for example, the influence of Kant and Ritter on Oersted.
  21. ^ Yet, universalism is encouraged in the culture of physics. For example, the World Wide Web, which was innovated at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee, was created in service to the computer infrastructure of CERN, and was/is intended for use by physicists worldwide. The same might be said for arXiv.org
  22. ^ Division of Condensed Matter Physics Governance History. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  23. ^ Stanford Applied Physics Department Description

This article is about the physicist. ... Robert B. Leighton (September 10, 1919–March 9, 1997) was an American physicist who spent his professional career at the California Institute of Technology. ... Cover of the book on quantum mechanics The Feynman Lectures on Physics, by Richard Feynman, Robert Leighton, and Matthew Sands is perhaps Feynmans most accessible technical work, and is considered a classic introduction to modern physics, including lectures on mathematics, electromagnetism, Newtonian physics, quantum physics, and even the relation... This article focuses on the historical models of the atom. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... Sir Joseph Larmor (11 July 1857 – 19 May 1942), an Northern Irish physicist, mathematician and politician, researched electricity, dynamics, and thermodynamics. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... John Archibald Wheeler (born July 9, 1911) is an eminent American theoretical physicist. ... For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... The history of scientific method is indivisible from the history of science itself. ... Sumer (or Å umer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... John Archibald Wheeler (born July 9, 1911) is an eminent American theoretical physicist. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Planck” redirects here. ... The Feynman Lectures on Physics, by Richard Feynman, is perhaps his most accessible technical work for anyone with an interest in physics and today is considered to be the classic introduction to modern physics, including lectures on mathematics, electromagnetism, Newtonian physics, quantum physics, and even the relation of physics to... Kant redirects here. ... Johann Wilhelm Ritter (1776 - 1810) was a German chemist and physicist. ... “Ørsted” redirects here. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Physics Study Guide Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

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Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... This pages lists sources for further reading about Physics. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

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