FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Physician" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Physician
Look up Physician in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Medicine Portal
"The Doctor" by Luke Fildes
"The Doctor" by Luke Fildes

A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor is a person who practices medicine and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease and injury. This is accomplished through a detailed knowledge of anatomy, physiology, diseases and treatment - the science of medicine - and its applied practice - the art or craft of medicine. Look up doctor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links The_Doctor_Luke_Fildes. ... Image File history File links The_Doctor_Luke_Fildes. ... Sir Luke Fildes (1843-1927) was an English painter and illustrator born at Liverpool and trained in the South Kensington and Royal Academy schools. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Therapy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

The word physician comes from an ancient Greek noun φυσις (physis) and its derived adjective physikos, meaning "nature" and "natural". From this, amongst other derivatives came the Vulgar Latin physicus, which meant a doctor of medicine. After the Norman Conquest, the word entered Middle English via Old French fisicien, as early as 1100. Originally, physician meant a practitioner of physic (pronounced with a hard C). This archaic noun had entered Middle English by 1300 (via Old French fisique). Physic meant the art or science of treatment with drugs or medications (as opposed to surgery), and was later used both as a verb and also to describe the medications themselves.[1][2][3] Etymologies redirects here. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


In English, there have been many synonyms for physician, both old and new, with some semantic variation. The noun phrase medical practitioner is perhaps the most widely understood and neutral synonym. Medical practitioner is lengthy but inclusive: it covers both medical specialists and general practitioners (family physician, family practitioner), and historically would include physicians (in the narrow sense), surgeons or apothecaries. In England, apothecaries historically included those who now would be called general practitioners and pharmacists. Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a medical doctor who provides primary care. ... Interior of an apothecarys shop. ... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ...


The term doctor (medical doctor) is older and shorter (see doctor of medicine), but can be confused with holders of other academic doctorates. Doctor (gen.: doctoris) means teacher in Latin and is a contraction of the Greek διδάκτωρ (didaktōr, teacher), from the verb διδάσκειν (didaskein, to teach). In French, médecin (doctor, physician) is a contraction of docteur médecin, a direct equivalent of doctor of medicine. In current French idiom, the term toubib, is now a synonym, derived from Arabic طبيب (tabīb, physician). Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


The Greek word ιατρός (iatros, doctor or healer) is often translated as physician. Ιατρός is not preserved directly in English, but occurs in such formations as psychiatrist (translates from Greek as healer of the soul), podiatrist (foot healer), and iatrogenic disease (a disease caused by medical treatment). In Latin, medicus meant much what physician or doctor does now. Compare these translations of a well-known proverb (the nouns are in vocative case): For other uses, see Psychiatrist (disambiguation). ... Podiatry, more appropriately podiatric medicine is a field of healthcare devoted to the study and treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and the knee, leg and hip (collectively known as the lower extremity). ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ...

Ιατρε, θεράπευσον σεαυτόν (Greek New Testament: Luke, 4:23)
Medice, cura tiepsum (from the Vulgate, early 5th century)
Physician, heal thyself (from the Authorized King James Version, 1611)
This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... King James Version redirects here. ...

The ancient Romans also had the word archiater, for court physician. Archiater derives from the ancient Greek αρχίατρος (from ἄρχω + ίατρος, chief healer). By contraction, this title has given modern German its word for physician: arzt. An archiater was a chief physician of a monarch, who typically retained several. ...


Leech and leechcraft are archaic English words respectively for doctor and medicine.[1] The Old English word for "physician", læċe, which is related to Old High German lāhhi and Old Irish liaig, has survived as the modern English word leech, as these particular creatures were formerly much used by the medical profession. Cognate forms for leech exist in modern Swedish as läkare, and in modern Norwegian as lege; these Scandinavian words still translate as doctor or physician rather than as a blood-sucking parasite. Old English redirects here. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ... For other uses, see Leech (disambiguation). ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Meanings of the word physician

Physician as any medical practitioner

Main article: Medicine

In North America, physician is now widely used in the broad sense, and applies to any legally qualified and licensed practitioner of medicine. In the United States, the term physician is commonly used to describe any medical doctor holding the degrees of Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO), or the holders of equivalent medical degrees from other countries (in the UK and other Commonwealth countries, such degrees are typically MB BS, MB BChir etc). The American Medical Association, established in 1847, uses physician in this broad sense to describe all its members. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... D.O. redirects here. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinæ Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ (abbreviated MB BChir, MB BCh, MB ChB, BM BS, MB BS etc. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ...


Physician as specialist (or subspecialist) in internal medicine

Main article: Internal medicine

Physician is still widely used in an older, narrower sense, especially outside North America. In this usage, a physician is a specialist in internal medicine or one of its many sub-specialties (especially as opposed to a specialist in surgery). This traditional meaning of physician conveys a sense of expertise in treatment by drugs or medications, rather than by the procedures of surgeons.[4] Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ... A medical specialist is someone who specializes in a particular field of medicine. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


This older usage is at least six hundred years old in English; physicians and surgeons were once members of separate professions, and traditionally were rivals. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, third edition, gives a Middle English quotation making this contrast, from as early as 1400: The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, often abbreviated to SOED, is a scaled-down version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ...

O Lord, whi is it so greet difference betwixe a cirugian and a physician.[1]

Henry VIII granted a charter to the London Royal College of Physicians in 1518. It wasn't until 1540 that he granted the Company of Barber/Surgeons (ancestor of the Royal College of Surgeons) its separate charter. In the same year, the English monarch established the Regius Professorship of Physic at the University of Cambridge.[5] Newer universities would probably describe such an academic as a professor of internal medicine. Hence, in the 16th century, physic meant roughly what internal medicine does now. Henry VIII redirects here. ... College building by Denys Lasdun The Royal College of Physicians of London is the oldest medical institution in England was founded in 1518 and is one of the most active of all medical professional organisations. ... The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients. ... The Regius Professorship of Physic is one of the oldest and most prestigious of the professorships at the University of Cambridge, founded by Henry VIII in 1540. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ...


These days, a specialist physician in this older, narrower sense would probably be described in the United States as an internist. The older, narrower usage of physician as an internist is common in Britain, Ireland, Australia, Brazil, New Zealand, Japan, South Africa, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe and Hong Kong. In such places, the terms doctor or medical practitioner are prevalent, to describe any practitioner of medicine (whom an American would likely call a physician, in the newer, broad sense).[6] In Commonwealth countries, specialist pediatricians and geriatricians are also described as specialist physicians who have sub-specialized by age of patient rather than by organ system. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ... This article is about the biological unit. ...


Physician and Surgeon

On both sides of the Atlantic, the combined term "Physician and Surgeon" is a venerable way to describe either a general practitioner, or else any medical practitioner irrespective of specialty.[4][1] This usage still shows the older, narrower meaning of physician and preserves the old difference between a physician, as a practitioner of physic, and a surgeon. The term may be used by state medical boards in the United States of America, and by equivalent bodies in provinces of Canada, to describe any medical practitioner. This article is about the medical specialty. ...


Other designations

Within the United States, the term physician may also describe holders of the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree; the DO, and the MD are the only degrees permitting U.S. medical licensure. Outside the United States, such status for osteopaths is common and osteopaths are recognized as physicians in 48 countries. Osteopathic education includes teaching manipulative medicine. [7] D.O. redirects here. ...

Further information: International variations in the D.O. degree

Within the United States, some practitioners of primary care hold degrees such as Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.), Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine (N.D.), or Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (D.P.M.). Chiropractors, naturopaths and podiatrists maintain a relatively narrow scope of practice compared to medical doctors and osteopaths [ M.D., D.O.], and are rarely referred to as physicians. D.O. redirects here. ... Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... Podiatry, more appropriately podiatric medicine is a field of healthcare devoted to the study and treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and the knee, leg and hip (collectively known as the lower extremity). ...


Nurse practitioners (NPs) are not described as physicians; the American College of Nurse Practitioners do not describe themselves this way. They are classified as "mid-level" healthcare providers. Some nurse practitioners may perform work similar to that of some physicians, especially in primary care, but of a lesser level and scope. A nurse practitioner is a registered nurse who has completed specific advanced nursing education (generally a masters degree) and training in the diagnosis and management of common medical conditions. ... Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ...


Social role of physicians

Physicians are traditionally considered to be members of a learned profession, because of the extensive training requirements, and also because of the occupation's special ethical and legal duties. Physicians are often members, or fellows of professional organisations such as the Royal College of Physicians in the United Kingdom. A profession is an occupation, vocation or career where specialized knowledge of a subject, field, or science is applied. ... College building by Denys Lasdun The Royal College of Physicians of London is the oldest medical institution in England was founded in 1518 and is one of the most active of all medical professional organisations. ...


The practice of medicine has ancient associations with religion and magic; see article on History of medicine. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Physicians commonly enjoy high social status, often combined with expectations of a high and stable income and job security. However, medical practitioners often work long and inflexible hours, with shifts at unsociable times, and may earn less than other professionals whose education is of comparable length. Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ... Job security has different meanings according to the employment laws of each country. ...


Education and training

Main article: Medical education

Medical education and career pathways for doctors vary considerably across the world. Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor or further training thereafter. ... Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor or further training thereafter. ...


All medical practitioners

In all developed countries, entry-level medical education programs are tertiary-level courses, undertaken at a medical school attached to a university. Depending on jurisdiction and university, entry may follow directly from secondary school or require pre-requisite undergraduate education. The former commonly take five or six years to complete. Programs that require previous undergraduate education (typically a three or four year degree, often in Science) are usually four or five years in length. Hence, gaining a basic medical degree may typically take from five to eight years, depending on jurisdiction and university. Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... This article is about the unit of teaching. ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution — or part of such an institution — that teaches medicine. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ...


Following completion of entry-level training, newly graduated medical practitioners are often required to undertake a period of supervised practice before full registration is granted, typically one or two years. This may be referred to as "internship" or "conditional registration". A medical intern, in the context of medical education in the United States, is a historical term for a physician in training who has completed medical school, passed step two of the USMLE or COMLEX-USA, and is undergoing his or her first year of post-graduate training (PGY1). ...


Medical practitioners hold a medical degree specific to the university from which they graduated. This degree qualifies the medical practitioner to become licensed or registered under the laws of that particular country, and sometimes of several countries, subject to requirements for internship or conditional registration. In most countries, only persons licensed by specified government-approved professional associations are allowed to practice medicine. ...


Specialists in internal medicine

After graduation, medical practitioners often undertake further training in a particular field, to become a medical specialist. In North America, this is often referred to as residency training; in Commonwealth countries, such trainees are often called registrars. A medical specialist is someone who specializes in a particular field of medicine. ... Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training in North America and leads to eligibility for board certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


This further training typically takes from three to six years, depending on specialty and jurisdiction. Primary care is increasingly recognized as a specialty, and residency programmes in this field are becoming common. A medical practitioner who completes specialist training in internal medicine (or in one of its sub-specialties) is an internist, or a physician in the older, narrower sense. Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ...


In some jurisdictions, specialty training is begun immediately following completion of entry-level training, or even before. In other jurisdictions, junior medical doctors must undertake generalist (un-streamed) training for one or more years before commencing specialization. Hence, depending on jurisdiction, a specialist physician (internist) often does not achieve recognition as a specialist until twelve or more years after commencing basic medical training — five to eight years at university to obtain a basic medical qualification, and up to another six years to become a specialist.


Regulation

In most jurisdictions, physicians (in either sense of the word) need government permission to practice. Such permission is intended to promote public safety, and often to protect the public purse, as medical care is commonly subsidized by national governments.


All medical practitioners

Among the English-speaking countries, this process is known either as licensure as in the United States, or as registration in the United Kingdom, other Commonwealth countries, and Ireland. Synonyms in use elsewhere include colegiación in Spain, ishi menkyo in Japan, autorisasjon in Norway, Approbation in Germany, and "άδεια εργασίας" in Greece. In France, Italy and Portugal, civilian physicians must be members of the Order of Physicians to practice medicine. Licensure refers to the granting of a license (in the US, whilst, elsewhere the term registration is used), usually to work in a particular profession. ... Licensure refers to the granting of a license (in the US, whilst, elsewhere the term registration is used), usually to work in a particular profession. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...


In some countries, including the United Kingdom and Ireland, the profession largely regulates itself, with the government affirming the regulating body's authority. The best known example of this is probably the General Medical Council of Britain. In all countries, the regulating authorities will revoke permission to practice in cases of malpractice or serious misconduct. The General Medical Council (the GMC) is the regulator of the medical profession in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Malpractice (disambiguation). ...


In the large English-speaking federations (USA, Canada, Australia), the licensing or registration of medical practitioners is done at a state or provincial level. Australian states usually have a "Medical Board," while Canadian provinces usually have a "College of Physicians and Surgeons." All American states have an agency which is usually called the "Medical Board", although there are alternate names such as "Board of Medicine," "Board of Medical Examiners", "Board of Medical Licensure", "Board of Healing Arts" or some other variation.[8] After graduating from medical school, physicians who wish to practice in the USA usually take standardized exams, such as the USMLE for allopathic physicians or COMLEX-USA for osteopathic physicians, which enable them to obtain a certificate to practice from the appropriate state agency. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The United States Medical Licensing Examination is a multi-part professional exam sponsored by the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). ... The term allopathic medicine is used by adherents of alternative medicine to refer to any form of mainstream medicine. ... COMLEX-USA or Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination is a series of three osteopathic medical licensing examinations administered by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME) similar to the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). ...


Specialists in internal medicine

Most countries have some method of officially recognizing specialist qualifications in all branches of medicine, including internal medicine. Sometimes, this aims to promote public safety by restricting the use of hazardous treatments. Other reasons for regulating specialists may include standardization of recognition for hospital employment and restriction on which practitioners are entitled to receive higher insurance payments for specialist services.


See also

International maritime flag "W", meaning that the ship crew requires medical assistance.
International maritime flag "W", meaning that the ship crew requires medical assistance.

Image File history File links ICS_Whiskey. ... Image File history File links ICS_Whiskey. ... A maritime flag is a flag designated for use on boats and other watercraft. ... This is a list of famous physicians in history: °=Physicians famous for their role in advancement of medicine== Subramanyam Naidu Maripuri(Contemporary)-Introduced the techniqueof special radiograhic views in hip fractures* William Osler Abbott (1902-1943) - co-developed the Miller-Abbott tube Thomas Addis (1881–1949) — pioneered urine testing and... An International Medical Graduate or IMG, earlier known as a Foreign Medical Graduate or FMG, is a term used to describe a physician who has graduated from a medical school outside of the country in which he or she intends to practise. ... This article is a list of medical schools by region and country. ... Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training in North America and leads to eligibility for board certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Brown, Lesley (2002). The New shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles. Oxford [Eng.]: Clarendon. ISBN 0198612710. 
  2. ^ Partridge, Eric (1966). Origins: a short etymological dictionary of modern English. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0025948407. 
  3. ^ Steinmetz, Sol; Barnhart, Robert K. (1999). Chambers dictionary of etymology. Edinburgh: Chambers. ISBN 0550142304. 
  4. ^ a b A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (Wordsworth Collection) (Wordsworth Collection). NTC/Contemporary Publishing Company. ISBN 1853263184. 
  5. ^ University of Cambridge: History of the School of Clinical Medicine. University of Cambridge. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  6. ^ The Royal Australasian College of Physicians: What are Physicians?. Royal Australasian College of Physicians. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  7. ^ JAOA Letters. Retrieved on 2008-03-01.
  8. ^ AMA Links to state medical boards. Retrieved on 2008-03-01.

The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Australasian College of Physicians, or RACP, is the organization responsible for training, educating, and representing over 9,000 physicians and paediatricians in Australia and New Zealand. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
WebMD Physician Directory – Find a Doctor in Your Area (347 words)
The WebMD 'Physician Directory' is provided by WebMD for use by the general public as a quick reference of information about physicians.
The Physician Directory is not intended as a tool for verifying the credentials, qualifications, or abilities of any physician contained therein.
The use of WebMD Physician Directory by any entity or individual to verify the credentials of physicians is prohibited.
Physician assistants (1491 words)
Physician assistants (PAs) practice medicine under the supervision of physicians and surgeons.
The duties of physician assistants are determined by the supervising physician and by State law.
Physicians and institutions are expected to employ more PAs to provide primary care and to assist with medical and surgical procedures because PAs are cost-effective and productive members of the health care team.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m