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Encyclopedia > Physical exercise
U.S. Marine emerging from the swim portion of a triathlon.

Physical exercise is manual activity that develops or maintains physical fitness and overall health. It is often practiced to strengthen muscles and the cardiovascular system, and to hone athletic skills. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent diseases of affluence such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity.[1][2] It is also improves mental health and helps prevent depression. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (963x1496, 423 KB) Summary Marine running in water. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (963x1496, 423 KB) Summary Marine running in water. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... The three components of triathlon: Swimming, Cycling, Running A triathlon is an athletic event consisting of swimming, cycling and running over various distances. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Look up exercise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all military forces. ... Sport from childhood. ... Diseases of affluence are those diseases which are thought to be a result of increasing wealth in a society. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ...

Contents

Types of exercise

Exercises are generally grouped into three types depending on the overall effect they have on the human body:

An actively stretching Siberian tiger Cat stretching in utterly relaxed position Stretching, as theorized in literature, is the deliberate act of lengthening of muscles, in order to increase muscle flexibility and/or joint range of motion (Weerapong et al 189-206). ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that is of moderate intensity, undertaken for a long duration. ... Cardio is the medical term used to reference the heart. ... Fox and Haskell formula Anaerobic exercise is typically used by athletes in non-endurance sports to build power and by body builders to build muscle mass. ... This article is about strength training using weight (gravity) to generate resistance to contraction. ... Functional training is any type of exercise that has a direct relationship to the activities you perform in your daily life. ... Sprints are races where the runner tries to go as fast as humanly possible. ...

Exercise benefits

Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight; building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility; promoting physiological well-being; reducing surgical risks; and strengthening the immune system. Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all military forces. ...


Frequent and regular aerobic exercise has been shown to help prevent or treat serious and life-threatening chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, insomnia, and depression. Strength training appears to have continuous energy-burning effects that persist for about 24 hours after the training, though they do not offer the same cardiovascular benefits of aerobic exercises. Exercise can also increase energy and raise one's threshold for pain.[citation needed] Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, endurance and size of skeletal muscles. ... “Hurting” redirects here. ...


There is conflicting evidence as to whether vigorous exercise (more than 70% of VO2 Max) is more or less beneficial than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 Max). Some studies have shown that vigorous exercise executed by healthy individuals can effectively increase opioid peptides (aka endorphins, a naturally occurring opiate that in conjunction with other neurotransmitters is responsible for exercise induced euphoria and has been shown to be addictive), positively influence hormone production (i.e., increase testosterone and growth hormone).[6] benefits that are not as fully realized with moderate exercise. VO2 max is the maximum capacity to transport and utilize oxygen during incremental exercise. ... VO2 max is the maximum capacity to transport and utilize oxygen during incremental exercise. ... Opioid Peptides are short sequences of amino acids which mimick the effect of opiates in the brain. ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ...


Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functioning via improvement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis.[7] In addition, physical activity has been shown to be neuroprotective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases.[8] For instance, it reduces the risk of developing dementia.[9] Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells.[10] For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ...


Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise also work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training, see Organ hypertrophy). Bodybuilder Markus Rühl has marked hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. ...


Not everyone benefits equally from exercise. There is tremendous variation in individual response to training: where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others will never get any benefit at all from the exercise.[11][12] Similarly, only a minority of people will show significant muscle growth after prolonged weight training, while a larger fraction experience improvements in strength.[13] This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population.[14][15] Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that is of moderate intensity, undertaken for a long duration. ...


Common myths

Many myths have arisen surrounding exercise, some of which have a basis in reality, and some which are completely false. Myths include:

  • That excessive exercise can cause immediate death. Death by exercise has some small basis in fact. Water intoxication can result from prolific sweating (producing electrolyte losses) combined with consumption of large amounts of plain water and insufficient replenishment of electrolytes, especially salt and potassium (e.g. when running a marathon). It is also possible to die from a heart attack or similar affliction if overly intense exercise is performed by someone who is not in a reasonable state of fitness for that particular activity. A doctor should always be consulted before any radical changes are made to a person's current exercise regimen. Rhabdomyolysis is also a risk. Other common dangers may occur from extreme overheating or aggravation of a physical defect, such as a thrombosis or aneurysm.
  • That weightlifting makes you short or stops growth. One caveat is that heavy weight training in adolescents can damage the epiphyseal plate of long bones.[16]

Water intoxication (also known as hyperhydration or water poisoning) is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain function that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits, ironically by that which makes up the majority of it - common water. ... For other senses of this word, see Marathon (disambiguation). ... }} Rhabdomyolysis is the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide, and grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis at an epiphysis at one end of the growing bone. ...

Targeted fat reduction

Spot reduction is a myth that exercise and training a particular body part will preferentially shed the fat on that part; for example, that doing sit-ups is the most direct way to reduce subcutaneous belly fat. This is false: one cannot reduce fat from one area of the body to the exclusion of others. Most of the energy derived from fat gets to the muscle through the bloodstream and reduces stored fat in the entire body, from the last place where fat was deposited. Sit-ups may improve the size and shape of abdominal muscles but will not specifically target belly fat for loss. Such exercise might help reduce overall body fat and shrink the size of fat cells. There is a very slight increase in the fat burnt at the area being exercised (e.g Abs) compared with the rest of the body, due to the extra blood flow at this area. Spot reduction is the idea that if you work a specific muscle group you will decrease the amount of fat in that area. ... It has been suggested that Crunch (exercise) be merged into this article or section. ... The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ...


Muscle and fat tissue

Some people incorrectly believe that muscle tissue will turn into fat tissue once a person stops exercising; this is not literally true — fat tissue and muscle tissue are fundamentally different — but the common expression that "muscle will turn to fat" is truthful in the sense that catabolism of muscle fibers for energy can result in excess glucose being stored as fat.[17] Moreover, the composition of a body part can change toward less muscle and more fat, so that a cross-section of the upper-arm for example, will have a greater area corresponding to fat and a smaller area corresponding to muscle. This is not muscle "turning to fat" however, it is simply a combination of muscle atrophy and increased fat storage in different tissues of the same body part. Another element of increased fatty deposits is that of diet, as most trainees will not significantly reduce their diet in order to compensate for the lack of exercise/activity. Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that contributes to growth. ...


Excessive exercise

Exercise is a stressor and the stresses of exercise have a catabolic effect on the body - contractile proteins within muscles are consumed for energy, carbohydrates and fats are similarly consumed and connective tissues are stressed and can form micro-tears. However, given adequate nutrition and sufficient rest to avoid overtraining, the body's reaction to this stimulus is to adapt and replete tissues at a higher level than that existing before exercising. The results are all the training effects of regularly exercise - increased muscular strength, endurance, bone density and connective tissue toughness. In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Anabolism is the aspect of metabolism that contributes to growth. ... Overtraining is a common problem in weight training, but it can also be experienced by runners and other athletes. ...


Too much exercise can be harmful. The body part exercised needs at least a day of rest, which is why some health experts say one should exercise every other day or 3 times a week. Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases,[18] and muscle tissue may develop slowly. For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ...


Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of "inappropriate" varying according to the individual. For many activities, especially running, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules. In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss. Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits.[19] Another danger is overtraining in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between bouts.[20] For other uses, see Running (disambiguation). ... }} Rhabdomyolysis is the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... Overtraining is a common problem in weight training, but it can also be experienced by runners and other athletes. ...


Stopping excessive exercise suddenly can also create a change in mood. Feelings of depression and agitation can occur when withdrawal from the natural endorphins produced by exercise occurs. Exercise should be controlled by each body's inherent limitations. While one set of joints and muscles may have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons, another body may be damaged by 20 minutes of light jogging. This must be determined by each individual. Modern-day marathon runners For other senses of this word, see Marathon (disambiguation). ...


Too much exercise can also cause a female to miss her period, a symptom known as amenorrhea.[21] Amenorrhoea (BE) or amenorrhea (AmE) is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. ...


Nutrition and recovery

Proper nutrition is at least as important to health as exercise. When exercising it becomes even more important to have good diet to ensure the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients whilst providing ample micronutrients, this is to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise.[22] The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... In nutrition, macronutrients are those nutrients that together provide the vast majority of metabolic energy to an organism. ... Micronutrients for plants: There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. ...


Proper rest and recovery are also as important to health as exercise, otherwise the body exists in a permanently injured state and will not improve or adapt adequately to the exercise. Hence, it is important to remember to allow adequate recovery between exercise sessions.


The above two factors can be compromised by psychological compulsions (eating disorders such as exercise bulimia, anorexia, and other bulimias), misinformation, a lack of organization, or a lack of motivation. These all lead to a decreased state of health. Exercise bulimia is a subset of the psychological disorder called bulimia in which a person is compelled to exercise in an effort aimed at burning the calories of food energy and fat reserves to an excessive level that negatively affects their health. ... For other uses, see Anorexia. ... Bulimia nervosa, more commonly known as bulimia, is a psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by intentionally doing one or more of the following in order to compensate for the intake of the food and prevent weight gain: vomiting inappropriate use of laxatives, enemas...


Delayed onset muscle soreness can occur after any kind of exercise, particularly if the body is in an unconditioned state relative to that exercise.[23] Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) is the pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after exercising and subsides generally within 2 to 3 days. ...


Exercise and brain function

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Physical exercise

In the long term, exercise is beneficial to the brain by: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Categories of physical exercise

Sometimes the terms 'dynamic' and 'static' are used. 'Dynamic' exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow. Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly. Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that is of moderate intensity, undertaken for a long duration. ... Fox and Haskell formula Anaerobic exercise is typically used by athletes in non-endurance sports to build power and by body builders to build muscle mass. ... Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, endurance and size of skeletal muscles. ... Agility definitions have traditionally centered around skills that are needed for the body to change direction at speed. ... Diastolic is the adjective form of diastole referring to relaxation of the heart, between muscle contractions. ... Systolic is the adjective form of systole, typically referring to the contraction activity of the heart. ...


Breathing

Active exhalation during physical exercise helps the body to increase its maximum lung capacity, and oxygen uptake. This results in greater cardiac efficiency, since the heart has to do less work to oxygenate the muscles, and there is also increased muscular efficiency through greater blood flow. Consciously breathing deeply during aerobic exercise helps this development of the heart lung efficiency.[25] Exhalation (or expiration) is the movement of air out of the bronchial tubes, through the airways, to the external environment during breathing. ... This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ...


See also

Health Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Soldier conducting the push-ups during an APFT The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is designed to test the muscular strength/endurance and cardiovascular respiratory fitness of soldiers in the US Army. ... Exercise physiology is a term used by the sports industry to describe services involving the combination of exercise and physiology. ... Exercise equipment in a gymnastic-hall Exercise equipment is any object used in exercise. ... Exercise hypertension is an excessive rise in blood pressure during exercise. ... Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a syndrome in which the symptoms of anaphylaxis occur related to exercise. ... Kinesiology is the scientific study of human movement. ... Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a syndrome in which the symptoms of anaphylaxis occur related to exercise. ... Exercise intensity refers the how much work is being done when exercising. ... Exercise Intolerance is a medical term used to describe a condition where the patient who is unable to do physical exercise at the level that would be expected of someone in his or her general physical condition, or who experiences unusually severe post-exercise pain, fatigue, or other negative effects. ... Exercise is activity performed in order to develop or maintain physical fitness and overall health. ... Sports training refers to specialized strategies and methods of exercise used in various sports to develop athletes and prepare them for performing in sporting events. ...

References

  1. ^ Stampfer, M., Hu, F., Manson, J., Rimm, E., Willett, W. (2000) Primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women through diet and lifestyle. The New England Journal of Medicine, 343(1), 16-23. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  2. ^ Hu., F., Manson, J., Stampfer, M., Graham, C., et al. (2001). Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345(11), 790-797. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  3. ^ O'Connor, D., Crowe, M., Spinks, W. 2006. Effects of static stretching on leg power during cycling. Turin, 46(1), 52-56. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  4. ^ Wilmore, J., Knuttgen, H. 2003. Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Improving Fitness for Health Benefits. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 31(5). 45. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  5. ^ de Vos, N., Singh, N., Ross, D., Stavrinos, T., et al. 2005. Optimal Load for Increasing Muscle Power During Explosive Resistance Training in Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology, 60A(5), 638-647. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  6. ^ Hanc, J. 1987. Your Health Behind the Runner's Euphoria. ''Newsday, April 21, 1987,'' 11. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database
  7. ^ van Praag H, Kempermann G, Gage FH. (1999). "Ontogeny Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus." (Abstract). Nature Neuroscience. 2 (3): 266-70. Retrieved on 2007-03-28. 
  8. ^ Clément Grondard et al. (2005). "Regular Exercise Prolongs Survival in a Type 2 Spinal Muscular Atrophy Model Mouse." (Abstract). The Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (33): 7615-7622. Retrieved on 2007-03-28. 
  9. ^ West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources
  10. ^ Edward McAuley,* Arthur F. Kramer, and Stanley J. Colcombe (2004). "Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older Adults: a brief review." (Full Article). BRAIN, BEHAVIOR, and IMMUNITY. 18 (2004): 214-220. Retrieved on 2007-03-28. 
  11. ^ Bouchard, Claude; Ping An, Treva Rice, James S. Skinner, Jack H. Wilmore, Jacques Gagnon, Louis Perusse, Arthus S. Leon, D. C. Rao (September 1999). "Familial aggregation of VO(2max) response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study.". Journal of Applied Physiology 87 (3): 1003-1008. PMID 10484570. Retrieved on July 17, 2007. 
  12. ^ Kolata, Gina. "Why Some People Won't Be Fit Despite Exercise", The New York Times, February 12, 2002. Retrieved on July 17, 2007. 
  13. ^ Hubal, MJ; Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Price TB, Hoffman EP, Angelopoulos TJ, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, Pescatello LS, Visich PS, Zoeller RF, Seip RL, Clarkson PM (June 2005). "Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training.". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 37 (6): 964-972. PMID 15947721. Retrieved on July 17, 2007. 
  14. ^ Brutsaert, Tom D.; Esteban J. Parra (2006). "What makes a champion? Explaining variation in human athletic performance.". Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 151: 109-123. doi:10.1016/j.resp.2005.12.013. Retrieved on July 17, 2007. 
  15. ^ Geddes, Linda. "Superhuman", New Scientist, 2007-07-28, pp. 35-41. 
  16. ^ Weight training and children
  17. ^ Austin, B. 2006. Don't Let Your Body Go Into Starvation Mode. Wisconsin State Journal, April 1, 2006, 46. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  18. ^ Alexander, C. 1998. Cutting weight, losing life. News & Observer, February 8, 1998, A.1. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  19. ^ Jimenez, C., Pacheco, E., Moreno, A., Carpenter, A. 1996. A Soldier's Neck and Shoulder Pain. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 24(6), 81-82. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  20. ^ The Physicial and Sportsmedicine on Overtraining
  21. ^ Julia Berry; Anne Bradley; Hillery Magness. Amenorrhea. The Female Athlete Triad. University of Oregon, Department of Human Physiology. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  22. ^ Kimber, N., Heigenhauser, G., Spriet, L., and Dyck, D. 2003. Skeletal muscle fat and carbohydrate metabolism during recovery from glycogen-depleting exercise in humans. The Journal of Phsyiology, 548(Pt. 3), 919-927.
  23. ^ Mirkin, G. 2005. Exercise requires time for recovery. Washington Times, May 29, 2005, C.11. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  24. ^ Parker-Pope, T. (2001). For a Healthy Brain You Really Need to Use Your Head -- Physical and Mental Exercise Can Stave Off Mental Decline. The Wall Street Journal Europe, November 26, 2001, 8. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.
  25. ^ Brant, J. 1996. Power Yoga -- A New Form of Ancient Practice Builds Strength and Endurance. Seattle Times, January 31, 1996, E.1. Retrieved October 5, 2006, from ProQuest database.

Donatelle, Rebecca J. (2005). Health, The Basics, 6th ed., San Francisco: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-8053-2852-1.  Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Physical exercise - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1344 words)
Frequent and regular physical exercise is an important component in the prevention of some of the diseases of affluence such as cancer, heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Physical exercise is considered important for maintaining physical fitness including healthy weight; building and maintaining healthy bones, muscles, and joints; promoting physiological well-being; reducing surgical risks; and strengthening the immune system.
Physical exercise releases opioid peptides or endorphins, opiates that exhibit synergetic effects with other neurotransmitters, causing exercise euphoria, also known as "runners high", and causing addiction to physical exercise and possibly decreased sex drive.
Physical Exercise, Health and Fitness (2448 words)
Physical exercise is an imperative for the older adult.
Physical exercise is a biological factor of the mind - body connection.
All forms of exercise that tend to place emphases upon movement, balance, and coordination can be considered a variation of tai chi; such as Qi gong, movement styles of yoga, and even robotic pantomime.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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