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Encyclopedia > Physical characteristics of the Buddha

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Buddhism
A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...



Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History of Buddhism
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // Main article: First Buddhist council Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the nirvana of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by the monk Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Buddhist Precepts
Nirvāṇa · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō, Thai: อริยมรรคแปด, Ariya Mugg Paad, Mongolian qutuɣtan-u naiman gesigün-ü mör) is, in... Śīla (Sanskrit) or sīla (Pāli) is usually rendered into English as behavioral discipline, morality, or ethics. ... ( Sanskrit: ; Pali: निब्बान Nibbāna; Vietnamese: Niết bàn; Chinese: 涅槃; Mandarin Pinyin: nièpán, Cantonese: nihppùhn; Japanese: nehan ); Korean: 열반, yeolbhan; Thai: nibpan นิพพาน); Tibetan mya-ngan-las-das-pa; Mongolian ɣasalang-aca nögcigsen), is a Sanskrit word that literally means to cease blowing (as when a candle flame... Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE. The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology
Saṃsāra · Rebirth · Dharma
Dependent Origination · Karma
According to the Buddhist tradition, all phenomena (dharmas) are marked by three characteristics, sometimes referred to as the Dharma seals, that is dukkha (suffering), anicca (impermanence), and anatta (non-Self). ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:緣起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramitas · Meditation · Laity
Media:Example. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā or PāramÄ« (Sanskrit and Pāli respectively): Perfection or Transcendent. In Buddhism & Jainism, the Paramitas refer to the perfection or culmination of certain practices. ... Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that develop mindfulness, concentration, tranquility and insight. ... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Regions
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ...

Southeast Asia · East Asia
India · Sri Lanka · Tibet
Bhutan · Western Countries
Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Branches

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
Pre-sectarian Buddhism Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being. ...

Texts
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

Image File history File links Dharma_wheel. ...

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One of the first representations of the Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE, Greco-Buddhist art, Gandhara.
One of the first representations of the Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE, Greco-Buddhist art, Gandhara.

Although the Buddha was not represented in human form until around the 1st century CE (see Buddhist art), the Physical characteristics of the Buddha are described in one of the central texts of the traditional Pali canon, the Digha Nikaya, in the discourse titled "Sutra of the Marks" (Pali: Lakkhana Sutta) (D.iii.142ff.). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 235 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (627 × 1600 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Tokyo National Museum. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 235 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (627 × 1600 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Tokyo National Museum. ... Media:Example. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... (Redirected from 1st century CE) (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... Footprint of the Buddha. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ...


These characteristics comprise 32 signs, "The 32 signs of a Great Man" (Pali: Lakkhana Mahapurisa 32), and were supplemented by another 80 Secondary Characteristics (Pali:Anubyanjana). These traits are said to have defined the appearance of the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama and have been used symbolically in many of his representations. Media:Example. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he...

Contents

General characteristics

Although many of the characteristics described in these texts are rather poetic and lack informational value, some of them are quite specific and help define the global aspect of the historical Buddha as recorded in the Pali canon:

  • The Buddha had an elongated, lengthy body with long appendices (long arms with a span equal to body length, long fingers, long hands, elongated face, protruding and well-formed nose).
  • His hair was fine, black and with soft curls.
  • His eyes were wide, and strongly blue or bluish.
  • His body was golden-colored.

The 32 signs of the Great Man

There are 32 main characteristics (Pali: Lakkhana Mahapurisa 32):

  1. He has feet with a level sole (Pali: supati thapado). Note: "feet with level tread,/ so that he places his foot evenly on the ground,/ lifts it evenly,/ and touches the ground evenly with the entire sole." (Lakkhana Sutta)
  2. He has the mark of a thousand-spoked wheel on the soles of his feet (Pali: he thapadatalesu cakkani jatani).
  3. He has projecting heels (Pali: ayatapa ni).
  4. He has long fingers and toes (Pali: digha nguli).
  5. His hands and feet are soft-skinned (Pali: mudutalahathapado).
  6. He has netlike lines on palms and soles (Pali: jalahathapado).
  7. He has high raised ankles (Pali: ussa nkhapado).
  8. He has taut calf muscles like an antelope (Pali: e nimigasadisaja ngho).
  9. He can touch his knees with the palms of his hands without bending. (Pali: thitako va anonamanto).
  10. His sexual organs are concealed in a sheath (Pali: kosohitavatguyho).
  11. His skin is the color of gold (Pali: suva n nava no). "His body is more beautiful than all the gods." (Lakkhana sutta)
  12. His skin is so fine that no dust can attach to it (Pali: sukhumacchavi).
  13. His body hairs are separate with one hair per pore (Pali: ekekalomo).
  14. His body hair is blue-black, the color of collyrium, and curls clockwise in rings. (Pali: uddhagalomo).
  15. He has an upright stance like that of a brahma (Pali: brahmujugatto).
  16. He has the seven convexities of the flesh (Pali: satusado). Note: "the seven convex surfaces,/ on both hands, both feet, both shoulders, and his trunk." (Lakkhana Sutta)
  17. He has an immense torso, like that of a lion (Pali: sihapuba dhakayo).
  18. The furrow between his shoulders is filled in (Pali: pitantara mso).
  19. The distance from hand-to-hand and head-to-toe is equal (Pali: nigrodhaparima n dalo). Note: incidentally, these are also the ideal proportions according to Leonardo Da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man.
  20. He has a round and smooth neck (Pali: samva d dakhando).
  21. He has sensitive taste-buds (Pali: rasagasagi).
  22. His jaw is like a lion's (Pali: sihahanu).
  23. He has 40 teeth (Pali: cata.lisadanto). Note: The average person normally has 32 teeth.
  24. His teeth are evenly spaced (Pali: samadanto).
  25. His teeth are without gaps in-between (Pali: avira ladanto).
  26. His teeth are quite white (Pali: sukadanto).
  27. He has a large, long tongue (Pali: pahutajivho).
  28. He has a voice like a Brahman’s (Pali: brahmasaro hiravikabha ni).
  29. He has very blue eyes (Pali: abhi nila netto). Note 1: "very (abhi) blue (nila) eyes (netto)" is the literal translation.Nila is the word used to describe a sapphire and the color of the sea, but also the color of a rain cloud. It also defines the color of the Hindu God Krishna. Note 2: "His lashes are like a cow's; his eyes are blue./ Those who know such things declare/ 'A child which such fine eyes/ will be one who's looked upon with joy./ If a layman, thus he'll be/ Pleasing to the sight of all./ If ascetic he becomes,/ Then loved as healer of folk's woes.'" (Lakkhana Sutta)
  30. He has eyelashes like an ox (Pali: gopa mukho).
  31. He has a white soft wisp of hair in the center of the brow (Pali: una loma bhamukantare jata). Note: this became the symbolic urna.
  32. His head is like a royal turban (Pali: u nahisiso). Note that this denotes his cranial protrusion, visible on buddhist iconography.

“Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man (1492). ... Brahman (nominative ) is the concept of the supreme spirit found in Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Urna - Wang Cheese ...

Critique of 32 Marks Teaching

Author V. Hughes wrote “The Thirty-Two Marks of the Buddha is a misnomer of monumental proportions. They are taken from early pre-Buddhist Indian writings. Certainly Gautama had some of these characteristics and may have developed more throughout his life. Many of them would make him a mythological creature instead of the man of peace and compassion he is known to have been. It is not marks that make a being express their Buddha nature.” Source


The 80 secondary characteristics

Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha.
Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha.

There are also 80 secondary characteristics (Pali: Anubyanjana): Download high resolution version (387x939, 55 KB)Prince Siddharta. ... Download high resolution version (387x939, 55 KB)Prince Siddharta. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE. Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader who lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE. Born Siddhartha Gautama in Sanskrit, a name meaning descendant of Gotama whose aims are achieved/who is efficacious in achieving aims, he... Media:Example. ...

  1. He has beautiful fingers and toes.
  2. He has well-proportioned fingers and toes.
  3. He has tube-shaped fingers and toes.
  4. His fingernails and toenails have a rosy tint.
  5. His fingernails and toenails are slightly upturned at the tip.
  6. His fingernails and toenails are smooth and rounded without ridges.
  7. His ankles and wrists are rounded and undinted.
  8. His feet are of equal length.
  9. He has a beautiful gait, like that of a king-elephant.
  10. He has a stately gait, like that of a king-lion.
  11. He has a beautiful gait, like that of a swan.
  12. He has a majestic gait, like that of a royal ox.
  13. His right foot leads when walking.
  14. His knees have no protruding kneecaps.
  15. He has the demeanor of a great man.
  16. His navel is without blemish.
  17. He has a deep-shaped abdomen.
  18. He has clockwise marks on the abdomen.
  19. His thighs are rounded like banana sheafs.
  20. His two arms are shaped like an elephant's trunk.
  21. The lines on the palms of his hands have a rosy tint.
  22. His skin is thick or thin as it should be.
  23. His skin is unwrinkled.
  24. His body is spotless and without lumps.
  25. His body is unblemished above and below.
  26. His body is absolutely free of impurities.
  27. He has the strength of 1,000 crore elephants or 100,000 crore men. Note: A crore is equal to 10 millions.
  28. He has a protruding nose.
  29. His nose is well proportioned.
  30. His upper and lower lips are equal in size and have a rosy tint.
  31. His teeth are unblemished and with no plaque.
  32. His teeth are long like polished conches.
  33. His teeth are smooth and without ridges.
  34. His five sense-organs are unblemished.
  35. His four canine teeth are crystal and rounded.
  36. His face is long and beautiful.
  37. His cheeks are radiant.
  38. The lines on his palms are deep.
  39. The lines on his palms are long.
  40. The lines on his palms are straight.
  41. The lines on his palms have a rosy tint.
  42. His body emanates a halo of light extending around him for two meters.
  43. His cheek cavities are fully rounded and smooth.
  44. Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 1st-2nd century CE. Tokyo National Museum.
    His eyelids are well proportioned.
  45. The five nerves of his eyes are unblemished.
  46. The tips of his bodily hair are neither curved nor bent.
  47. He has a rounded tongue.
  48. His tongue is soft and has a rosy-tint.
  49. His ears are long like lotus petals.
  50. His earholes are beautifully rounded.
  51. His sinews and tendons don't stick out.
  52. His sinews and tendons are deeply embedded in the flesh.
  53. His topknot is like a crown.
  54. His forehead is well-proportioned in length and breadth.
  55. His forehead is rounded and beautiful.
  56. His eyebrows are arched like a bow.
  57. The hair of his eyebrows is fine.
  58. The hair of his eyebrows lies flat.
  59. He has large brows.
  60. His brows reach the outward corner of his eyes.
  61. His skin is fine throughout his body.
  62. His whole body has abundant signs of good fortune.
  63. His body is always radiant.
  64. His body is always refreshed like a lotus flower.
  65. His body is exquisitely sensitive to touch.
  66. His body has the scent of sandalwood.
  67. His body hair is consistent in length.
  68. He has fine bodily hair.
  69. His breath is always fine.
  70. His mouth always has a beautiful smile.
  71. His mouth has the scent of a lotus flower.
  72. His hair has the colour of a dark shadow.
  73. His hair is strongly scented.
  74. His hair has the scent of a white lotus.
  75. He has curled hair.
  76. His hair does not turn grey.
  77. He has fine hair.
  78. His hair is untangled.
  79. His hair has long curls.
  80. He has a topknot as if crowned with a flower garland.

A crore is a unit in the Indian numbering system, still widely used in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. ... Download high resolution version (979x1430, 347 KB)Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 1st-2nd century CE. Tokyo National Museum. ... Download high resolution version (979x1430, 347 KB)Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 1st-2nd century CE. Tokyo National Museum. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...

See also

Footprint of the Buddha. ... The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

External links

  • Lakkhana Sutta
  • The Nine Special Qualities of the Buddha

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gautama Buddha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2088 words)
Gautama Buddha was a South Asian spiritual leader traditionally stated to have lived between approximately 563 BCE and 483 BCE, with some Buddhist legends stating that he was born on April 8, 1029 BCE, and died on February 15, 949 BCE.
Although the Buddha was not represented in human form until around the 1st century CE (see Buddhist art), his physical characteristics are described in one of the central texts of the traditional Pali canon, the Digha Nikaya.
Buddha, by Tezuka Osamu, is a manga biography of Gautama Buddha that was published in magazines between 1974 and 1984.
Physical characteristics of the Buddha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1275 words)
Although the Buddha was not represented in human form until around the 1st century CE (see Buddhist art), the Physical characteristics of the Buddha are described in one of the central texts of the traditional Pali canon, the Digha Nikaya, in the discourse titled "Sutra of the Marks" (Pali: Lakkhana Sutta) (D.iii.142ff.).
These traits are said to have defined the appearance of the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama and have been used symbolically in many of his representations.
Although many of the characteristics described in these texts are rather poetic and lack informational value, some of them are quite specific and help define the global aspect of the historical Buddha as recorded in the Pali canon:
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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