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Encyclopedia > Physical Education

Physical education (PE) is the interdisciplinary study of all area of science relating to the transmission of physical knowledge and skills to an individual or a group, the application of these skills, and their results. Included, among other subjects, are aspects of anthropology, biology, chemistry, physics, psychology, and sociology. Some treatments of the discipline also include spirituality as an important aspect. Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ...

In most educational systems, physical education, also called physical training (PT) or gym, though each with a very different connotation, is a course in the curriculum which utilizes learning in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in a play or movement exploration setting. The term physical education is most commonly used in this way; however, this denotes rather that "they have participated in the subject area, not studied it."[1] Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... Affective means having to do with emotion. ...

The primary aims of physical education vary historically, based on the needs of the time and place. Often, many different types of physical education occur simultaneously, some intentionally and others not. Most modern school systems claim their intent is to equip students with the knowledge, skills, capacities, and values along with the enthusiasm to maintain a healthy lifestyle into adulthood. Some schools also require physical education as a way to promote weight loss in students. Activities included in the program are designed to promote physical fitness, to develop motor skills, to instill knowledge and understanding of rules, concepts, and strategies, and to teach students to work as part of a team, or as individuals, in a wide variety of competitive activities.



Physical education has existed since the earliest stages of humanity, in areas as simple the transmission of knowledge of basic survival skills, such as hunting. However, the real history of physical education is in the changing methodologies used to transmit physical skills and, to a lesser extent, the varying intentions of the educator. The first known literary reference to an athletic competition is preserved in the ancient Greek text, the Iliad, by Homer. While by no means is this the beginning of physical activity, it marks an important point in the study of the history of physical education. Other cultures that existed before the Greeks, including the ancient Chinese, Indian, and Egyptian civilizations had traditions of physical education and activity, but the Greek influence is argued to be the most fundamental to how the discipline is viewed today.[3] The ancientd4d Greek tradition of the Olympic Games, which originated in the early 8th century BC, even continues today.

School curriculum

In the United States, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow pupils to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, gymnastics, individual/dual sports, team sports, rhythms, and dance. Students from STI Global City & Kadim encouraged to continue to explore those activities in which they have a primary interest by effectively managing their community recourses. Most physical education classes are single-sex.

In Nepal, physical education is an educational process that helps an individual to be physically fit, mentally alert, emotionally stable and socially adjustable. It is the combination of many events in it. It is also the subject of physical training. In the present world where people have become more busy and most of their work is done by the machine in such condition there is more importance of physical education. There are many of the advantages that we can get by the help of this education. With the same view the government of Nepal has introduced this subject in the school curriculum. It is taught in the school from class one to the class 10. There is the provision of compulsory subject up to the class 8 and as an optional subject in class 9 and 10. in the higher level in is also taught as an optional subject in education stream. There are many advantages of learning those subjects in the school and in the campus as well. There are many of the school which give priority to it.there are some inside the valley that is to say in the capital city of the country and some are outside. the schools inside the valley conduct various sports and games competition to increase the skill in the students. Its aim is not only to do competition but also to develop the feeling of cooperation with the other individuals. some most popular school are Motherland Higher Secondary School, Gandaki boarding school and many other. They have done a lot for the development of sports and have made a lot of contribution for its development.

According to Mr. Ananda Sharma it is one of the most important but neglected subject.

 Mr. Sharma says, It is just like an oxygen that we breathe. Air is neglected by people but it is the most 
important thing for all the people and for the most of the living beings. Games and sports are important not
only for the human being but also for the animals. We may have seen the dog stretching it self
to make it fit. other animal play or run to make themself strong.

These facts also proves that it is an integral part of our life. it is the thing that helps to get a healthy life.
we must not for get the fact that healthy mind exists in healthy body and this condition can be
brought only by the regular practice of these things and these things are possible only
when we do learn physical education.

Defination given by a scholar of Motherland higher Secondary school-masbar pokhara" Kalpana Acharya and Rakshya Pathak. Physical education is an education that makes us physically fit, mentally alert, socially adjustable and emotionally stable. It is the education that is an integral part of our life. Advantages of physical education; a. To develop basic skills of different games. b. To make capable for organizing some major games and bhe the refree of the game. c. Helps in the socialization of the people. d. Develops the feeling of co-operation among the people. e. Makes mentally alert and makes individual to take matured decision. f. People could control their emotions. g. Prevents from some physical disabilities. h. Could be used in the medicinal sectors as a physiotherapy. There are many other advantages that could be obtained by physical education.-- 05:19, 14 September 2007 (UTC)Ψananda sharma


The majority of schools require pupils to change into a different set of trainers or go barefoot. Some schools require students to change into athletic clothes of their own choosing while others require a uniform. A common uniform consists of a white t-shirt and shorts in the school color, but this is not a universal rule. For safety, some schools require boys / men to wear an athletic supporter as part of the physical education uniform. Some schools allow male students to go barechested when they are outside during a hot day. Most uniformed classes require the student to label their name on their clothes. A Nike athletic shoe An athletic shoe is a generic name for a shoe designed for sporting and physical activities, and is different in style and build than a dress shoe. ... Walking barefoot Going barefoot is the practice of not wearing shoes, socks, or other foot covering. ... A jockstrap, also known as a jock or athletic supporter, is a type of mens undergarment designed for use in sports or other activities, such as during the recovery from a vasectomy, although some men just like to wear them. ... Going bare chested refers to a man wearing no clothes above the waist, exposing the torso and arms. ...

Occasionally, certain activities will require a special uniform. For example, some schools require swimming as part of the physical education curriculum. In this case, students typically have to wear a bathing suit in either the school color or black with a swimming cap of the same color. In the past it wasn't uncommon for schools to allow or require male or female students to swim in the nude if the class was single-sex. Also, in games with two or more teams, students usually have to wear colored jerseys or cape-like garments over the usual uniform as a way of identifying team member.


There is some disagreement about required PE classes, especially in the upper grades and at the college level. Physical Education is promoted as a way to teach students about teamwork and sports, but also is a means to develop and maintain physical fitness. The latter goal requires regular activity. PE grading scales should be based on more than just athletic ability so that students who do not excel in sports have an opportunity to receive respectable grades, as these grades may be included in their GPA (which colleges look at when considering students for admission).

Many schools are implementing grading systems in that if a student is absent, excused or unexcused, points are deducted from their grade. Many parents and students find this policy unacceptable, as a person who is legitimately sick can get a lower grade just for being out of school a few days. But most schools will give the students point if their parents write a note saying they completed a certain amount of time exercising.

See also

“Exercise” redirects here. ... Marines doing push-ups. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


  1. ^ Anderson, D. (1989). The Discipline and the Profession. Foundations of Canadian Physical Education, Recreation, and Sports Studies. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.
  • Pangrazi, R. P. (2002). Dynamic Physical Education for Secondary School Students (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings.
  • Pangrazi, R. P. (2004). Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Children (14th ed.). Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Siedentop, D., Hastie, P. A., & van der Mars, H. (2004). Complete Guide to Sport Education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  • Pérez García, Á., Molina Jiménez, J.A., Millán Galindo, J.D. "Spanish Education". 2005.
  • C. Jensen & S. Overman. Administration and Management of physical education and Athletic Programs. 4th edition. Waveland Press, 2003.
  • J. Stillwell & C. Willgoose. The Physical Education Curriculum. 5th edition. Waveland Press, 2002.
  • D. Siedentop. Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport. McGraw Hill, 2003
  • D. Van Dalen. A World History of Physical Education: Cultural, Philosophical, Comparative. 2nd edition. Prentice-Hall, 1971.
  • Kelly E. Duell, M.A. "Standard-Based Physical Education: Complete Lesson Plans for Children." 1st edition. Human Kinetics, 2006-2007.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Jahn http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/JFK+in+History/The+Federal+Government+Takes+on+Physical+Fitness.htm

External links

  • AAHPERD American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance
  • CAHPERD Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance
  • NAKPEHE National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education
  • SSDHPER Society of State Directors of Health, Physical Education & Recreation
  • afPE Association for Physical Education (United Kingdom)
  • PE4Life Non-profit Physical Education advocacy group
  • PE Central Resources for Health and Physical Education
  • Sports Media Tool for everyone interested in Physical Education & Sports

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