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Encyclopedia > Phylum
Species Genus Family Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Life
The hierarchy of scientific classification's major eight taxonomic ranks. A kingdom contains one or more phyla. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.

In biological taxonomy, a 'phylum' plural: Φῦλα phyla) is a taxonomic rank at the level below Kingdom and above Class. "Phylum" is adopted from the Greek φυλαί phylai, the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. Phyla represent the largest generally accepted groupings of animals and other living things with certain evolutionary traits, although the phyla themselves may sometimes be grouped into superphyla (e.g. Ecdysozoa with eight phyla, including arthropods and roundworms; and Deuterostomia with the echinoderms, chordates, hemichordates and xenoturbellae). Informally, phyla can be thought of as grouping animals based on general body plan;[1] this is morphological grouping. Thus despite the seemingly different external appearances of organisms, they are classified into phyla based on their internal organizations.[2] For example, though seemingly divergent, spiders and crabs both belong to Arthropoda, whereas earthworms and tapeworms, similar in shape, are from Annelida and Platyhelminthes, respectively. Although the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature allows the use of the term "Phylum" in reference to plants, the term "Division" is almost always used by botanists. Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... Phyla Scalidophora (288 species)   Priapulida (16 species)   Kinorhyncha (150 species)   Loricifera (122 species) Nematoda (20,000+ species) Nematomorpha (320 species) Panarthropoda (6,181,000-10,193,000+ species)   Onychophora (200 species)   Tardigrada (1,000+ species)   Arthropoda (6,180,000-10,192,000+ species) The Ecdysozoa are a group of protostome... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... Phyla Chaetognatha Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata Deuterostomes (from the Greek: second the mouth) are one of the two superphyla of animals in the taxonomic branch bilateria, the other being the protostomes. ... Subphyla & Classes Homalozoa Gill & Caster, 1960 Homostelea Homoiostelea Stylophora † Ctenocystoidea Robison & Sprinkle, 1969 Crinozoa Crinoidea Paracrinoidea † Regnéll, 1945 Cystoidea †von Buch, 1846 Asterozoa Ophiuroidea Asteroidea Echinozoa Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiocistioidea Helicoplacoidea † Arkarua † Homalozoa † Pelmatozoa † Edrioasteroidea † Blastozoa † Blastoidea † Eocrinoidea †Jaekel, 1899 † = extinct Echinoderms (Phylum Echinodermata, from the Greek for spiny skin... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Classes Enterepneusta Pterobranchia Planctosphaeroidea Hemichordata is a phylum of worm-shaped marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of our own, the chordates. ... Xenoturbella is a genus of Bilaterian animals; it is a marine worm. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... Families Suborder Mesothelae     Liphistiidae (primitive burrowing spiders) Suborder Mygalomorphae     Atypidae (atypical tarantula)     Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider)     Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas)     Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula)     Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula)     Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider)     Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider)     Theraphosidae (tarantula) Suborder Araneomorphae     Hypochilidae (lampshade spider)     Filistatidae (crevice weaver)     Sicariidae (recluse spider)     Scytodidae (spitting... Phthirus pubis Pubic lice (Phthirus pubis), also known as crabs , are one of the many varieties of lice (singular louse) specialized to live on different areas of different animals. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Earthworm is the common reference for the larger members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida. ... ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata    Oligochaeta - Earthworms and others    Acanthobdellida    Branchiobdellida    Hirudinea - Leeches Class Myzostomida Class Archiannelida (polyphyletic) Class Echiura *Some authors consider the subclasses under Clitellata to be classes The annelids, collectively called Annelida, are a large phylum of animals, comprising the segmented worms, with about... Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria The flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Greek platy: flat; helminth: worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... u fuck in ua ... In biology, the equivalent of a phylum in the plant or the fungal kingdom is called a division. ...


The best known animal phyla are the Mollusca, Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata, the phylum to which humans belong. Although there are approximately 35 phyla, these nine include the majority of the species. Many phyla are exclusively marine, and only one phylum is entirely absent from the world's oceans: the Onychophora or velvet worms. The most recently discovered phylum is Cycliophora[3] found in 1993; only three phyla were discovered in the last century. Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... The sponge, in the phylum Porifera, is a very primitive and specialized animal. ... Subphylum/Classes[1] Anthozoa — corals and sea anemones Medusozoa:[2] Cubozoa — sea wasps or box jellyfish Hydrozoa — hydroids, hydra-like animals Polypodiozoa Scyphozoa — jellyfish Staurozoa — stalked jellyfish unranked: Myxozoa - parasites Cnidaria[3] (IPA: [4]) is a phylum containing some 11,000 species of apparently simple animals found exclusively in aquatic... Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria The flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Greek platy: flat; helminth: worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... Classes Adenophora    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species. ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata    Oligochaeta - Earthworms and others    Acanthobdellida    Branchiobdellida    Hirudinea - Leeches Class Myzostomida Class Archiannelida (polyphyletic) Class Echiura *Some authors consider the subclasses under Clitellata to be classes The annelids, collectively called Annelida, are a large phylum of animals, comprising the segmented worms, with about... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes Asteroidea Concentricycloidea Crinoidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiuroidea Echinoderms (Echinodermata) is a phylum of marine animals found in the ocean at all depths. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Genera Peripatus . ... Binomial name Symbion pandora Funch & Kristensen, 1995 Symbion is a genus of peculiar animals, with a single species, . It was discovered in 1995 by Reinhardt Kristensen and Peter Funch on the mouthparts of the Norwegian lobster Nephrops norvegicus. ...


The Cambrian explosion was a great flowering of life forms that occurred between roughly 530 and 520 million years ago;[4] during this time organisms similar to, but not strictly members of, modern phyla existed;[5] whilst some appear to be represented in the Ediacaran biota, it remains a matter of debate whether all phyla existed prior to the explosion. Over time the roles among different phyla have varied. For instance, during the Cambrian, the dominant megafauna, or large animals, were arthropods, whereas now the megafauna is dominated by vertebrates (chordata).[6] The arthropods are still by far the most dominant phylum. The Cambrian explosion is the geologically kukko sudden appearance in the fossil record of the ancestors of familiar animals, starting about 542 million years ago (Mya). ... Dickinsonia costata, an Ediacaran organism of unknown affinity, with a quilted appearance. ... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

List of animal phyla

Phylum Meaning Group Distinguishing characteristics Species described
Acanthocephala Thorny head Thorny-headed worms Reversible spiny proboscis about 750
Acoelomorpha Without gut Acoels No mouth or alimentary canal
Annelida Little ring Segmented worms Multiple circular segments about 15,300 modern
Arthropoda Jointed foot Arthropods Chitin exoskeleton 1,134,000+
Brachiopoda Arm foot Lamp shells Lophophore and pedicle between 300 and 500 extant
Bryozoa Moss animals Moss animals, sea mats Lophophore, no pedicle, ciliated tentacles about 5,000 living species
Chaetognatha Longhair jaw Arrow worms Chitinous spines either side of head, fins about 100 modern species
Chordata Cord Chordates Hollow dorsal nervous chord about 100,000+
Cnidaria Stinging nettle Coelenterates Nematocysts (stinging cells) about 11,000
Ctenophora Comb bearer Comb jellies Eight "comb rows" of fused cilia about 100 modern species
Cycliophora Wheel carrying Symbion Circular mouth surrounded by small cilia at least 3
Echinodermata Spiny skin Echinoderms Five-fold radial symmetry, mesodermal calcified spines about 7,000 living species and 13,000 extinct ones
Echiura Spine tail Spoon worms Set of hooks at posterior end about 140
Entoprocta Inside anus Goblet worm Anus inside ring of cilia about 150
Gastrotricha Hair stomach Meiofauna Two terminal adhesive tubes about 690
Gnathostomulida Jaw orifice Jaw worms about 100
Hemichordata Half cord Acorn worms Stomochord in collar about 100 living species
Kinorhyncha Motion snout Mud dragons Eleven segments, each with a dorsal plate about 150
Loricifera Corset bearer Brush heads Umbrella-like scales at each end about 122
Mesozoa Middle animals Mesozoans Somatoderm of ciliated cells surrounding reproductive cell(s)
Micrognathozoa Tiny jaw animals Accordion like extensible thorax 1
Mollusca Thin shell Mollusks / molluscs Muscular foot and mantle round shell 112,000[7]
Myxozoa Slime animals Polar capsules resembling nematocysts 13,000+
Nematoda Thread like Round worms Round cross section, keratin cuticle 80 000 – 1 million
Nematomorpha Thread form Horsehair worms about 320
Nemertea A sea nymph Ribbon worms about 1200
Onychophora Claw bearer Velvet worms Legs tipped by chitinous claws about 200 modern
Orthonectida Straight swim Single layer of ciliated cells surrounding a mass of sex cells about 20
Phoronida Zeus' mistress Horseshoe worms U-shaped gut 20
Placozoa Plate animals 1
Platyhelminthes Flat worms Flat worms about 25,000[8]
Porifera Pore bearer Sponges Perforated interior wall over 5,000 modern
Priapulida Penis Priapulid worms Retractable proboscis surrounded by papillae 17
Rhombozoa Lozenge animal Single axial cell surrounded by ciliated cells 75
Rotifera Wheel bearer Rotifers Anterior crown of cilia about 2000
Sipuncula Small tube Peanut worms Mouth surrounded by invertible tentacles 144–320
Tardigrada Slow step Water bears Four segmented body and head 1,000+
Xenoturbellida Strange flatworm Ciliated deuterostome 2
TOTAL 2,000,000-

Classes Archiacanthocephala Palaeacanthocephala Eoacanthocephala The Acanthocephala (gr. ... In general, a proboscis (from Greek pro before and boskein to feed) is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal. ... The Acoelomorpha are a phylum of animals formerly considered flatworms, but now known to be a separate group, basal among the Bilateria. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata    Oligochaeta - Earthworms and others    Acanthobdellida    Branchiobdellida    Hirudinea - Leeches Class Myzostomida Class Archiannelida (polyphyletic) Class Echiura *Some authors consider the subclasses under Clitellata to be classes The annelids, collectively called Annelida, are a large phylum of animals, comprising the segmented worms, with about... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... Classes Lingulata Paterinata (extinct) Craniforma Chileata (extinct) Obolellata (extinct) Kutorginata (extinct) Strophomenata (extinct) Rhynchonellata Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) make up one of the major animal phyla, Brachiopoda. ... Freshwater bryozoan with lophophore extended The lophophore is a characteristic feeding organ possessed by three major groups of animals: the Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, and Phoronida. ... In anatomy, the pedicle (also spelled pedicel) is the segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body. ... Classes Stenolaemata Gymnolaemata Phylactolaemata Bryozoans are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... cross-section of two cilia, showing 9+2 structure A cilium (plural cilia) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell that constantly beats in one direction. ... Tentacles can refer to the elongated flexible organs that are present in some animals, especially invertebrates, and sometimes to the hairs of the leaves of some insectivorous plants. ... Classes Archisagittoidea Sagittoidea Chaetognatha is a phylum of predatory marine worms that are a major component of plankton worldwide. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subphylum/Classes[1] Anthozoa — corals and sea anemones Medusozoa:[2] Cubozoa — sea wasps or box jellyfish Hydrozoa — hydroids, hydra-like animals Polypodiozoa Scyphozoa — jellyfish Staurozoa — stalked jellyfish unranked: Myxozoa - parasites Cnidaria[3] (IPA: [4]) is a phylum containing some 11,000 species of apparently simple animals found exclusively in aquatic... Cnidocytes are prey-capture and defensive cells unique to animals of the phylum Cnidaria. ... Classes Tentaculata Nuda Ctenophores are jellyfish-like animals commonly called comb jellies, sea gooseberries, sea walnuts, or Venus girdles. ... Binomial name Symbion pandora Funch & Kristensen, 1995 Symbion is a genus of peculiar animals, with a single species, . It was discovered in 1995 by Reinhardt Kristensen and Peter Funch on the mouthparts of the Norwegian lobster Nephrops norvegicus. ... Binomial name Symbion pandora Funch & Kristensen, 1995 Symbion is a genus of peculiar animals, with a single species, . It was discovered in 1995 by Reinhardt Kristensen and Peter Funch on the mouthparts of the Norwegian lobster Nephrops norvegicus. ... Classes Asteroidea Concentricycloidea Crinoidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiuroidea Echinoderms (Echinodermata) is a phylum of marine animals found in the ocean at all depths. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... Organs derived from each germ layer. ... The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a small group of marine animals. ... The English word POSTERIOR is identical to the original Latin adjective, and has two different uses : as an ADJECTIVE, it indicates that someone or something is behind another, either spatially or chronologically it also became a SUBSTANTIVE, indicating the rear-end, especially of a person, i. ... Orders Barentsiidae (Urnatellidae) Loxokalypodidae Loxosomatidae Pedicellinidae Entoprocta (Gr. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... The gastrotrichs are a phylum of microscopic animals, found in fresh water and marine environments. ... Gnathostomulids, or jaw worms, are a small phylum of microscopic marine animals. ... Classes Enterepneusta Pterobranchia Planctosphaeroidea Hemichordata is a phylum of worm-shaped marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of our own, the chordates. ... Orders Cyclorhagida Homalorhagida Kinorhyncha (Gr. ... Loricifera is a small phylum of marine sediment-dwelling animals with about a dozen known species. ... The Mesozoa are parasitic worm-like animals. ... Binomial name Limnognathia maerski Kristensen & Funch, 2000 Limnognathia maerski is a microscopic animal, discovered in Greenland in 2000, that is given its own phylum, Micrognathozoa. ... For other uses, see Accordion (disambiguation). ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... Classes Aplacophora † ?Bellerophontida Bivalvia Caudofoveata Cephalopoda Gastropoda † Helcionelloida Monoplacophora Polyplacophora † Rostroconchia Scaphopoda † Tentaculita The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum of invertebrate animals known as Mollusca. ... The mantle is an organ found in mollusks. ... Classes Malacosporea Myxosporea The Myxozoa are a group of microscopic, parasitic animals. ... Cnidocytes are prey-capture and defensive cells found on animals of the phylum Cnidaria. ... Classes Adenophora    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ... Eponychium is the anatomical term for the human cuticle In biology, the term cuticle or cuticula is given to to a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or part of an organism, that provide prtoection. ... Classes Nectonematoida Gordioidea Nematomorpha (sometimes called Gordiacea, and commonly known as horsehair worms or Gordian worms) are a phylum of parasitic animals which are morphologically and ecologically similar to nematode worms, hence the name. ... Classes Anopla Enopla Synonyms Rhyncocoela [1] Nemertea is a phylum of invertebrate animals also known as ribbon worms or proboscis worms [1]. Most of the 1,400 or so species are marine, with a few living in fresh water and a small number of terrestrial forms; they are found in... Genera Peripatus . ... Orthonectida is a small phylum of poorly-known parasites of marine invertebrates that are among the simplest of multi-cellular organisms. ... Genera Phoronis Phoronopsis Phoronids (Phoronida) are a relatively small animal phylum: twelve species are known, in two genera, Phoronis and Phoronopsis. ... Trichoplax adhaerens is a simple balloon-like marine animal with a body cavity filled with pressurized fluid. ... Classes Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda Turbellaria The flatworms (Platyhelminthes, Greek platy: flat; helminth: worm) are a phylum of relatively simple soft-bodied invertebrate animals. ... The sponge, in the phylum Porifera, is a very primitive and specialized animal. ... Priapulida (priapulid worms or penis worms, from Gr. ... Rhombozoa, or Dicyemida, is a phylum of tiny parasites that live in the renal appendages of cephalopods. ... Axial has different meanings: In geometry it means: along the same line as an axis (coaxial) or centerline: parallel (geometry), contrary to radial or perpendicular In anatomy it relates to an anatomical direction of animals and humans. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Classes Seisonoidea Bdelloidea Monogononta The rotifers make up a phylum of microscopic, pseudocoelomate animals. ... The Sipuncula, sipunculid worms or peanut worms, are a phylum of marine worms with a tentacle surrounded mouth on a completely invertible head end. ... Classes Heterotardigrada Mesotardigrada Eutardigrada Tardigrades (Tardigrada), or water bears, are a phylum of small, segmented animals, similar and related to the Arthropods. ... Species  Westblad, 1949  Israelsson, 1999 Xenoturbella is a genus of bilaterian animals; it is a marine worm. ...

Groups formerly ranked as phyla

Name as phylum Common name Current consensus
Craniata Subgroup of phylum Chordata; perhaps synonymous with Vertebrata.
Cephalochordata Lancelets Subphylum of phylum Chordata
Cephalorhyncha Superphylum Scalidophora.
Enterepneusta Acorn worms Class of phylum Hemichordata.
Pentastomida Tongue worms Subclass of Maxillopoda of phylum Arthropoda.
Pogonophora Beard worms Part of family Siboglinidae of phylum Annelida.
Pterobranchia Class of phylum Hemichordata.
Symplasma Glass sponges Class Hexactinellida of phylum Porifera.
Urochordata Tunicates Subphylum of phylum Chordata.
Vestimentifera Vent worms Part of family Siboglinidae of phylum Annelida.

Classes Hyperotreti Vertebrata Craniata is a type of chordate animal group that contains vertebrates (vertebrata) and hagfish (Hyperotreti). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Families Asymmetronidae Branchiostomidae The lancelets (subphylum Cephalochordata, and traditionally known as the amphioxus) are a group of primitive chordates. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Scalidophora is a group of marine pseudocoelomate invertebrates, consisting of the three phyla Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera. ... Scalidophora is a group of marine pseudocoelomate invertebrates, consisting of the three phyla Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera. ... Families Harrimaniidae Protoglossidae Ptychoderidae Saxipendiidae Spengelidae Torquaratoridae The Acorn worms or Enteropneusta are a hemichordate class of invertebrates. ... Classes Enterepneusta Pterobranchia Planctosphaeroidea Hemichordata is a phylum of worm-shaped marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of our own, the chordates. ... Orders Cephalobaenida Porocephalida The Pentastomida or Pentastoma are a group of parasitic invertebrates commonly known as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a vertebrate tongue. ... Sub-classes Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Maxillopoda is a class of crustaceans, characterised by a reduction of the abdomen and its appendages. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... The Pogonophora, or beard worms, are a small group of deep sea tube worms often found growing around warm springs. ... Genera Birsteinia Choanophorus Cyclobrachia Lamellibrachia Lamellisabella Osedax Paraescarpia Ridgeia Riftia Siboglinoides Siboglinum Volvobrachia . ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata    Oligochaeta - Earthworms and others    Acanthobdellida    Branchiobdellida    Hirudinea - Leeches Class Myzostomida Class Archiannelida (polyphyletic) Class Echiura *Some authors consider the subclasses under Clitellata to be classes The annelids, collectively called Annelida, are a large phylum of animals, comprising the segmented worms, with about... Pterobranchia is a clade of small, worm-shaped animals. ... Classes Enterepneusta Pterobranchia Planctosphaeroidea Hemichordata is a phylum of worm-shaped marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of our own, the chordates. ... Symplasma is a debated phylum containing only the Glass Sponges or Hexactinellida. ... Hexactinellid sponges are sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/or six-pointed silaceous spicules, often referred to as glass sponges. ... The sponge, in the phylum Porifera, is a very primitive and specialized animal. ... Classes Ascidiacea Thaliacea Appendicularia Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates or sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with input and output siphons. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... The Vestimentifera are a small group of deep sea worms, now treated as the family Siboglinidae among the annelids, together with the Pogonophora. ... Genera Birsteinia Choanophorus Cyclobrachia Lamellibrachia Lamellisabella Osedax Paraescarpia Ridgeia Riftia Siboglinoides Siboglinum Volvobrachia . ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata    Oligochaeta - Earthworms and others    Acanthobdellida    Branchiobdellida    Hirudinea - Leeches Class Myzostomida Class Archiannelida (polyphyletic) Class Echiura *Some authors consider the subclasses under Clitellata to be classes The annelids, collectively called Annelida, are a large phylum of animals, comprising the segmented worms, with about...

List of plant divisions

Division Meaning Common name Distinguishing characteristics
Anthocerotophyta Flower-horn plants Hornworts Horn-shaped sporophytes, no vascular system
Bryophyta Moss plants Mosses Persistent unbranched sporophytes, no vascular system
Marchantiophyta Marchantia plants Liverworts Ephemeral unbranched sporophytes, no vascular system
Lycopodiophyta Wolf foot plants Clubmosses & Spikemosses Microphyll leaves, vascular system
Pteridophyta Fern plants Ferns & Horsetails Prothallus gametophytes, vascular system
Pteridospermatophyta Fern with seeds plant Seed ferns Only known from fossils, mostly Devonian, ranking in dispute[9]
Pinophyta Sap/pitch plants Conifers Cones containing seeds and wood composed of tracheids
Cycadophyta Palm plants Cycads Seeds, crown of compound leaves
Ginkgophyta Ginkgo plants Ginkgo, Maidenhair Seeds not protected by fruit (single species)
Gnetophyta Gnetophytes Seeds and woody vascular system with vessels
Anthophyta (or Magnoliophyta Flower plant Flowering plants Flowers and fruit, vascular system with vessels

This is an article about the non-vascular plants known as hornworts. ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... Orders Jungermanniopsida Metzgeriales (simple thalloids) Haplomitriales (Calobryales) Jungermanniales (leafy liverworts) Marchantiopsida Sphaerocarpales (bottle liverworts) Marchantiales (complex thalloids) Monocleales Liverworts are a division of plants commonly called hepatics, Marchantiophyta or liverworts. ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... Classes Lycopodiopsida - clubmosses Selaginellopsida - spikemosses Isoetopsida - quillworts The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called Lycophyta) is a tracheophyte subdivision of the Kingdom Plantae. ... Microphylls are photosynthetic flaps of plant tissue with a solitary, unbranched vein. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Classes Marattiopsida Osmundopsida Gleicheniopsida Pteridopsida A fern, or pteridophyte, is any one of a group of some twenty thousand species of plants classified in the Division Pteridophyta, formerly known as Filicophyta. ... Liverwort Prothallus A prothallium, or prothallus; from Latin pro = forwards and Greek θαλλος (thallos) = twig; is a pteridophyte, i. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Pteridospermatophyta, also called seed ferns, is an extinct gymnosperm division of the Plantae kingdom. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants which are characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ... taxa: Gnetales Welwitschiales Ephedrales The plant division Gnetophyta or gnetophytes comprise three related families of woody plants grouped in the gymnosperms, a paraphyletic group of seed plant divisions. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ...

List of fungi divisions

Phylum Meaning Common name Distinguishing characteristics
Chytridiomycota Little pot mushroom Chytrids Cellulose in cell walls, flagellated gametes
Deuteromycota Second mushroom Imperfect fungi Only reproduce asexually
Zygomycota Yoke mushroom Zygomycetes Blend gametangia to form a zygosporangium
Glomeromycota Ball mushroom None Form arbuscular mycorrhizae with plants
Ascomycota Bag/Wineskin Mushroom Sac fungi Produce spores in an 'ascus'
Basidiomycota Basidium Mushroom Club Fungi Produce spores from a 'basidium'

Orders Chytridiales Spizellomycetales Monoblepharidales Blastocladiales Neocallimasticales Chytridiomycota is a division of the Fungi kingdom and contains only one class, Chytridiomycetes. ... The Deuteromycota are a form division of the fungi, including those fungi in which sexual reproduction is unknown. ... Orders Dimargaritales Endogonales Entomophthorales Harpellales Kickxellales Microsporidia Mucorales Zoopagales Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, are a division of fungi. ... A gametangia is an organ or cell in which gametes are produced. ... Orders Archaeosporales Diversisporales Paraglomerales Glomerales The division (phylum) Glomeromycota is a taxon within the kingdom Fungi that includes those species that form arbuscular mycorrhizae with plants. ... An Arbuscular mycorrhiza (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas) is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... An ascus (plural asci) is the spore-bearing container produced in the ascocarps of ascomycete fungi. ... Subphyla/Classes Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Agaricomycotina Incertae sedis (no phylum) Wallemiomycetes Entorrhizomycetes Basidiomycota is one of two large phyla, that together with the Ascomycota, comprise the subkingdom Dikarya, which were in general what were called the Higher Fungi within the Kingdom Fungi. ... Basidium is a cell on which the spores of the mushroom are produced. ...

See also

It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...

References

  1. ^ Valentine, James W. (2004). On the Origin of Phyla. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 7. 0226845486. "Classifications of organisms in hierarchical systems were in use by the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. usually organisms were grouped according to their morphological similarities as perceived by those early workers, and those groups were then grouped according to their similarities, and so on, to form a hierarchy."
  2. ^ Parker, Andrew (2003). In the blink of an eye: How vision kick-started the big bang of evolution. Sydney: Free Press, 1–4. 0743257332. "The job of an evolutionary biologist is to make sense of the conflicting diversity of form – there is not always a relationship between internal and external parts. Early in the history of the subject, it became obvious that internal organisations were generally more important to the higher classification of animals than are external shapes. The internal organisation puts general restrictions on how an animal can exchange gases, obtain nutrients and reproduce."
  3. ^ "…when a new animal species is discovered, no matter how unusual, it can normally be classified into a known group of creatures with the same body plan or phylum. Although there are 1.5 million plus known species in the world, they can all be classified into 35 or so phyla. These include the chordates (eg the vertebrates such as man), molluscs (snails) and arthropods (jointed limbed e.g. insects). However, S.pandora was so unusual that it could not be classified into any of the existing phyla, and a new one was suggested called Cycliophora" [1] (URL accessed on July 5, 2006)
  4. ^ Valentine, J.W.; Jablonski, D.; Erwin, D.H. (1999-03-01). "Fossils, molecules and embryos: new perspectives on the Cambrian explosion". Development 126: 851–859. Retrieved on 2007-05-17. 
  5. ^ Budd, G.E.; Jensen, S. (2000). "A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla". Biological Reviews 75 (02): 253–295. doi:10.1017/S000632310000548X. Retrieved on 2007-05-26. 
  6. ^ "The Cambrian Explosion … The organisms range from the prokaryotic cyanobacteria to eukaryotic green and red algae, to sponges, brachiopods, priapulids, annelids, and many different arthropod groups, as well as echinoderms and possibly one of the first chordates." [2] (URL accessed on July 5, 2006)
  7. ^ Feldkamp, S. (2002) Modern Biology. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, USA. (pp. 725)
  8. ^ Species Register. Flatworms — Phylum Platyhelminthes. Marine Discovery Centres. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  9. ^ "Kingdon Plantae Tree of Life"

Binomial name Symbion pandora Funch & Kristensen, 1995 Symbion is a genus of peculiar animals, with a single species, . It was discovered in 1995 by Reinhardt Kristensen and Peter Funch on the mouthparts of the Norwegian lobster Nephrops norvegicus. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Diversity About 4000 genera Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a nearly extinct, small phylum of benthic invertebrates. ... Priapulida (priapulid worms or penis worms, from Gr. ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata    Oligochaeta - Earthworms and others    Acanthobdellida    Branchiobdellida    Hirudinea - Leeches Class Myzostomida Class Archiannelida (polyphyletic) Class Echiura *Some authors consider the subclasses under Clitellata to be classes The annelids, collectively called Annelida, are a large phylum of animals, comprising the segmented worms, with about... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes Asteroidea Concentricycloidea Crinoidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiuroidea Echinoderms (Echinodermata) is a phylum of marine animals found in the ocean at all depths. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Etymology: Etymologies redirects here. ...

  • American Heritage Dictionary: New Latin phylum, from Greek phūlon, class.
  • Online Etymological Dictionary: from Gk. phylon "race, stock," related to phyle "tribe, clan," and phylein "bring forth" of physikos "pertaining to nature," from physis "nature"
Look up Phylum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... In biology, a cryptic species complex is a group of species that satisfy the scientific definition of species — that is, they are reproductively isolated from each other — but which are not morphologically distinguishable. ... The hierarchy of scientific classifications major eight taxonomic ranks. ... In biology, the equivalent of a phylum in the plant or the fungal kingdom is called a division. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic classification in between family and genus. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In biology, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank intermediate between phylum and superclass. ... In biology, a subgenus is a taxonomic grade intermediate between genus and species. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... The legion, in biological taxonomy, is a non-obligatory rank within the Linnaean hierarchy which is subordinate to the class but superordinate to the cohort. ... An infraspecies or infrasubspecies is a category of organisms of rank lower than subspecies. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Phylum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (233 words)
Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of life, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states.
Many phyla are exclusively marine, and only one phylum is entirely absent from the world's oceans: the Onychophora or velvet worms.
Subgroup of phylum Chordata; perhaps synonymous with Vertebrata.
M30.htm (767 words)
The molluscs rival the arthropods in their diversity of body forms and sizes, as well as their ecological success.
The phylum also provides some of the most familiar animals, such as snails, clams, mussels, squids, and octopus (which, like the arthropods, are well known because they're good to eat).
The phylum Mollusca also includes lesser known forms such as the chitons, tusk shells, solenogasters, among others.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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