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Encyclopedia > Phylogeny

In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e.g., species, populations). Phylogenetics, also known as phylogenetic systematics, treats a species as a group of lineage-connected individuals over time. Phylogenetic taxonomy, which is an offshoot of, but not a logical consequence of, phylogenetic systematics, constitutes a means of classifying groups of organisms according to degree of evolutionary relatedness. Main articles: Life The most salient example of biological universality is that all living things share a common carbon-based biochemistry and in particular pass on their characteristics via genetic material, which is based on nucleic acids such as DNA and which uses a common genetic code with only minor... Taxonomy (from Greek verb tassein = to classify and nomos = law, science, cf economy) may refer to: the science of classification (see alpha taxonomy) a classification Initially taxonomy was only the science of classifying living organisms, but later the word was applied in a wider sense, and may also refer to...

Phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually a set of species. A major task of systematics is to determine the ancestral relationships among known species (both living and extinct). The most commonly used methods to infer phylogenies include cladistics, phenetics, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. These last two depend upon a mathematical model describing the evolution of characters observed in the species included, and are usually used for molecular phylogeny where the characters are aligned nucleotide or amino acid sequences. A phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, as described initially by Carl Woese. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... Systematics is the term used by John G Bennett for the study of multi-term systems. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... In biology, phenetics, also known as numerical taxonomy, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation. ... Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a popular statistical method used to make inferences about parameters of the underlying probability distribution of a given data set. ... Bayesian inference is a statistical inference in which probabilities are interpreted not as frequencies or proportions or the like, but rather as degrees of belief. ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... Molecular phylogeny is the use of a genes molecular characteristics to classify an organism and to place it on a map of evolutionary relationships known as the phylogenetic tree. ... A nucleotide is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as RNA and DNA. A nucleotide consists of a heterocyclic nucleobase, a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxiribose), and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ...

During the late 19th century, Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory, or biogenetic law, was widely accepted. This theory was often expressed as "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", i.e. the development of an organism exactly mirrors the evolutionary development of the species. The early version of this hypothesis has since been rejected as being oversimplified. However, most modern biologists recognize numerous connections between ontogeny and phylogeny, explain them using evolutionary theory, or view them as supporting evidence for that theory. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernst Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (February 16, 1834 — August 8, 1919), also written von Haeckel, was a German biologist and philosopher who popularized Charles Darwins work in Germany. ... The theory of recapitulation, also called the biogenetic law or ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, is a hypothesis in biology first espoused in 1866 by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, a contemporary of Charles Darwin, which has been discredited in its absolute form, although recognised as being partly accurate. ... Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) describes the origin and the development of an organism from the fertilized egg to its mature form. ...

See also

Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... Types of clade PhyloCode is a draft for a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature. ... A phylogenetic tree is a tree showing the evolutionary interrelationships among various species or other entities that are believed to have a common ancestor. ... The evolutionary tree of living things is currently supposed to run something along the lines of that listed below. ... Molecular phylogeny is the use of a genes molecular characteristics to classify an organism and to place it on a map of evolutionary relationships known as the phylogenetic tree. ... Bioinformatics or computational biology is the use of techniques from applied mathematics, informatics, statistics, and computer science to solve biological problems. ... // Aerobiology Blackley, C. H. (1873) Experimental Researches on the Causes and Nature of Catarrhus Aestivus (Hay-Fever or Hay-Asthma), (Oxford Historical Books). ...

External links

Basic topics in evolutionary biology
Processes of evolution: evidence - macroevolution - microevolution - speciation
Mechanisms: selection - genetic drift - gene flow - mutation
Modes: anagenesis - catagenesis - cladogenesis
History: History of evolutionary thought - Charles Darwin - The Origin of Species - modern evolutionary synthesis
Subfields: population genetics - ecological genetics - human evolution - molecular evolution - phylogenetics - systematics - evo-devo
List of evolutionary biology topics | Timeline of evolution | Timeline of human evolution

  Results from FactBites:
Taxonomy and Phylogeny - EvoWiki (0 words)
Phylogenies are established by what distinctive features their members share to the exclusion of more distantly related organisms.
One constructs phylogenies with this technique by trying to find the family tree that involves the fewest feature changes (steps), and thus the smallest amount of convergent evolution.
Related to this conundrum is organisms that have performed much lateral gene transfer, and sometimes even lateral genome transfer (endosymbiosis), as many one-celled organisms have done.
Phylogeny (318 words)
Phylogenies are now becoming applied to more and more areas of biology, including such diverse topics as community ecology, molecular studies of development, functional anatomy, and population genetics.
Phylogenies are also being applied to very practical questions, such as identifying new diseases and their sources of transmission to humans.
Anthony Bledsoe focuses on the use of cladistic analysis to infer the phylogeny of two important groups of Neotropical passerine birds -- the ovenbirds (Furnariinae) and the tapaculos (Rhinocryptidae) -- based on a combination of myological, molecular, and behavioral data.
  More results at FactBites »



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