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Encyclopedia > Phyllotaxis

In botany, phyllotaxis is the arrangement of the leaves on the shoot of a plant. This can be alternate, opposite, whorled or in a spiral. In many cases, such as the celebrated case of the sunflower head, phyllotactic patterns involve the golden angle. Also, the number of spirals in a phyllotactic arrangement tend to be Fibonacci numbers. Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... A shoot is the fresh young growth of a plant stem. ... Divisions Green algae Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum... Binomial name Helianthus annuus The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant in the Family Asteraceae with a large flower head (inflorescence). ... In geometry, the golden angle is the angle created by dividing the circumference c of a circle into a section a and a smaller section b such that and and taking the angle of arc subtended by the length of circumference equal to b as the golden angle. ... In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers form a sequence defined recursively by: In words: you start with 0 and 1, and then produce the next Fibonacci number by adding the two previous Fibonacci numbers. ...


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Omnipresent phyllotaxis (882 words)
The essence of phyllotaxis consists in screw arrangement of leafs on plant stems (branches on trees, petals in racemes etc.).
In the phyllotaxis phenomenon the more complicated concepts of symmetry, in particular, the concept of the "screw axis of a symmetry", is used.
Botanists established that the phyllotaxis fraction from the sequence of (1) are characteristic for different plants.
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