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Encyclopedia > Phrygian language

Indo-European topics Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

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historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)
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Italic peoples · Thracians · Tocharians   For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... http://www. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... Charlemagne, first to unify the Germanic tribal confederations. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Distribution of the Luwian language (after Melchert 2003) Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), is widely used to refer to the members of any of the peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...

Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
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Indo-European studies

The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people of the central Asia Minor. The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...

Contents

Inscriptions

Phrygian is attested by two corpora, one from around 800 BC and later (Paleo-Phrygian), and then after a period of several centuries from around the beginning of the Common Era (Neo-Phrygian). The Palaeo-Phrygian corpus is further divided (geographically) into inscriptions of Midas-city (M, W), Gordion, Central (C), Bithynia (B), Pteria (P), Tyana (T), Daskyleion (Dask), Bayindir (Bay), and "various" (Dd, documents divers). The Mysian inscriptions seem to be in a separate dialect (in an alphabet with an additional letter, "Mysian s"). AD redirects here. ... For other uses, see Midas (disambiguation). ... Gordium was the capital of ancient Phrygia, modern Yassihüyük. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Pteria was the capital of the White Syrians in northern Cappadocia. ... Tyana was an ancient city of Anatolia, in modern south-eastern Turkey. ... Mysia. ...

Phrygian inscription in Midas City.
Phrygian inscription in Midas City.

It survived at least into the sixth century AD.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 281 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (357 × 760 pixels, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 281 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (357 × 760 pixels, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


We can reconstruct some words with the help of some inscriptions written with a script similar to the Greek.


Sources

Ancient historians and myths sometimes did associate Phrygian with Thracian and maybe even the Armenian, on grounds of classical sources. Herodotus recorded the Macedonian account that Phrygians emigrated into Asia Minor from Thrace (7.73). Later in the text (7.73), Herodotus states that the Armenians were colonists of the Phrygians, still considered the same in the time of Xerxes I. The earliest mention of Phrygian in Greek sources, in the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, depicts it as different from Trojan: in the hymn, Aphrodite, disguising herself as a mortal to seduce the Trojan prince Anchises, tells him The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... The Trojan language, the language spoken in the ancient city of Troy VIIa (which was probably destroyed violently c. ... Aeneas Bearing Anchises from Troy, by Carle van Loo, 1729 (Louvre) In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, son of Tros) or Hieromneme, a naiad. ...

Otreus of famous name is my father, if so be you have heard of him, and he reigns over all Phrygia rich in fortresses. But I know your speech well beside my own, for a Trojan nurse brought me up at home.

Of Trojan, unfortunately, nothing is known. The Trojan language, the language spoken in the ancient city of Troy VIIa (which was probably destroyed violently c. ...


Classification

The Phrygian language was most likely close to Thracian, Armenian and Greek. In most cases the Phrygian language used an alphabet originating with the Phoenicians. The available inscriptions in the Phrygian language have not yet been translated. Inscriptions which used a script close to the Greek, have been translated, and some of the Phrygian vocabulary identified. [2] The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...


Grammar

Its structure, what can be recovered from it, was typically Indo-European, with nouns declined for case (at least four), gender (three) and number (singular and plural), while the verbs are conjugated for tense, voice, mood, person and number. No single word is attested in all its inflectional forms. For other uses, see Indo-European. ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ...


Many words in Phrygian are very similar to the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE). Phrygian seems to exhibit an augment, like Greek and Armenian, c.f. eberet, probably corresponding to PIE *e-bher-e-t (Greek epheret). The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... In linguistics, the augment is a syllable added to the beginning of the word in certain Indo-European languages, most notably Greek (the augment survives and has been generalised in Modern Greek), Armenian, and the Indo-Iranian languages such as Sanskrit, to form the perfect, preterite, or aorist tenses. ...


Vocabulary

A sizable body of Phrygian words are theoretically known; however, the meaning and etymologies and even correct forms of many Phrygian words (mostly extracted from inscriptions) are still being debated. The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ...


A famous Phrygian word is bekos, meaning "bread". According to Herodotus (Histories 2.9) Pharaoh Psammetichus I wanted to establish the original language. For this purpose, he ordered two children to be reared by a shepherd, forbidding him to let them hear a single word, and charging him to report the children's first utterance. After two years, the shepherd reported that on entering their chamber, the children came up to him, extending their hands, calling bekos. Upon enquiry, the pharaoh discovered that this was the Phrygian word for "wheat bread", after which the Egyptians conceded that the Phrygian nation was older than theirs. The word bekos is also attested several times in Palaeo-Phrygian inscriptions on funerary stelae. Though several 19th-century amateurs suggested that it is cognate to English bake, this etymology is untenable; its etymology is unknown.[3] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Wahibre Nomen Psamtik Horus name Aaib Nebty name Neba Golden Horus Qenu Issues Nitocris I Died 610 BC Burial Sais Psammetichus, or Psamtik I, was the first of three kings of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. ... The origin of language (glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history. ...


Bedu according to Clement of Alexandria's Stromata, quoting one Neanthus of Cyzicus means "water" (PIE *wed). The Macedonians are said to have worshiped a god called Bedu, which they interpreted as "air".[citation needed] The god appears also in Orphic ritual. Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau. ...


Other Phrygian words include:

  • anar, 'husband', from PIE *ner- 'man';
cf. Gk: anēr (ανήρ) "man, husband", Alb: njeri "man, person", Kur: nēr (nêr) "male".
cf. Arm: tik "leather skin", Ger: Ziege "she-goat", Alb: dhi "she-goat", Wakhi tiγ "goat call", Ishkashmi dec "goatskin bag".
  • Bagaios, "Zeus", from PIE *bhehagos "apportioner";
cf. Avestan baga "good fortune, share", Skt bhága "the apportioner", Toch A pāk "share, part", Toch B pāke "share, part".
  • balaios, 'large, fast', from PIE *bel- 'strong';
cognate to Gk: belteros (βέλτερος) "better", Rus: bol'shói "large, great", Welsh: balch "proud", Kur: balaz (belez) "fast"
  • belte, 'swamp', from PIE *bhel-, 'to gleam';
cognate to Gk: baltos (βάλτος) "swamp", Alb: baltë (silt, mud),Bulg: blato (Old Bulg: balta) "swamp", Lith: baltas "white", Rus: bledny and Bulg bleden "pale".
  • brater, 'brother', from PIE *bhrater-, 'brother';
cognate to Gk: phrātēr (φρατήρ) "clansman, kin", Per: bratar, 'brother',Rus and Bulg: brat "brother", Kur: bra/bradar (bbra/brader) "brother".
  • daket, 'does, causes', PIE *dhe-k-, 'to set, put';
cognate to Lat: facere "to do, make", Gk: tithenai (τιθέναι) "to put, place, set" Kur: dakat (dekat/dikit) "does, causes"
  • germe, 'warm', PIE *gwher-, 'warm';
cognate to Gk: thermos (θερμός) "warm", Kur: germ "warm" , Per: garm "warm", Arm: ĵerm "warm", Alb: zjarm "warm".
  • kakon, 'harm, ill', PIE *kaka-, 'harm';
cf. Gk: kakós (κακός) "bad", Alb: keq "bad, evil", Lith: keñti "to be evil".
  • knoumane, 'grave', maybe from PIE *knu-, 'to scratch';
cognate to Gk: knaō (κνάω) "to scratch", Alb: krromë "scurf, scabies", OHG: hnuo "notch, groove", nuoen "to smooth out with a scraper", Lith: knisti "to dig".
  • manka, 'stela'.
  • mater, 'mother', from PIE *mater-, 'mother';
cf. Gk: meter (μήτηρ) "mother", Per: madar "mother", Alb: motër "sister" Kur: ma/mê "mother/female"
  • meka, 'great', from PIE *meg-, 'great';
Gk: megas "great"; Alb: madh "big", Kur: mezn (mezin) "great"
  • zamelon, 'slave', PIE *dhghom-, 'earth';
Gk: chamelos (χαμηλός) "adj. on the ground, low", Srb/Cro: zèmlja and Bulg: zèmya/zèmlishte "earth/land", Lat: humilis "low".

Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 8 million people, primarily in Albania and Serbia (province of Kosovo-Metohija), but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... The Wakhi Tajiki language is an Iranian language in the subbranch of Southeastern Iranian languages (see Pamir languages). ... The Pamir languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog (), and the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , IPA: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , IPA: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... The Kurdish language is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ...

References

  1. ^ Peter Charanis, "Ethnic Changes in the Byzantine Empire in the Seventh Century", Dumbarton Oaks Papers 13:23 (1959) at JSTOR
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of the Orient - Phrygia
  3. ^ Benjamin W. Fortson, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, Blackwell, 2004. ISBN 1405103167. p. 409

Peter Charanis (1908 - March 23, 1985) was a well known scholar of Byzantium and a professor emeritus of history at Rutgers University. ...

See also

Various alphabetic writing systems were in use in Iron Age Anatolia to record Anatolian dialects and the Phrygian language. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language (also classified with Greek) Because of the fragmentary evidence that has survived, it is unknown how closely related these languages were... This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... The Armenian language (, IPA: — , conventional short form ) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. ... Farsi redirects here. ...

External links

  • Corpus of Phrygian inscriptions
  • Lubotsky's Phrygian Etymological Database (incomplete)
  • Phrygia and Phrygians

  Results from FactBites:
 
Phrygia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2114 words)
Phrygians were mentioned by Homer as settled on the banks of the River Sangarius (now Sakarya, the second largest river in modern Turkey), which flows north and west to empty into the Black Sea.
Although the Phrygians adopted the alphabet originated by the Phoenicians, and several dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found, they remain untranslated, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources.
Ascanius and Phorcys hailed from Phrygian Ascania, by the Ascanian lake (Ascanius).
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