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Encyclopedia > Phrygia

In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: Φρυγία) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. The Phrygian people settled in the area from c. 1200 BC, and established a kingdom in the 8th century BC. It was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders c. 690 BC, then briefly conquered by its neighbor Lydia, before it passed successively into the Persian Empire of Cyrus, the empire of Alexander and his successors, was taken by the king of Pergamon, and eventually became part of the Roman Empire. The Phrygian language survived until about the 6th century AD. Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC Events and Trends 699 BC - Khallushu succeeds Shuttir-Nakhkhunte as king of the Elamite Empire 697 BC... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: KÅ«ruÅ¡,[1] modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (c. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line)

Contents

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 653 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 643 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Map of the ancient region of Phrygia, made by User:Astrokey44, with corrections by User:Amizzoni. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 653 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 643 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Map of the ancient region of Phrygia, made by User:Astrokey44, with corrections by User:Amizzoni. ...

Geography

Phrygians were mentioned by Homer as settled on the banks of the Sangarius (now Sakarya River), the third longest river in modern Turkey, which flows north and west to empty into the Black Sea. Later, Phrygia was conceived as lying west of the Halys River (now Kızıl River) and east of Mysia and Lydia. For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... The Sakarya (Greek Σαγγάριος, Latinized as Sangarius) is a river in Asia Minor. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... In the Aeneid, Halys is a Trojan who defends Aeneas camp from a Rutullian attack. ... The Kızıl River (Turkish: , Red River; ancient Greek: Άλυς Halys) is the longest river in Turkey. ... Mysia. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ...

Culture

It was the 'Great Mother', Cybele, as the Greeks and Romans knew her, who was originally worshiped in the mountains of Phrygia, where she was known as 'Mountain Mother'. In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a long belted dress, a polos (a high cylindrical headdress), and a veil covering the whole body. The later version of Cybele was established by a pupil of Phidias, the sculptor Agoracritus, and became the image most widely adopted by Cybele's expanding following, both in the Aegean world and at Rome. It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the other holding the tympanon a circular frame drum, similar to a tambourine. Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ... “Sculptor” redirects here. ... Agoracritus was a Parian and Athenian sculptor of the age of Phidias, and said to have been his favourite pupil. ... Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... “Buben” redirects here. ...

The Phrygian goddess Cybele with her attributes
The Phrygian goddess Cybele with her attributes
Phrygian costumes
Phrygian costumes

The Phrygians also venerated Sabazios, the sky and father–god depicted on horseback. Although the Greeks associated Sabazios with Zeus, representations of him, even at Roman times, show him as a horseman god. His conflicts with the indigenous Mother Goddess, whose creature was the Lunar Bull, may be surmised in the way that Sabazios' horse places a hoof on the head of a bull, in a Roman relief at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (532x712, 718 KB) Summary Cybele, Nouveau Larousse Illustre 1894. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (532x712, 718 KB) Summary Cybele, Nouveau Larousse Illustre 1894. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Phrygians. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Phrygians. ... Sabazios is the nomadic horseman sky and father god of the Phrygians and Thracians. ... God, as a male deity, contrasts with female deities, or goddesses. While the term goddess specifically refers to a female deity, words like gods and deities can be applied to all gods collectively, regardless of gender. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... [[Roman sculpture refers to the sculpture of Ancient Rome. ... Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (Doù venons-nous? Que faisons-nous? Où allons-nous?) (1897). ...


Phrygia developed an advanced Bronze Age culture. The earliest traditions of Greek music of Greece, derived from Phrygia and transmitted through the Greek colonies in Anatolia, included the Phrygian mode, which was considered to be the warlike mode in ancient Greek music. Phrygian Midas, the king of the "golden touch", was tutored in music by Orpheus himself, according to the myth. Another musical invention that came from Phrygia was the aulos, a reed instrument with two pipes. Marsyas, the satyr who first formed the instrument using the hollowed antler of a stag, was a Phrygian follower of Cybele. He unwisely competed in music with Olympian Apollo, and inevitably lost. Whereupon Apollo flayed Marsyas alive and provocatively hung his skin on Cybele's own sacred tree, a pine. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus The musical legacy of Greece is as diverse as its history. ... Due to historical confusion, Phrygian mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... For other uses, see Midas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Orpheus (disambiguation). ... A nude youth plays the aulos at a banquet: Attic red-figure cup by the Euaion Painter, ca. ... In Greek mythology, Marsyas was a satyr who challenged Apollo to a contest of music. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... For the Poet Laureate of Milwaukee, see Antler (Poet). ... Genera About 15 in 4 subfamilies. ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pine (disambiguation). ...


Phrygia retained a separate cultural identity. Classical Greek iconography identifies the Trojan Paris as non-Greek by his Phrygian cap, which was worn by Mithras and survived into modern imagery as the "Liberty cap" of the American and French revolutionaries. The Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language. (See Phrygian language.) Although the Phrygians adopted the alphabet originated by the Phoenicians, and several dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found, they remain untranslated, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources. For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... A Phrygian cap The Phrygian cap or Bonnet Phrygien is a soft, red, conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn in antiquity by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia. ... The period of the French Revolution is very important in the history of France and the world. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ... For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ...


Mythic past

Mythic kings of Phrygia were alternately named Gordias and Midas. Some sources place Tantalus as a king in Phrygia. Tantalus is endlessly punished in Tartarus because he killed his son Pelops and sacrificially offered him to the Olympians, a reference to the suppression of human sacrifice. In the mythic age before the Trojan war, during a time of interregnum, Gordius (or 'Gordias'), a Phrygian farmer, became king, fulfilling an oracular prophecy. The kingless Phrygians had turned for guidance to the oracle of Sabazios ("Zeus" to the Greeks) at Telmissus, in the part of Phrygia that later became part of Galatia. They had been instructed by the oracle to acclaim as their king the first man who rode up to the god's temple in a cart. That man was Gordias (Gordios, Gordius), a farmer, who dedicated the ox-cart in question, tied to its shaft with the "Gordian Knot." Gordias refounded a capital at Gordium in west central Anatolia, situated on the old trackway through the heart of Anatolia that became Darius' Persian "Royal Road" from Pessinus to Ancyra, and not far from the River Sangarius. ... Tantalos, by Goya In Greek mythology Tantalus (Greek Τάνταλος) was a son of Zeus[1] and the nymph Plouto (riches)[2] Thus he was a king in the primordial world, the father of a son Broteas whose very name signifies mortals (brotoi)[3] Other versions name his father as Tmolus wreathed... In classic Greek mythology, below Heaven, Earth, and Pontus is Tartarus, or Tartaros (Greek Τάρταρος, deep place). ... In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek Πέλοψ, from pelios: dark; and ops: face, eye) was venerated at Olympia, where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, the most important expression of unity, not only for the Peloponnesus, land of Pelops, but for all Hellenes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... For other uses, see Interregnum (disambiguation). ... Alexander cuts the Gordian Knot, by Jean-Simon Berthélemy ((1743&#8212;1811) The Gordian Knot is a metaphor for an intractable problem, solved by a bold stroke (cutting the Gordian knot). The myth it refers to is associated in legend with Alexander the Great. ... This article or section seems to describe future events as if they have already occurred. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alexander cuts the Gordian Knot, by Jean-Simon Berthélemy (1743–1811) The Gordian Knot is a legend associated with Alexander the Great. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Pessinus was the city in Asia Minor (presently Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey) on the upper course of the river Sangarios (modern day Sakarya River), 120 SW of Akara, from which the mythological King Midas is said to have ruled a greater Phrygian realm. ... Ankara from the Atakule Tower, looking N-NE Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. ...


Myths surrounding the first king Midas connect him with Silenus and other satyrs and with Dionysus, who granted him the famous "golden touch." In another episode he judged a musical contest between Apollo, playing the lyre, and Pan, playing the rustic pan pipes. Midas judged in favor of Pan, and Apollo awarded him the ears of an ass. In Greek mythology, sileni were a race of half-horse, half-humans, unlike the satyrs, who were half-goat. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... Pan pipes (also known as the panflute or the syrinx or quills) is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the stopped pipe, consisting usually of ten or more pipes of gradually increasing length. ... Ass may refer to: Look up ass in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Man in Phrygian costume, Hellenistic period (3rd–1st century BC), Cyprus
Man in Phrygian costume, Hellenistic period (3rd1st century BC), Cyprus

The mythic Midas of Thrace, accompanied by a band of his people, travelled to Asia Minor to wash away the taint of his unwelcome "golden touch" in the river Pactolus. Leaving the gold in the river's sands, Midas found himself in Phrygia, where he was adopted by the childless king Gordias and taken under the protection of Cybele. Acting as the visible representative of Cybele, and under her authority, it would seem, a Phrygian king could designate his successor. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (706x1103, 1171 KB) Man in Phrygian costume. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (706x1103, 1171 KB) Man in Phrygian costume. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Pactolus is a river, now in modern Turkey. ...


Homer recounts briefly that the Trojan king Priam had in his youth come to aid the Phrygians when the Amazons attacked them. (Iliad 3.189). The Phrygians were led by Otreus and Mygdon, according to Homer, who does not elaborate on these leaders. Both appear to be little more than eponyms: there was a place named Otrea near the Ascanian lake; and the Mygdones were a people said to live in the neighborhood of the Troad (there was also a Mygdonia in Macedonia). Priam's wife Hecabe is usually said to be of Phrygian birth, as a daughter of King Dymas, who ruled over the Phrygians who lived by the River Sangarius. The Phrygians sent forces to aid Troy during the Trojan War, led by Ascanius and Phorcys, the sons of Aretaon. Ascanius and Phorcys hailed from Phrygian Ascania, by the Ascanian lake (Ascanius). Asius, son of Dymas and brother of Hecabe, is another Phrygian noble who fought before Troy. Quintus Smyrnaeus mentions another Phrygian prince, named Coroebus, son of Mygdon, who fought and died at Troy; he had sued for the hand of the Trojan princess Cassandra in marriage. The connection between the Phrygians of Ascania and the Phrygians from by the River Sangarius is unclear in the Iliad, as elsewhere. The Homeric tradition is suggestive of two separate Phrygian tribes in northwest Asia Minor, each with a separate king. Nevertheless, the accounts of Phrygian potentates given by Homer and other ancient writers appear to contradict the story of Gordias and Midas. King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... There were two people named Mygdon in Greek mythology King Mygdon of Phrygia was a Phrygian king who was an ally of King Priam of Troy. ... Mygdonia was an ancient territory, later conquered by Macedon, which comprised the plains around Therma (Thessalonica) together with the valleys of Klisali and Besikia, including the area of the Axios river mouth and extending as far east as Lake Bolbe. ... 108 Hecuba is an asteroid. ... In Greek mythology, Dymas is the name of at least four characters. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Ascanius Hunting the Stag of Silvia, by Claude Lorrain (1682). ... Phorcys and Ceto, Mosaic, Late Roman, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia In Greek mythology, Phorcys, or Phorkys was one of the names of the Old One of the Sea, the primeval sea god, who, according to Hesiod, was the son of Pontus and Gaia. ... Ascanius Hunting the Stag of Silvia, by Claude Lorrain (1682). ... Asius may refer to: Asios Hyrtakides. ... In Greek mythology, Dymas is the name of at least four characters. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Greek mythology, Coroebus (Greek: &#922;&#972;&#961;&#959;&#953;&#946;&#959;&#962;) was the son of King Mygdon of Phrygia. ... There were two people named Mygdon in Greek mythology King Mygdon of Phrygia was a Phrygian king who was an ally of King Priam of Troy. ... For other uses, see Cassandra (disambiguation). ... ... For other uses, see Midas (disambiguation). ...


The Phrygian Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Phrygia. The word sibyl comes (via Latin) from the Greek word sibylla, meaning prophetess. ...


According to Herodotus (Histories 2.9), the Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus II had two children raised in isolation in order to find the original language. The children were reported to have uttered bekos which is Phrygian for "bread", so Psammetichus admitted that the Phrygians were a nation older than the Egyptians. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... praenomen or throne name nomen or birth name Psammetichus II (also spelled Psammeticus, Psammetich, and Psamtik II) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (595 BC-589 BC). ...


Josephus claimed the Phrygians were founded by the biblical figure Togarmah grandson of Japheth and son of Gomer: "and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians". A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... In the Torah, Togarmah is listed in the genealogy of nations as the son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth (Gen. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ... In medical slang, a true gomer is a patient who, in spite of old age and multiple diseases, just never seems to die. ...


History

Migration

Tomb at Midas City (6th century BC)
Tomb at Midas City (6th century BC)

After the collapse of the Hittite Empire at the beginning of the 12th century BC, the political vacuum in central/western Anatolia was filled by a wave of Indo-European migrants and "Sea Peoples", including the Phrygians, who established their kingdom, with a capital eventually at Gordium. It is still not known whether the Phrygians were actively involved in the collapse of the Hittite capital Hattusa, or whether they simply moved into the vacuum that followed the collapse of Hittite hegemony. The so called Handmade Knobbed Ware was found by archaeologists at sites from this period in Western Anatolia. According to Greek mythographers[1], the first Phrygian Midas had been king of the Moschi (Mushki), also known as Bryges (Brigi) in the western part of archaic Thrace. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2023x1398, 272 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phrygia ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2023x1398, 272 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Phrygia ... Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa (the modern village of Bo&#287;azköy in todayss north-central Turkey), through most of the second millennium BC. The Hittite kingdom, which at... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... Gordium was the capital of ancient Phrygia, modern Yassihüyük. ... Hattusa (URUḪa-at-tu-Å¡a ; ḪattuÅ¡a) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ... For other uses, see Midas (disambiguation). ... Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs/Mushki, Mushku in Akkadian, Moschoi in Greek) were an ancient, non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, indigenous tribe of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennias BC, said to be the offspring of Meshech, son of Japheth. ... Bryges or Brigi were said by Herodotus to the the name by which the Phrygians were known before they crossed the Hellespont into Anatolia, possibly associated with the collapse of the late Bronze Age. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...


8th to 7th centuries

Assyrian sources from the 8th century BC speak a king Mita of the Mushki, identified with king Midas of Phrygia. An Assyrian inscription records Mita as an ally of Sargon of Assyria in 709 BC. A distinctive Phrygian pottery called Polished Ware appears in the 8th century BC. The Phrygians founded a powerful kingdom which lasted until the Lydian ascendancy (7th century BC). Under kings alternately named Gordias and Midas, the independent Phrygian kingdom of the 8th and 7th centuries BC maintained close trade contacts with the her neighbours in the east and the Greeks in the west. Phrygia seems to have been able to co-exist with whichever was the dominant power in eastern Anatolia at the time. The Mushki (Muški) were an Iron Age people of Anatolia, known from and Assyrian sources. ... Sargon II (right), king of Assyria (r. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... Lydian was an Indo-European language, one of the Anatolian languages, that was spoken in the city-state of Lydia in Anatolia, present day Turkey. ...


The invasion of Anatolia in the late 8th century BC to early 7th century BC by the Cimmerians was to prove fatal to independent Phrygia. Cimmerian pressure and attacks culminated in the suicide of its last king, Midas, according to legend. Gordium fell to the Cimmerians in 696 BC and was sacked and burnt, as reported much later by Herodotus. The Cimmerians were an ancient people of Iranian origin, who lived in the south of modern-day Ukraine (Crimea and northern Black sea coast) and Russia (Black Sea coast and Caucasus), at least in the 8th and 7th century BC. Little is known about them, but they were mentioned in...


A series of digs have opened Gordium as one of Turkey's most revealing archeological sites. Excavations confirm a violent destruction of Gordion around 675 BC. A tomb of the Midas period, popularly identified as the "Tomb of Midas" revealed a wooden structure deeply buried under a vast tumulus, containing grave goods, coffin, furniture, food offerings, (Archaeological Museum, Ankara). The Gordium site contains a considerable later building program, perhaps by Alyattes, the Lydian king, in the 6th century BC.


Minor Phrygian kingdoms continued to exist after the end of the Phrygian empire, and the Phrygian art and culture continued to flourish. Cimmerian people stayed in Anatolia but do not appear to have created a kingdom of their own. The Lydians repulsed the Cimmerians in the 620s, and Phrygia was subsumed into a short-lived Lydian empire. The eastern part of the former Phrygian empire fell into the hands of the Medes in 585 BC. Mede nobility. ...


According to Herodotus, the Armenians moving to the area of Lake Van in about the 7th century BC were colonists of the Phrygians. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Lake Van Landsat photo A number of sources report that Lake Van shelters a monster (Monster of Lake Van-Van Gölü Canavarı), and a 4-meter high statue has been erected to its honor. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of...


Croesus' Lydian Empire

Under the proverbially rich king Croesus, (r. 560–546 BC), Phrygia remained part of the Lydian empire that extended east to the Halys River. There may be an echo of strife with Lydia and perhaps a veiled reference to royal hostages, in the legend of the twice-unlucky Adrastus, the son of a king Gordias with the Queen, Eurynome. He accidentally killed his brother and exiled himself to Lydia, where King Croesus welcomed him. Once again, Adrastus accidentally killed Croesus' son and then committed suicide.


Persian Empire

Lydian Croesus was conquered by Cyrus in 546 BC, and Phrygia passed under Persian dominion. After Darius became Persian Emperor in 521 BC he remade the ancient trade route into the Persian "Royal Road" and instituted administrative reforms that included setting up satrapies. The capital of the Phrygian satrapy was established at Dascylion. Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king...


Under Persian rule, the Phrygians seem to have lost their intellectual acuity and independence. Phrygians became stereotyped among later Greeks and the Romans as passive and dull. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Alexander and the successors

Alexander the Great passed through Gordium in 333 BC, famously severing the Gordian Knot in the temple of Sabazios "Zeus". The legend (possibly promulgated by Alexander's publicists) was that whoever untied the knot would be master of Asia. With Gordium sited on the Persian Royal Road that led through the heart of Anatolia, the prophecy had some geographical plausibility. With Alexander, Phrygia became part of the wider Hellenistic world. After Alexander's death, his successors squabbled over Anatolian dominions. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Gordium was the capital of ancient Phrygia, modern Yassihüyük. ... Alexander cuts the Gordian Knot, by Jean-Simon Berthélemy (1743–1811) The Gordian Knot is a legend associated with Alexander the Great. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... The Persian Royal Road was an ancient highway built by the Persian king Darius I in the 5th Century BCE. Darius built the road to facilitate rapid communication throughout his very large empire from Susa to Sardis. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...


Gauls overran the eastern part of Phrygia which became part of Galatia. The former capital of Gordium was captured and destroyed by the Gauls soon afterwards and disappeared from history. In imperial times only a small village existed on the site and, in 188 BC, the remnant of Phrygia came under control of Pergamon. In 133 BC, western Phrygia passed to Rome. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river...


Rome

For purposes of provincial administration the Romans maintained a divided Phrygia, attaching the northeastern part to the province of Galatia and the western portion to the province of Asia. Phrygia ceased to exist on the map. The name Phrygia continued in intermittent use until the collapse of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ...


See also

The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ... A Phrygian cap The Phrygian cap or Bonnet Phrygien is a soft, red, conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn in antiquity by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language (also classified with Greek) Because of the fragmentary evidence that has survived, it is unknown how closely related these languages were... The Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC The so-called Neo-Hittite or post-Hittite states were Luwian-speaking political entities of Iron Age Syria that arose after the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1180 BC and lasted until roughly 700 BC, the time of...

References and notes

  1. ^ JG MacQueen, The Hittites and their contemporaries in Asia Minor, 1986, p. 157.

External links

  • Phrygian Period in Anatolia
  • 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Phrygia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Phrygia (590 words)
The boundaries of the Phrygia varied through the centuries.
Later mythic kings of Phrygia were alternately named Gordias and Midas.
It is assumed that Phrygia was feudal, but in addition large lands were owned by cult centres and the high priests.
Phrygia - LoveToKnow 1911 (5129 words)
Between 680 and 670 the Cimmerians in their destructive progress over Asia Minor overran Phrygia; the king Midas in despair put an end to his own life; and from henceforth the history of Phrygia is a story of slavery, degradation and decay, which contrasts strangely with the earlier legends.
Almost the whole of Byzantine Phrygia is now included in the vilayet of Brusa, with the exception of a small part of Parorius and the district about Themisonium (Karayuk Bazar) and Ceretapa (Kayadibi), which belong to the vilayet of Konia, and the district of Laodicea and Hierapolis, which belongs to Aidin.
Phrygia Parorius and all the river-valleys are exceedingly fertile, and agriculture was the chief occupation of the ancient inhabitants; according to the myth, Gordius was called from the plough to the throne.
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