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Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrēn, "mind"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is a theory which claims to be able to determine character, personality traits and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head (i.e., by reading "bumps" and "fissures"). Developed by German physician Franz Joseph Gall around 1800, the discipline was very popular in the 19th century. In 1843, François Magendie referred to phrenology as "a pseudo-science of the present day"[1] Phrenology thinking was, however, influential in 19th century psychiatry and modern neuroscience.[2] Phrenology is based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions (see in particular, Brodmann's areas) or modules (see modularity of mind).[3] In other words, phrenologists believed that the mind has a set of different mental faculties, with each particular faculty represented in a different portion (or organ) of the brain. These areas were said to be proportional to a given individual's propensities and the importance of a given mental faculty, as well as the overall conformation of the cranial bone to reflect differences among individuals. This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... F.J. Gall Franz Joseph Gall (March 9, 1758 - August 22, 1828) was a neuroanatomist and physiologist who was a pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain. ... François Magendie (1783 - 1855), French physiologist. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... A Brodmann area is a region in the brain cortex defined in many different species based on its cytoarchitecture. ... Modularity of mind is the notion that a mind, at least in part, may be composed of separate innate structures which have established evolutionarily-developed functional purposes (ie. ... Faculty psychology is a view of the mind as having seperare modules or faculties assigned to various mental tasks. ...

Phrenology, which focuses on personality and character, should be distinguished from craniometry, which is the study of skull size, weight and shape, and physiognomy, the study of facial features. However, these disciplines have claimed the ability to predict personality traits or intelligence (in fields such as anthropology/ethnology), and were sometimes posed to scientifically justify racism. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Physiognomy (Gk. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... Scientific racism is a term that describes either obsolete scientific theories of the 19th century or historical and contemporary racist propaganda disguised as scientific research. ...

A 19th century phrenology chart. The inscription on the neck reads, "Know yourself."


Image File history File links Phrenology1. ... Image File history File links Phrenology1. ... The Ancient Greek aphorism Know yourself (Greek: γνῶθι σεαυτόν or gnothi seauton) was inscribed at the lintel of the entrance to the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. ...


A definition of phrenology with chart from Webster's Academic Dictionary, circa 1895

The attempt to locate faculties of personality within the head can be compared to the attempt of philosopher Aristotle of ancient Greece to localize anger in the liver. However, the first attempts to scientifically measure skull shape and its alleged relation to character were performed by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828), who is considered the founding father of phrenology. Gall was one of the first to consider the brain to be the source of all mental activity. Download high resolution version (710x1200, 2130 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (710x1200, 2130 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... F.J. Gall Franz Joseph Gall (March 9, 1758 - August 22, 1828) was a neuroanatomist and physiologist who was a pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain. ...

In the introduction to his main work The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, and of the Brain in Particular, Gall makes the following statement in regard to his doctrinal principles, which comprise the intellectual foundation of phrenology:

  • That moral and intellectual faculties are innate
  • That their exercise or manifestation depends on organization
  • That the brain is the organ of all the propensities, sentiments and faculties
  • That the brain is composed of as many particular organs as there are propensities, sentiments and faculties which differ essentially from each other.
  • That the form of the head or cranium represents the form of the brain, and thus reflects the relative development of the brain organs.

Through careful observation and extensive experimentation, Gall believed he had linked aspects of character, called faculties, to precise organs in the brain. Gall's most important collaborator was Johann Spurzheim (1776-1832), who successfully disseminated phrenology in the United Kingdom and the United States. He popularized the term phrenology. The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832) was a German physician who became one of the chief proponents of phrenology, a branch of the neurosciences created approximately in 1800 by Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828). ...

Other significant authors on the subject include the Scottish brothers George Combe (1788-1858) and Andrew Combe (1797-1847). George Combe was the author of some of the most popular works on phrenology and mental hygiene, e.g., The Constitution of Man and Elements of Phrenology. This article is about the country. ... George Combe (1788 - 1858) was a writer on phrenology and education, born in Edinburgh, where for some time he practised as a lawyer. ... Andrew Combe (1797-1847), Scottish physiologist; was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the October 27th, 1797, and was a younger brother of George Combe. ...

The American brothers Lorenzo Niles Fowler (1811-1896) and Orson Squire Fowler (1809-1887) were leading phrenologists of their time. Orson, together with associates Samuel Wells and Nelson Sizer, ran the phrenological firm and publishing house Fowlers & Wells in New York City. Lorenzo spent much of his life in England where he set up the famous phrenological publishing house, L.N Fowler & Co., where he gained considerable fame with his phrenology head (a china head showing the phrenological faculties), which has become a symbol of the discipline. Plans for his octagon house Orson Squire Fowler (October 11, 1809 - August 18, 1887) was a phrenologist who popularized the octagon house in the middle of the nineteenth century. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

1848 edition of American Phrenological Journal published by Fowlers & Wells, New York City.

In the Victorian age, phrenology was often taken quite seriously. Many prominent public figures such as the Reverend Henry Ward Beecher (a college classmate and initial partner of Orson Fowler) actively promoted phrenology as a source of psychological insight and personal growth. British Prime Minister Lloyd George was known to have a keen interest in the subject, once contriving a meeting with C.P. Snow after noticing that the author had "an interestingly shaped head." Thousands of people consulted phrenologists to get advice in various matters, such as hiring personnel or finding suitable marriage partners. However, phrenology was rejected by mainstream academia, and was excluded from the British Association for the Advancement of Science. The popularity of phrenology fluctuated throughout the 19th century, with some researchers comparing the field to astrology, chiromancy, or merely a fairground attraction, while others wrote serious scientific articles on the subject. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1366, 1017 KB) Summary I scanned the cover of this journal myself, which was located in my University library. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1366, 1017 KB) Summary I scanned the cover of this journal myself, which was located in my University library. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... C. P. Snow, born Charles Percy Snow, (1905-1980) was a scientist and novelist. ... The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating intercourse between scientific workers. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... The Fortune Teller, by Caravaggio (1594–95; Canvas; Louvre), depicting a palm reading Chiromancy or cheiromancy, (Greek cheir, “hand”; manteia, “divination”), is the art of characterization and foretelling the future through the study of the palm, also known as palmistry, palm-reading, chirology or hand analysis. ...

Phrenology was also very popular in the United States, where automatic devices for phrenological analysis were devised. One such Automatic Electric Phrenometer is displayed in the Collection of Questionable Medical Devices in the Science Museum of Minnesota in Saint Paul. The Science Museum of Minnesota is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization governed by a board of trustees, staffed by over 500 employees and over 1,600 volunteers located in the states capital city of Saint Paul which focuses on topics in technology and natural history. ... For an overview of the Twin Cities metropolitan area, see Minneapolis-Saint Paul. ...

In the early 20th century, phrenology benefitted from revived interest, partly fueled by the studies of evolutionism, criminology and anthropology (as pursued by Cesare Lombroso). The most prominent British phrenologist of the 20th century was the famous London psychiatrist Bernard Hollander (1864-1934). His main works, The Mental Function of the Brain (1901) and Scientific Phrenology (1902) are an appraisal of the Gall's teachings. Hollander introduced a quantitative approach to the phrenological diagnosis, defining a methodology for measuring the skull, and comparing the measurements with statistical averages. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Cesare Lombroso Cesare Lombroso (Verona, November 6, 1835 - Turin, October 19, 1909) was a historical figure in modern criminology, and the founder of the Italian Positivist School of criminology. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Bernard Hollander (1864-1934) was a London psychiatrist and one of the main proponents of the new interest in phrenology in the early 20th century. ...

Phrenology was practiced by some scientists promoting racist ideologies, including Nazism. They used (often self-contradictory) phrenological claims, among other "biological evidence", as a "scientific" basis for Aryan racial superiority. This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...

In Belgium, Paul Bouts (1900-1999) began studying phrenology from a pedagogical background, using the phrenological analysis to define an individual pedagogy. Combining phrenology with typology and graphology, he coined a global approach known as psychognomy. Paul Bouts Paul Bouts (Lanklaar, Belgium, February 27, 1900 - Rotselaar, Belgium, March 7, 1999). ... Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the... The word typology literally means the study of types. ... Graphology is the study and analysis of handwriting especially in relation to human psychology. ... Psychognomy is a theory to describe human character defined by the Belgian Paul Bouts. ...

Prof. Bouts, a Roman Catholic priest, became the main promoter of renewed 20th century interest in phrenology and psychognomy in Belgium. He was also active in Brazil and Canada, where he founded institutes for characterology. His works Psychognomie and Les Grandioses Destinées individuelle et humaine dans la lumière de la Caractérologie et de l'Evolution cérébro-cranienne are considered standard works in the field. In the latter work, which examines the subject of paleoanthropology, Bouts developed a teleological and orthogenetical view on a perfecting evolution, from the paleo-encephalical skull shapes of prehistoric man, which he considered still prevalent in criminals and savages, towards a higher form of mankind. Bouts died on March 7, 1999, after which his work has been continued by the Dutch foundation PPP (Per Pulchritudinem in Pulchritudine), operated by Anette Müller, one of Bouts' students. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Paleoanthropology, which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. ... Teleology (telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. ... Orthogenesis, orthogenetic evolution or autogenesis, is the hypothesis that life has an innate tendency to move in a unilinear fashion due to some internal or external driving force. The hypothesis is based on Essentialism, finalism and cosmic teleology and proposes an intrinsic drive which slowly transforms species. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

Empirical refutation induced most scientists to abandon phrenology as a science by the early 20th century. For example, various cases were observed of clearly aggressive persons displaying a well-developed "benevolent organ", findings that contradicted the logic of the discipline. With advances in the studies of psychology and psychiatry, many scientists became skeptical of the claim that human character can be determined by simple, external measures. For a characteristic of many gods, see omnibenevolence For the phrenological faculty, see Benevolence (Phrenology) Look up Benevolence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ...

On Monday, October 1, 2007 the State of Michigan began to impose a tax on phrenology services.


Phrenology was a complex process that involved feeling the bumps in the skull to determine an individual's psychological attributes. Franz Joseph Gall first believed that the brain was made up of 27 individual 'organs' that created one's personality, with the first 19 of these 'organs' believed to exist in other animal species. Phrenologists would run their fingertips and palms over the skulls of their patients to feel for enlargements or indentations. The phrenologist would usually take measurements of the overall head size using a caliper. With this information, the phrenologist would assess the character and temperament of the patient and address each of the 27 "brain organs". This type of analysis was used to predict the kinds of relationships and behaviors to which the patient was prone. In its heyday during the 1820s-1840s, phrenology was often used to predict a child's future life, to assess prospective marriage partners and to provide background checks for job applicants. F.J. Gall Franz Joseph Gall (March 9, 1758 - August 22, 1828) was a neuroanatomist and physiologist who was a pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain. ... For the brake caliper, see disc brake. ...

Gall's list of the "brain organs" was lengthy and specific, as he believed that each bump or indentation in a patient's skull corresponded to his "brain map". An enlarged bump meant that the patient utilized that particular "organ" extensively. The 27 areas were highly varied in function, from sense of color, to the likelihood of religiosity, to the potential to commit murder. Each of the 27 "brain organs" was found in a specific area of the skull. As the phrenologist felt the skull, he could refer to a numbered diagram showing where each functional area was believed to be located. This article is about the biological unit. ...

The 27 "brain organs" were:

  1. The instinct of reproduction (located in the cerebellum).
  2. The love of one's offspring.
  3. Affection and friendship.
  4. The instinct of self-defense and courage; the tendency to get into fights.
  5. The carnivorous instinct; the tendency to murder.
  6. Guile; acuteness; cleverness.
  7. The feeling of property; the instinct of stocking up on food (in animals); covetousness; the tendency to steal.
  8. Pride; arrogance; haughtiness; love of authority; loftiness.
  9. Vanity; ambition; love of glory (a quality "beneficent for the individual and for society").
  10. Circumspection; forethought.
  11. The memory of things; the memory of facts; educability; perfectibility.
  12. The sense of places; of space proportions.
  13. The memory of people; the sense of people.
  14. The memory of words.
  15. The sense of language; of speech.
  16. The sense of colors.
  17. The sense of sounds; the gift of music.
  18. The sense of connectedness between numbers.
  19. The sense of mechanics, of construction; the talent for architecture.
  20. Comparative sagacity.
  21. The sense of metaphysics.
  22. The sense of satire; the sense of witticism.
  23. The poetical talent.
  24. Kindness; benevolence; gentleness; compassion; sensitivity; moral sense.
  25. The faculty to imitate; the mimic.
  26. The organ of religion.
  27. The firmness of purpose; constancy; perseverance; obstinacy.

For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... The cerebellum (Latin: little brain) is a region of the brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. ... In biology, offspring are the product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents. ... For the change in vowel and consonant quality in Celtic languages, see Affection (linguistics). ... For other uses, see Friendship (disambiguation). ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... For other uses, see Courage (disambiguation). ... Pride is the name of an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. ... For other meanings of vanity, see vanity (disambiguation). ... This article is about building architecture. ... Sagacity of Victoria is the largest kink-friendly pansexual alternative lifestyle organization on Vancouver Island. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Wit is a form of intellectual humour, based on manipulation of concepts; a wit is someone who excels in witty remarks, typically in conversation and spontaneously, since wit carries the connotation of speed of thought. ... For a characteristic of many gods, see omnibenevolence For the phrenological faculty, see Benevolence (Phrenology) Look up Benevolence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Perseverance Perseverance was an early steam locomotive that took part in the Rainhill Trials. ...

Phrenology as a pseudoscience

Phrenology has long been dismissed as a pseudoscience, in the wake of neurological advances. During the discipline's heyday, phrenologists including Gall committed many errors in the name of science. In the book, The Beginner's Guide to Scientific Method by Stephen S. Carey, it is explained that pseudoscience can be defined as "fallacious applications of the scientific method" by today's standards. Phrenologists inferred dubious inferences between bumps in people's skulls and their personalities, claiming that the bumps were the determinant of personality. Some of the more valid assumptions of phrenology (e.g., that mental processes can be localized in the brain) remain in modern neuroimaging techniques and modularity of mind theory. Through advancements in modern medicine and neuroscience, the scientific community has generally concluded that feeling conformations of the outer skull is not an accurate predictor of behavior. A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... F.J. Gall Franz Joseph Gall (March 9, 1758 - August 22, 1828) was a neuroanatomist and physiologist who was a pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain. ... A logical fallacy is an error in logical argument which is independent of the truth of the premises. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Neuroimaging includes the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the brain. ... Modularity of mind is the notion that a mind, at least in part, may be composed of separate innate structures which have established evolutionarily-developed functional purposes (ie. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ...

Popular culture

  • Charlotte Brontë, as well as her two famous Bronte sisters, display the belief in phrenology in their works.
  • The television personality Stephen Colbert, played by the comedian of the same name, claims to be a proponent of phrenology. In the February 8, 2007 episode of The Colbert Report, Colbert waved off "speculation" about a presidential bid, claiming that he must first sit down with his family, and his phrenologist. "I know these lumps are trying to tell me something." He said, adding, "Phrenology is the study of lumps on your head. It'd be another good campaign slogan." [1]
  • Popular Indian-English writer Amitav Ghosh's first novel The Circle of Reason (1986) has one of the main characters, Balaram practice phrenology obsessively.
  • The QI Book, The Book of General Ignorance, has a "phrenology bust" pictured on the dust jacket.
  • On the popular television sitcom The Simpsons, the character Mr. Burns practiced phrenology in the episode "Mother Simpson", prompting his assistant Smithers to inform him that it was "dismissed as quackery 160 years ago."
  • Terry Pratchett, in his Discworld series of books, describes the practice of Retro-phrenology as the practice of altering someone's character by giving them bumps on the head. You can go into a shop in Ankh-Morpork and order an artistic temperament with a tendency to introspection. What you actually get is hit on the head with a large hammer, but it keeps the money in circulation and gives people something to do. This was first described in Mr Midshipman Easy, where a vacuum pump was used to enlarge organs.
  • The comedy-musical play Heid (pronounced 'Heed', a Scottish inflection of the word 'Head') by Forbes Masson alluded to the phrenology work of George Combe, citing the pseudoscience's influence on a young Charles Darwin as an inspiration for writers.
  • The hip-hop group The Roots released an album in 2002 called Phrenology, using the term to discuss race.
  • The film Pi depicts the main character, Max, outlining a portion of his skull according to a phrenology chart and proceeding to drill into that section to destroy a part of his brain that contained important information of a mathematical sequence that he thought nobody should know.
  • The film Men at Work contains a joke about a phrenology bust.
  • In the episode "Duh Bomb" in the TV show Kenan & Kel, a woman practices phrenology on Kel's head.
  • The Online store "Inner Coma Clothing Co.[2]." Refers to the section of the site that sells hats as its "Phrenology" section.
  • The cover art of the Bob Schneider album Lonelyland depicts a phrenology chart.
  • In the computer game American McGee's Alice, a phrenology chart appears on the wall of the initial room in the level Skool Daze. A portion on the back of the neck is labeled "fear" (in place of "sublimity" on the original chart).

Charlotte Brontë (IPA: ) (April 21, 1816 – March 31, 1855) was an English novelist and the eldest of the three Brontë sisters whose novels have become timeless pieces of English literature. ... This article is about Stephen Colbert, the character. ... This article is about Stephen Colbert, the actor. ... The Colbert Report (IPA ) is an American satirical television program that airs from 11:30 p. ... For the banker, see Amitav Ghosh (banker). ... For other uses, see Qi (disambiguation). ... The dust jacket (sometimes dust wrapper, abbreviated dj or dw) of a hardback book is the paper, usually illustrated and including front and back flaps, that protects the binding of the book from scratches. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Mr. ... Mother Simpson is the eighth episode of The Simpsons seventh season. ... Waylon Smithers, Jr. ... Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948) is a British fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. ... This article is about the novels. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Ankh-Morpork is a fictional city-state which prominently features in Terry Pratchetts Discworld series of fantasy novels. ... Mr. ... // Forbes Masson (born August 17, 1963, Falkirk, Scotland) is a British actor and writer best known for his classical theatre roles and comedy partnership with Alan Cumming. ... George Combe (1788 - 1858) was a writer on phrenology and education, born in Edinburgh, where for some time he practised as a lawyer. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... The Roots, also variously known as The Legendary Roots Crew, The Fifth Dynasty, The Square Roots and The Foundation, are an influential, Grammy-winning hip-hop band based out of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, famed for a heavily jazzy sound and live instrumentation. ... Phrenology (Released November 26, 2002) is the sixth album from The Roots. ... π (or Pi) is a 1998 American psychological thriller directed by Darren Aronofsky. ... Men at Work is an action/comedy film directed and produced by Emilio Estevez. ... Physiognomy (Gk. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Kenan & Kel is an American sitcom that aired on Nickelodeon from August 17, 1996 to April 1, 2000, totalling 62 episodes. ... American McGees Alice is a third-person shooter computer game released on October 6, 2000. ... This article is about the musical group. ... TMBG studio album chronology The Else is the twelfth studio album by rock duo They Might Be Giants, released by Idlewild Records in 2007. ... This article is about the rock group. ... Vitalogy is a loose concept album by the band Pearl Jam, released on December 6, 1994 (see 1994 in music). ... Freddy Pharkas: Frontier Pharmacist is a comic Old West adventure game created by Al Lowe, the creator of Leisure Suit Larry series, and published by Sierra On-Line. ...

Related disciplines

Physiognomy (Gk. ... Pathognomy is the study of passions and emotions. ... Characterology is a method of character reading developed in the 1920s that attempted to combine revised Physiognomy, reconstructed Phrenology, and amplified Pathognomy with ethnology, sociology, and anthropology. ... // According to A Dictionary of Psychology by Andrew M. Colman (second edition: Oxford University Press, 2006), personology is a psychoanalytic term ...introduced by the US psychologist Henry Alexander Murray (1893-1988) to denote a theory of personality and social behaviour in which a persons needs and personality are considered... Psychognomy is a theory to describe human character defined by the Belgian Paul Bouts. ...

See also

Vitruvian Man, by Leonardo da Vinci. ... Modularity of mind is the notion that a mind, at least in part, may be composed of separate innate structures which have established evolutionarily-developed functional purposes (ie. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Renato M.E. Sabbatini Renato Marcos Endrizzi Sabbatini, Brazilian biomedical and computer scientist, educator, science writer, entrepreneur and administrator, born in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, on 20 February 1947. ... The New England Skeptical Society (NESS) is a non-profit educational organization dedicated to promoting science and reason. ...


  • Debby Applegate, The Most Famous Man in America: The Biography of Henry Ward Beecher. Doubleday, 2006.
  • Picture of Fowler Phrenology Head: Fowler Phrenology Head
  • Stephen S. Carey, "The Beginner's Guide to Scientific Method." Thomson, 2004.


  1. ^ Magendie, F (1843) An Elementary Treatise on Human Physiology. 5th Ed. Tr. John Revere. New York: Harper, p 150. (note the hyphen).
  2. ^ Simpson, D. (2005) Phrenology and the neurosciences: contributions of F. J. Gall and J. G. Spurzheim ANZ Journal of Surgery. Oxford. Vol.75.6; p.475
  3. ^ Fodor, Jerry A. (1983). Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-56025-9 p.14, 23, 131 See also, Modularity of mind
  4. ^ Edward Hungerford. "Poe and Phrenology", American Literature 1(1930): 209-31.
  5. ^ Erik Grayson. "Weird Science, Weirder Unity: Phrenology and Physiognomy in Edgar Allan Poe" Mode 1 (2005): 56-77. Also online.

  Results from FactBites:
Phrenology (369 words)
Phrenology became the basis for many things, from the selection of marriage partners to employees for the workplace; as a diagnostic tool for mental illness to a way of determining personality profiles— but mainly to generate money.
Phrenology parlors were everywhere between 1820 and 1842, giving rise to many inventions.
Phrenology machines made it possible for a person to get a detailed interpretation of their personality by allowing a helmet to descend upon his or her head and measure and read the bumps on the skull.
phrenology (849 words)
Phrenology is the study of the structure of the skull to determine a person's character and mental capacity.
Phrenology advanced the correct notions that the human brain is the seat of character, emotions, perception, intellect, etc., and that different parts of the brain are responsible for different mental functions.
Phrenology was highly praised by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Horace Mann, Thomas Edison, and Alfred Russell Wallace.
  More results at FactBites »



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