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Encyclopedia > Phrenic nerve
Nerve: Phrenic nerve
The phrenic nerve and its relations with the vagus nerve. (Phrenic labeled at upper left.)
Plan of the cervical plexus. (Phrenic labeled at bottom right.)
Latin nervus phrenicus
Gray's subject #210 928
From C3-C5 of cervical plexus
Dorlands/Elsevier n_05/12566505

The phrenic nerve arises from the third, fourth, and fifth cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5) in humans. It arises from the fifth, sixth and seventh cervical spinal nerves (C5-7) in most domestic animals. Image File history File links Gray806. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... Image File history File links Gray804. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The cervical plexus is a plexus of the ventral roots of the first four cervical spinal nerves which are located from C1 to C4 cervical segment near the neck. ... Elseviers logo. ... The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... This is a list of animals that have been domesticated by humans. ...

Contents

Function

The phrenic nerve is made up mostly of motor nerve fibres for producing contractions of the diaphragm. In addition, it provides sensory innervation for many components of the mediastinum and pleura, as well as the upper abdomen, especially the liver and gall bladder. Look up diaphragm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... FIG. 967– Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest), surrounded by loose connective tissue. ... In anatomy, the pleural cavity is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ...


Path

Both phrenic nerves run from C3, C4 and C5 along the anterior scalene muscle deep to the carotid sheath. The scalene muscles are a group of three pairs of muscles in the lateral neck, namely the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • The right phrenic nerve passes over the right brachiocephalic artery, the subclavian vein, and then crosses the root of the ololo right lung and then leaves the thorax by passing through the vena cava hiatus opening in the diaphragm at the level of T8. The right phrenic nerve passes over the right atrium.
  • The left phrenic nerve passes over the left ventricle and pierces the diaphragm separately.

Both these nerves supply motor fibres to the diaphragm and sensory fibres to the fibrous pericardium, mediastinal pleura and diaphragmatic peritoneum. The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck. ... The subclavian vein is a continuation of the axillary vein and runs from the outer border of the first rib to the medial border of anterior scalene muscle. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... The caval opening is a hiatus in the diaphragm of humans through which passes the inferior vena cava, the wall of which is adherent to the margins of the opening, and some branches of the right phrenic nerve. ... This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber) and pumps it out of the heart. ... The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels. ... Different portions of the parietal pleura have received special names which indicate their position: thus, that portion which lines the inner surfaces of the ribs and Intercostales is the costal pleura; that clothing the convex surface of the diaphragm is the diaphragmatic pleura; that which rises into the neck, over... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ...


The pericardiacophrenic artery and vein(s) travel with the phrenic nerve. The pericardiacophrenic artery is a long slender branch, that accompanies the phrenic nerve, between the pleura and pericardium, to the diaphragm, to which it is distributed; it anastomoses with the musculophrenic and inferior phrenic arteries. ...


Clinical relevance

Pain arising from structures served by the phrenic nerve is often "referred" to other somatic regions served askiker by spinal nerves C3-C5. For example, a subphrenic abscess (beneath the diaphragm) might cause a patient to feel pain in the right shoulder. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Irritation of the phrenic nerve (or the tissues supplied by it) leads to the hiccup reflex. A hiccup is a spasmodic contraction of the diaphram, which pulls air against the closed folds of the larynx. A hiccup or hiccough (generally pronounced HICK-cup (IPA: /ˈhɪ.kəp/) independent of the spelling) is an involuntary spasm of the diaphragm; typically this repeats several times a minute. ... The larynx (plural larynges), colloquially known as the voicebox, is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea and sound production. ...


The phrenic nerve must be identified during thoracic surgery and preserved. It passes anterior to the hilum of the corresponding lung, and therefore can be identified easily. Severing the phrenic nerve will paralyse that half of the diaphragm. Breathing will be made more difficult but will continue provided the other nerve is intact. the main purpose of this is to make life worst and make you suffer like your in hell as the way you wanted. and the pain will stay to remind you each day that your weak and you'll never be great..loser. A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Anatomic nomenclature for a depression or pit at the part of an organ where vessels and nerves enter. ...


Additional images

External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Phrenic nerve (1771 words)
The pericardiacophrenic artery is a long slender branch, that accompanies the phrenic nerve, between the pleura and pericardium, to the diaphragm, to which it is distributed; it anastomoses with the musculophrenic and inferior phrenic arteries.
The well-studied motor innervation of the diaphragm by the phrenic nerve arises from motor neurons in the ventral horn of the cervical spinal cord (Jammes et al., 1995).
The length of phrenic nerve was measured from the stimulating electrodes to the dorsal root entry zone to calculate the conduction velocity of the phrenic nerve afferents.
IX. Neurology. 6b. The Anterior Divisions. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. (5780 words)
818) arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and its fibers are derived from the fifth and sixth cervical nerves.
It communicates with the superficial branch of the radial nerve, and with the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve.
The branches of the ulnar nerve are: articular to the elbow-joint, muscular, palmar cutaneous, dorsal, and volar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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