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Encyclopedia > Phragmites

This article is about common reed. For other plants called "reed", see Reed (plant). species Pragmites australis Reed is a generic term used to describe numerous plants including: Common Reed (Phragmites australis Cav. ...

Phragmites
Phragmites australis seed head in winter
Phragmites australis seed head in winter
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Phragmites
Species: P. australis
Binomial name
Phragmites australis
(Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.

Phragmites australis, the common reed, is a large perennial grass found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world. It is generally regarded as the sole species of the genus Phragmites, though some botanists divide Phragmites australis into three or four species. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (781x1024, 260 KB) Beschreibung: Schilfrohr (Phragmites australis) Fotograf: Darkone, 15. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... families see text Poales is a botanical name at the rank of order. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Antonio José Cavanilles (January 16, 1745 - May 4, 1804) was the leading Spanish taxonomic botanist of the 18th century. ... Ernst Gottlieb von Steudel (1783-1856) was a German physician and an authority on grasses. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ...

Contents

Growth

Common reed commonly forms extensive stands (known as reed beds), which may be as much as a square kilometre or more in extent. Where conditions are suitable it can spread at 5 m or more per year by horizontal runners, which put down roots at regular intervals. It can grow in damp ground, in standing water (up to a metre or so deep), or even as a floating mat. The erect stems grow to 2–6 m tall, with the tallest plants growing in areas with hot summers and fertile growing conditions. A reed bed in summer Reed beds are a natural habitat that are found in floodplains, waterlogged depressions and estuaries. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ...


The leaves are broad for a grass, 20–50 cm long and 2–3 cm broad. The flowers are produced in late summer in a dense, dark purple panicle, about 20–50 cm long. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structures holding the fruits. ...


Common reed requires neutral or alkaline water conditions, and so it does not usually occur where the water is acidic. It tolerates brackish water, and so is often found at the upper edges of estuaries and on other wetlands (such as grazing marsh) which are occasionally inundated by the sea. Brackish water is water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as sea water. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ...


Common reed is suppressed where it is grazed regularly by livestock. Under these conditions it either grows as small shoots within the grassland sward, or it disappears altogether.


Taxonomy

The generally accepted botanical name of common reed is Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. However, it is still often known as Phragmites communis Trin; other synonyms include Arundo phragmites L. (the basionym), Phragmites altissimus, P. berlandieri, P. dioicus, P. maximus, P. vulgaris[clarify]. In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... In botanical nomenclature, the basionym of a name is its name- or epithet-bringing synonym. ...


Wildlife

A previously sandy beach invaded by reeds.
A previously sandy beach invaded by reeds.


Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 158 pixelsFull resolution (5063 × 1000 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 158 pixelsFull resolution (5063 × 1000 pixels, file size: 1. ...

Three Phragmites seedlings, A very young, C the oldest (3-4 months). Roman numerals denote different shoot generations. Sc = scutellum. From (Warming 1884)
Three Phragmites seedlings, A very young, C the oldest (3-4 months). Roman numerals denote different shoot generations. Sc = scutellum. From (Warming 1884)

Reed beds

Main article: Reed bed

Common reed is very important (together with other reed-like plants) for wildlife and conservation, particularly in Europe and Asia, where several species of birds are strongly tied to large Phragmites stands. These include: A reed bed in summer Reed beds are a natural habitat that are found in floodplains, waterlogged depressions and estuaries. ... species Pragmites australis Reed is a generic term used to describe numerous plants including: Common Reed (Phragmites australis Cav. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...

Binomial name Panurus biarmicus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bearded Tit, Panurus biarmicus, is a small passerine bird. ... Binomial name Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Hermann, 1804) The Eurasian Reed Warbler, or just Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. ... Binomial name Botaurus stellaris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) is a wading bird of the heron family Ardeidae. ... Binomial name Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Hermann, 1804) The Eurasian Reed Warbler, or just Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. ...

Invasive reeds

In North America, the status of the species was misunderstood. It was commonly considered to be an exotic species, not native but introduced from Europe; however, there is now clear evidence of the existence of Phragmites native in North America long before European colonisation of the continent. It is now known that the North American native forms of Phragmites are markedly less vigorous than European forms; the recent marked increase in Phragmites in North America may be due to a vigorous, but otherwise almost indistinguishable European form of the species, best detectable by genetic analysis. This is causing serious problems for many other North American wetland plants, including the local form of the species.[1] North American redirects here. ... Sweet clover (Melilotus sp. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


Recent studies have characterised morphological variation among the introduced and native stands of Phragmites in North America. The Eurasian genotype can be distinguished from the North American genotype by its shorter ligules (up to 0.9 mm vs. over 1.0 mm), shorter glumes (under 3.2 mm vs. over 3.2 mm, although there is some overlap in this character), and culm characteristics. Recently, the North American genotype has been described as a distinct subspecies, Phragmites australis subsp. americanus Saltonstall, Peterson, and Soreng; the Eurasian genotype is referred to as Phragmites australis subsp. australis. Rhizomes of the plant are rich in N,N-DMT alkaloids (Wassel et al. 1985). Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a psychedelic tryptamine. ...


In Europe, common reed is rarely invasive, except in damp grasslands where traditional grazing has been abandoned. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ...


Uses

Food

Common reed is inedible for humans[clarify], but it is readily grazed by cattle and other livestock – where accessible to them. For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


Thatching

Main article: Thatching

Reed is used in many areas for thatching roofs. In the British Isles, common reed used for this purpose is known as Norfolk reed or water reed. Note however that "wheat reed" and "Devon reed", also used for thatching, are not in fact reed, but long-stemmed wheat straw. A thatched pub (The Williams Arms) at Wrafton, near Braunton, North Devon, England “thatch” redirects here. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...


Other uses

Some of other uses for reeds in various cultures include baskets, mats, pen tips, and a crude form of paper.[2]


In literature

One reference to reeds in European literature is Frenchman Blaise Pascal's saying that Man is but a 'thinking reed' (roseau pensant). In La Fontaine's famous fable (The Oak and the Reed, Le chêne et le roseau), the reed tells the proud oak: "I bend, and break not" ("Je plie, et ne romps pas"), before the tree's fall. Blaise Pascal (pronounced ), (June 20 [[1624 // ]] – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Engraving by Étienne-Jehandier Desrochers Jean de La Fontaine (July 8, 1621 – April 13, 1695) was the most famous French fabulist and probably the most widely read French poet of the 17th century. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably...


Moses was "drawn out of the water where his mother had placed him in a reed basket to save him from the death that had been decreed by the Pharaoh against the firstborn of all of the children of Israel in Egypt" (Exodus 2:10).[3]. However, the plant concerned may have been another reed-like plant, such as papyrus, which is still used for making boats. Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Binomial name Cyperus papyrus L. Papyrus sedge, also known as Bulrush or Paper reed (Cyperus papyrus) is a monocot belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae. ...

References

  1. ^ issg Database: Ecology of Phragmites australis
  2. ^ http://www.marbleheadconservancy.org/invasives/phragmite.htm
  3. ^ usu.edu

See also

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A reed bed in summer Reed beds are a natural habitat that are found in floodplains, waterlogged depressions and estuaries. ... In Egyptian mythology, the fields of Aaru (alternatives: Yaaru, Iaru, Aalu), are the heavenly underworld where Osiris ruled. ... // A constructed wetland is an artificial marsh or swamp, created for anthropogenic discharge such as wastewater, stormwater runoff or sewage treatment, and as habitat for wildlife, or for land reclamation after mining or other disturbance. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Phragmites
  • Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America (pdf file)
  • [1] Phragmites australis swamp and reed beds. Available on the MarLIN website.
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Scarborough Marsh, IV - Invasive Plants (1678 words)
Phragmites australis, or Common Reed, is an invasive plant that is a native of the Americas and Eurasia.
Phragmites is easily recognized by its height (5-15 feet), plume-like inflorescence, and habit of growing in dense, single-species stands.
Phragmites is especially common in brackish wetlands, where it is able to outcompete native tidal marsh species, and on disturbed sites.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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