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Encyclopedia > Photosphere
The structure of the Sun

The photosphere of an astronomical object is the region from which externally received light comes. It extends into a star's surface until the gas becomes opaque, equivalent to an optical depth of 2 or 3[citation needed]. In other words, the photosphere is the region where an object stops being transparent to ordinary light.* Sol redirects here. ... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... Image File history File links SunLayers. ... Image File history File links SunLayers. ... Sol redirects here. ... Astronomical objects are significant physical entities, associations or structures which current science has confirmed to exist in space. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Effective temperature

The effective temperature of the photosphere corresponds to the position where the optical depth becomes 2/3 for a photon of wavelength equal to 500 nanometres, since the total amount of energy emitted by the star is equal to the energy emitted by a gas at that radius[citation needed]. Because stars, excepting neutron stars, have no solid surface,[1] the photosphere is typically used to describe the Sun or another star's visual surface. The term itself is derived from Ancient Greek roots, φως¨- φωτος/photos meaning "light" and σφαιρος/sphairos meaning "ball," in reference to the fact that it is a ball-shaped surface perceived to emit light This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrÏŒ, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... For the story by Larry Niven, see Neutron Star (story). ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...


The sun

The Sun's photosphere has a temperature between 4500 and 6000 kelvins [2] (5800 kelvin average) [3] and a density of about 2×10-4 kg m-3 [4]; other stars may have hotter or cooler photospheres. The Sun's photosphere is composed of convection cells called granules—cells of gas each approximately 1000 kilometres in diameter[5] with hot rising gas in the center and cooler gas falling in the narrow spaces between them. Each granule has a lifespan of only about eight minutes, resulting in a continually shifting "boiling" pattern. Grouping the typical granules are supergranules up to 30,000 kilometres in diameter with lifespans of up to 24 hours. These details are too fine to see on other stars. For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... Conversion Calculator for Units of Density PICKLES Category: ... Kg redirects here. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... A convection cell is a phenomenon of fluid dynamics which occurs in situations where there are temperature differences within a body of liquid or gas. ... Solar photosphere Granules on the photosphere of the Sun are caused by convection currents of plasma within the Suns convective zone. ... “km” redirects here. ...


Other layers

The Sun's visible atmosphere has other layers above the photosphere: the 10,000 kilometre-deep chromosphere (typically observed by filtered light, for example H-alpha) lies just between the photosphere and the much hotter but more tenuous corona. Other "surface features" on the photosphere are solar flares and sunspots. The chromosphere (literally, color sphere) is a thin layer of the Suns atmosphere just above the photosphere, roughly 10,000 kilometers deep (approximating to, if a little less than, the diameter of the Earth). ... In physics and astronomy, H-alpha, also written Hα, is a particular emission line created by hydrogen. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... A solar flare observed by Hinode in the G-band. ... For other uses, see Sunspot (disambiguation). ...


The image of the surface shown in the illustration to the right is actually an ultraviolet image of helium gas at 30.4 nm (from the European Space Agency/NASA SOHO spacecraft), and comes from the chromosphere, which is just above the photosphere, so the "photosphere" label attached to this image is actually incorrect.


References

  1. ^ As of 2004, although white dwarfs are believed to crystallize from the middle out, none have fully solidified yet[1]; and only neutron stars are believed to have a solid, albeit unstable[2], crust[3]
  2. ^ The Sun - Introduction
  3. ^ World Book at NASA - Sun
  4. ^ SP-402 A New Sun: The Solar Results From Skylab.
  5. ^ NASA/Marshall Solar Physics. NASA.
  • Meaning of sentence need to be clarified, please.
For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... The structure of the Sun The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0. ... The radiation zone is the middle zone in the suns interior. ... The convection zone is a region of a stars interior where energy is transferred toward the surface by convection currents, rather than energetic photons. ... Image File history File links Sun920607. ... Photo taken during the French 1999 eclipse The stellar atmosphere is the outer region of the volume of a star, lying above the stellar core, radiation zone and convection zone. ... The chromosphere (literally, color sphere) is a thin layer of the Suns atmosphere just above the photosphere, roughly 10,000 kilometers deep (approximating to, if a little less than, the diameter of the Earth). ... TRACE 19. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... The heliosphere is a bubble in space produced by the solar wind. ... Heliospheric current sheet The Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is the surface within the Solar System where the polarity of the Suns magnetic field changes from north to south. ... The locations of Voyagers 1 and 2 as of 2005 In space physics, the termination shock is the boundary marking one of the outer limits of the suns influence. ... The locations of Voyagers 1 and 2 as of 2005 The heliosheath is the zone between the termination shock and the heliopause at the outer border of the solar system. ... The heliopause is the boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium outside the solar system. ... In a planetary magnetosphere, the bow shock is the boundary at which the solar wind abruptly drops as a result of its approach to the magnetopause. ... Coronal holes are areas where the Suns corona is darker, colder, and has lower-density plasma than average. ... Typical coronal loops observed by TRACE Coronal loops form the basic structure of the lower corona and transition region of the Sun. ... A composite image showing two CMEs (at 2 oclock and 8 oclock), with the sun at center. ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ... The bright areas visible here on the Sun are facula. ... A solar flare observed by Hinode in the G-band. ... Solar photosphere Granules on the photosphere of the Sun are caused by convection currents of plasma within the Suns convective zone. ... Animation of a Moreton wave which occurred on December 6, 2006 A Moreton wave is a kind of shockwave on the Suns chromosphere. ... Filaments surrounding a solar flare, caused by the interaction of the plasma in the Suns atmosphere with its magnetic field. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... 400 year history of sunspot numbers. ... A spicule is a dynamic jet of about 500km diameter on the Sun. ... For other uses, see Sunspot (disambiguation). ... Supergranulation is one of the influences on the Sun. ... The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... The solar dynamo is the physical process that generates the Suns magnetic field. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Photosphere - definition of Photosphere in Encyclopedia (251 words)
The photosphere of an astronomical object is the region at which the optical depth becomes one.
The Sun's photosphere has a temperature of about 6000 Kelvins; other stars may have hotter or cooler photospheres.
The Sun's photosphere is composed of convection cells called granules, firestorms each approximately 1000 kilometers in diameter with hot rising gas in the center and cooler gases falling in the narrow spaces between them.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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