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Encyclopedia > Photonics

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Photonics is the science and technology of generating, controlling, and detecting photons, particularly in the visible light and near infra-red spectrum. Photonics as a science is closely related to quantum optics and optoelectronics with somewhat unclear boundaries. "Quantum optics" often means fundamental research, and "photonics" often means more application-related research. The term "optoelectronics" by construction means a somewhat narrower field than photonics, dealing only with active elements involving an electrical interaction, but often includes parts of passive photonics as well. Also, the overlap between all these fields and "optics" is unclear, and different definitions are used in different parts of the world and in different industries. The word light is defined here as electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength; thus, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, microwaves, radio waves, and visible light are all forms of light. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... Legend: γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves: EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... Quantum optics is a field of research in physics, dealing with the application of quantum mechanics to phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter. ... Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that interact with light. ... Table of Opticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia Optics ( appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ...


The term photonics sometimes, but not always, implies a goal of establishing an electronics of photons instead of electrons. The field of electronics comprises the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons (or other charge carriers) in devices such as thermionic valves (vacuum tubes) and semiconductors. ...


Polaritonics differs with photonics in that the fundamental information carrier is a phonon-polariton, which is a mixture of photons and phonons, and operates in the range of frequencies from 300 gigahertz to approximately 10 terahertz. Photonics typically operates at frequencies on the order of hundreds of terahertz. This article is in need of attention. ... Normals modes of vibration progression through a crystal. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A gigahertz is a billion hertz or a thousand megahertz, a measure of frequency. ... A terahertz (THz) is 1012 hertz or a thousand gigahertz, a measure of frequency. ...


The field of photonics has a strong interest in optical communication. The science and applications of photonics are usually based on laser light. Optical communication is any form of telecommunication that uses light as the transmission medium. ... // Experiment using a (likely argon) laser. ...


Overview of photonics research

Refraction of photons by a prism
Refraction of photons by a prism

The science of photonics includes the emission, transmission, amplification, detection, modulation, and switching of light. prism splitting light Source: NASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... prism splitting light Source: NASA File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The word emission generally means sending something out. ... Transmission is the following: Generally, transmission is the act of passing something on. ... Generally, an amplifier is any device that uses a small amount of energy to control a larger amount of energy. ... In general, detection is the extraction of intelligence from a carrier signal in a communication system. ... In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Switching is an action described by the verb to switch, in the sense of using a Switch, either an electrical one or other device for flipping, or a rod called switch. ...


Photonic devices include optoelectronic devices such as lasers and photodetectors, as well as optical fiber, photonic crystals, planar waveguides, and other passive optical elements. Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices that interact with light. ... // Experiment using a (likely argon) laser. ... Photosensors or photodetectors appear in several varieties: Photoresistors or Light Dependant Resistors (LDR) which change resistance when illuminated Photovoltaic cells or solar cells which produce a voltage and supply an electric current when illuminated Photodiodes which can operate in photovoltaic mode or photoconductive mode Phototubes containing a photocathode which emits... A bundle of optical fibers. ... The opal in this bracelet contains a natural periodic microstructure responsible for its iridescent color. ... Look up waveguide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Applications of photonics include light detection, telecommunications, information processing, illumination, metrology, spectroscopy, holography, medicine (surgery, vision correction, endoscopy, health monitoring), laser material processing, visual art, biophotonics, agriculture, robotics, and defense. Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Lighting refers to either artificial light sources such as lamps or to natural illumination of interiors from daylight. ... Metrology is variously described as the science of measurement; the science of accuracy and precision; the history of measures; the history of measurement and other definitions. ... Extremely high resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of matter and its properties by investigating light, sound, or particles that are emitted, absorbed or scattered by the matter under investigation. ... Holography (from the Greek, Όλος-holos whole + γραφή-graphe writing) is the science of producing holograms; it is an advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three dimensions. ... This article is about the field and science of medical practice and health care. ... Biophotonics is the science and technology of the interaction of photons within and on biological systems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with robot. ... Defence or defense can refer to: For defence of a doctoral dissertation see thesis committee defense (military) Civil defense measures and emergency preparedness war, a euphemism for defense industry (disambiguation) defense (legal) , against prosecution and liability For defense against an attacker: self-defense Self-defense (theory) and defense of property...


History of photonics

Photonics as a field really began in 1960, with the invention of the laser, followed in the 1970s by the development of optical fibers as a medium for transmitting information using light beams, and the Erbium-doped fiber amplifier. These inventions formed the basis for the telecommunications revolution of the late 20th century, and provided the infrastructure for the internet. 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... // Experiment using a (likely argon) laser. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... In optics, an optical amplifier is a device that amplifies an optical signal directly, without the need to first convert it to an electrical signal, then amplify it electrically, and finally reconvert it to an optical signal. ...


Photonics as a field was largely focused on communications, until the dot-com crash circa 2001. However, photonics covers a huge range of science and technology applications, including:- The Dot-com bubble (or dot-com speculative bubble) refers to the approximately four years of time (1997–2001) in which stock markets in Western nations had their value increase rapidly and most significantly in the technology and new Internet sector. ...

  • laser manufacturing,
  • biological and chemical sensing,
  • medical diagnostics and therapy,
  • display technology,
  • optical computing.

Various non-telecom photonics applications exhibit a strong growth particularly since the dot-com crash, partly because many companies have been looking for new application areas quite successfully. A huge further growth of photonics can be expected for the case that the current development of silicon photonics will be successful. Telecom is an abbreviation of telecommunication. ...


Applications of Photonics

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... This article is about the field and science of medical practice and health care. ... Manufacturing, a branch of industry which accounts for about one-quarter of the worlds economic activity, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure on a site. ... Aviation refers to flying using aircraft, machines designed by humans for atmospheric flight. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Recreation. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... Metrology is variously described as the science of measurement; the science of accuracy and precision; the history of measures; the history of measurement and other definitions. ... A rangefinder is an optical device that allows distance to be estimated or measured using triangulation, laser, radar, or other method. ... Todays computers use the movement of electrons in-and-out of transistors to do logic. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... Close-up photo of one side of a motherboard PCB, showing conductive traces, vias and solder points for through-hole components on the opposite side. ... An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ... The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of quantum computers. ...

Periodicals

  • Photonics Spectra (ISSN 0731-1230)
  • The Photonics Handbook (ISSN 1044-1425)
  • The Photonics Dictionary (ISSN 1044-1425)
  • BioPhotonics (ISSN 1081-8693)
  • EuroPhotonics (ISSN 1091-6083)

Sources

  • What is Photonics?

See also

Physics Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Biophotonics is the science and technology of the interaction of photons within and on biological systems. ... Holography (from the Greek, Όλος-holos whole + γραφή-graphe writing) is the science of producing holograms; it is an advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three dimensions. ... Microphotonics is a branch of technology that deals with directing light on a microscopic scale. ... Nano-optics is the branch of optical engineering which deals with optics at deeply subwavelength length scales. ... Table of Opticks, 1728 Cyclopaedia Optics ( appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... The opal in this bracelet contains a natural periodic microstructure responsible for its iridescent color. ... Photonic-crystal fiber (PCF), also spelled fibre, is a new class of optical fiber based on the properties of photonic crystals. ... Quantum optics is a field of research in physics, dealing with the application of quantum mechanics to phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter. ...

Wiktionary

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Photon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2228 words)
The photon is one of the elementary particles.
The energy and momentum carried by a photon is proportional to its frequency (or inversely proportional to its wavelength) with a constant of proportionality equal to the Planck constant.
Photons are deflected by a gravitational field twice as much as Newtonian mechanics predicts for a test mass traveling at the speed of light.
Photon torpedo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1193 words)
Photon torpedoes are most useful for combat while ships are engaged in warp speed travel, as phasers, which are confined to the speed of light, are not generally usable.
A typical photon torpedo is an elongated elliptical tube that measures 2.1 m in length, 0.76 m in width, 0.45 m in height, and 247.5 kg in dry mass.
Photon torpedo casings are known to be extremely tough, capable of surviving intact high-speed entry into the atmosphere of an M-class planet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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