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Encyclopedia > Photojournalism
Assault landing One of the first waves at Omaha Beach as photographed by Robert F. Sargent.
Assault landing One of the first waves at Omaha Beach as photographed by Robert F. Sargent.

Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, and in some cases to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (such as documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by the qualities of: Download high resolution version (800x606, 68 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (800x606, 68 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Photographer. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... An event photograph at the Tribeca Film Festival of Leonardo DiCaprio, Lukas Haas and Kevin Connelly Celebrity photography is a subset of photojournalism. ...

  • Timeliness — the images have meaning in the context of a published chronological record of events.
  • Objectivity — the situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict.
  • Narrative — the images combine with other news elements, to inform and give insight to the viewer or reader.

Photojournalists must make decisions instantly and carry photographic equipment, often while exposed to the same risks (war, rioting, etc.) that are faced by text-only journalists. The fact that they rarely have the option to stand back or wait until the dangerous parts of an event are over means they may take even more risks. This article is about the photographing device. ...


Photojournalism as a descriptive term often implies the use of a certain bluntness of style or approach to image-making. The photojournalist approach to candid photography is becoming popular as a unique style of commercial photography. For example, many weddings today are shot in photojournalism style resulting in candid images that chronicle the events of the wedding day.


A similar and related term is reportage. Reportage can be a single journalists report of news (especially when witnessed first-hand), distributed through the media. ...

Contents

History

Foundations

The practice of illustrating news stories with photographs was made possible by printing and photography innovations that occurred between 1880 and 1897. While newsworthy events were photographed as early as the 1850s, printing presses could only publish from engravings until the 1880s. Early news photographs required that photos be re-interpreted by an engraver before they could be published. Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ...


The pioneering battlefield photographs from the Crimean War (1853 to 1856) by British press reporters such as William Simpson of the Illustrated London News and Roger Fenton were published as engravings. Similarly, the American Civil War photographs of Mathew Brady were engraved before publication in Harper's Weekly. Because the public craved more realistic representations of news stories, it was common for newsworthy photographs to be exhibited in galleries or to be copied photographically in limited numbers. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Painting by William Simpson of the return visit of the Viceroy to the Kashmiri Maharaja Ranbir Singh at Sialkot (Punjab), 9 March 1867. ... The Illustrated London News was a magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and his friend Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch magazine. ... Roger Fenton, self-portrait Roger Fenton (March 20, 1819 - August 8, 1869) was a pioneering British photographer, one of the first war photographers. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ...


On March 4, 1880, The Daily Graphic (New York) [1] published the first halftone (rather than engraved) reproduction of a news photograph. Further innovations followed. In 1887, flash powder was invented, enabling journalists such as Jacob Riis to photograph informal subjects indoors, which led to the landmark work How the Other Half Lives[2]. By 1897, it became possible to reproduce halftone photographs on printing presses running at full speed.[3] is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Left: halftone spots. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Flash powder is a mixture of oxidizer and metallic fuel which burns quickly and if confined will produce a loud report. ... Jacob Riis in 1906 Jacob August Riis (May 3, 1849 - May 26, 1914), a Danish-American muckraker journalist, photographer, and social reformer, was born in Ribe, Denmark. ... How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York was a pioneering work of photojournalism by Jacob Riis, a Danish immigrant reporter, published in 1890, in which he documented the squalid living conditions in the slums of New York City. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Despite these innovations, limitations remained, and many of the sensational newspaper and magazine stories in the period from 1897 to 1927 (see Yellow Journalism) were illustrated with engravings. In 1921, the wirephoto made it possible to transmit pictures almost as quickly as news itself could travel. However, it was not until development of the commercial 35mm Leica camera in 1925, and the first flash bulbs between 1927 and 1930 that all the elements were in place for a "golden age" of photojournalism. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nasty little printers devils spew forth from the Hoe press in this Puck cartoon of Nov. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Wirephoto is a term for sending pictures by either telegraph or telephone. ... Simulated 35 mm film with soundtracks _ The outermost strips (on either side) contain the SDDS soundtrack as an image of a digital signal. ... Leica is the name of several cameras produced by a German company of the same name. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Golden age

In the "golden age" of photojournalism (1930s1950s), some magazines (Picture Post (London), Paris Match (Paris), Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung (Berlin), Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung (Berlin), Life (USA), Sports Illustrated (USA)) and newspapers (The Daily Mirror (London), The New York Daily News (New York)) built their huge readerships and reputations largely on their use of photography, and photographers such as Robert Capa, Alfred Eisenstaedt, Margaret Bourke-White and W. Eugene Smith became well-known names. The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... Picture Post dated 21 September 1940. ... Alexandre Coste, son of Albert II of Monaco, on the cover of Paris Match Paris Match is a French magazine. ... Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung or AIZ (in English, The Workers Pictorial Newspaper) was a weekly German illustrated magazine published between 1924 and 1938 in Berlin and Prague. ... Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ... The first issue of Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954, showing Milwaukee Braves star Eddie Mathews at bat in Milwaukee County Stadium. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a British tabloid daily newspaper. ... New York Daily News Building, Raymond Hood, architct, rendering by Hugh Ferriss The New York Daily News is one of the largest newspapers in the United States with a circulation well over 700,000. ... Robert Capa (Budapest, October 22, 1913 – May 25, 1954) was a famous war photographer during the 20th century. ... Alfred Eisenstaedt (December 6, 1898[1] – August 24, 1995) was a German American photographer and photojournalist. ... Margaret Bourke-White (1904-1971) USPS stamp depicting LIFE magazine cover bearing Fort Peck Dam photograph Margaret Bourke-White (IPA: [1][2], June 14, 1904 – August 27, 1971) was an American photographer and photojournalist. ... Cover of W. Eugene Smiths William Eugene Smith (1918-1978) was an American photojournalist known for his refusal to compromise professional standards and his brutally vivid World War II photographs. ...

In Migrant Mother Dorothea Lange produced the seminal image of the Great Depression. The FSA also employed several other photojournalists to document the depression.
In Migrant Mother Dorothea Lange produced the seminal image of the Great Depression. The FSA also employed several other photojournalists to document the depression.

Until the 1980s, most large newspapers were printed with turn-of-the-century “letterpress” technology using easily smudged oil-based ink, off-white, low-quality “newsprint” paper, and coarse engraving screens. While letterpresses produced legible text, the photoengraving dots that formed pictures often bled or smeared and became fuzzy and indistinct. In this way, even when newspapers used photographs well — a good crop, a respectable size — murky reproduction often left readers re-reading the caption to see what the photo was all about. The Wall Street Journal adopted stippled hedcuts in 1979 to publish portraits and avoid the limitations of letterpress printing. Not until the 1980s had a majority of newspapers switched to “offset” presses that reproduce photos with fidelity on better, whiter paper. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (6205x8066, 5528 KB) Image:Lange-MigrantMother. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (6205x8066, 5528 KB) Image:Lange-MigrantMother. ... Dorothea Lange (May 25, 1895 – October 11, 1965) was an influential American documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... An example of stippling in a biological illustration. ... Hedcut of Dan Gillerman. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


By contrast Life, one of America’s most popular weekly magazines from 1936 through the early 1970s, was filled with photographs reproduced beautifully on oversize 11×14-inch pages, using fine engraving screens, high-quality inks, and glossy paper. Life often published a United Press International (UPI) or Associated Press (AP) photo that had been first reproduced in newspapers, but the quality magazine version appeared to be a different photo altogether. Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


In large part because their pictures were clear enough to be appreciated, and because their name always appeared with their work, magazine photographers achieved near-celebrity status. Life became a standard by which the public judged photography, and many of today’s photo books celebrate “photojournalism” as if it had been the exclusive province of near-celebrity magazine photographers.


The Best of Life (1973), for example, opens with a two-page (1960) group shot of 39 justly famous Life photographers. But 300 pages later, photo credits reveal that scores of the photos among Life’s “best” were taken by anonymous UPI and AP photographers.


Thus even during the golden age, because of printing limitations and the UPI and AP syndication systems, many newspaper photographers labored in relative obscurity.


Farm Security Administration

From 1935 to 1942, the Farm Security Administration and its predecessor the Resettlement Administration were part of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, and were designed to address agricultural problems and rural poverty associated with the Great Depression. A special photographic section of the agency, headed by Roy Stryker, was intended merely to provide public relations for its programs, but instead produced what some consider one of the greatest collections[4] of documentary photographs ever created in the U.S. Whether this effort can be called "photojournalism" is debatable, since the FSA photographers had more time and resources to create their work than most photojournalists usually have. 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Photo of a sharecropper by Walker Evans for the U.S. Resettlement Administration Initially created as the Resettlement Administration in 1935 as part of the New Deal, the Farm Security Administration was an effort during the Depression to combat rural poverty. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Roy Emerson Stryker (November 5, 1893 - September 27, 1975) was an American economist, government official, and photographer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Photographer. ...


Acceptance by the art world

Since the late 1970s, photojournalism and documentary photography have increasingly been accorded a place in art galleries alongside fine art photography. Luc Delahaye, VII Photo Agency and Chien-Chi Chang are among many who regularly exhibit in galleries. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Photographer. ... Fine art photography, sometimes simply called art photography, refers to high-quality archival photographic prints of pictures that are created to fulfill the creative vision of an individual professional. ... The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline for Biographies. ... // VII Photo Agency VII derives its name from the number of photojournalists who, in September 2001, founded this collectively owned agency. ... Chien-Chi Chang (張乾琦), (born 1961) is a Taiwanese photographer and member of the Magnum Photos agency. ...


Professional organizations

The Danish Union of Press Photographers (Pressefotografforbundet) was the first national organization for newspaper photographers in the world. It was founded in 1912 in Denmark by six press photographers in Copenhagen.[5] Today it has over 800 members. 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ...


The National Press Photographers Association (NPPA) was founded in 1946 in the U.S., and has about 10,000 members. Others around the world include the British Press Photographers Association (BPPA) founded in 1984, then relaunched in 2003, and now has around 450 members. Hong Kong Press Photographers Association (1989), Northern Ireland Press Photographers Association (2000), Pressfotografernas Klubb (Sweden, 1930), and PK — Pressefotografenes Klubb (Norway).[6] History The National Press Photographers Association was founded in 1946. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


News organisations and journalism schools run many different awards for photojournalists. Since 1968, Pulitzer Prizes have been awarded for the following categories of photojournalism: 'Feature Photography', 'Spot News Photography' and 'Capture the Moment'. Other awards are World Press Photo, Best of Photojournalism, and Pictures of the Year as well as the UK based The Press Photographer's Year[7] Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pulitzer Prize is a United States literary award given out each April. ...


Ethical and legal considerations

Photojournalism works within the same ethical approaches to objectivity that are applied by other journalists. What to shoot, how to frame and how to edit are constant considerations.


Often, ethical conflicts can be mitigated or enhanced by the actions of a sub-editor or picture editor, who takes control of the images once they have been delivered to the news organisation. The photojournalist often has no control as to how images are ultimately used.


The emergence of digital photography offers whole new realms of opportunity for the manipulation, reproduction, and transmission of images. It has inevitably complicated many of the ethical issues involved. 10 MP Nikon D200 and a Nikon film scanner The Canon EOS 350D The Canon PowerShot A95 Digital photography, as opposed to film photography, uses electronic devices to record and capture the image as binary data. ...


The U.S. National Press Photographers Association, and other professional organizations, maintain codes of ethics to specify approaches to these issues.[8]


Major ethical issues are often inscribed with more or less success into law. Laws regarding photography can vary significantly from nation to nation. The legal situation is further complicated when one considers that photojournalism made in one country will often be published in many other countries.


The impact of new technologies

Smaller, lighter cameras greatly enhanced the role of the photojournalist. Since the 1960s, motor drives, electronic flash, auto-focus, better lenses and other camera enhancements have made picture taking easier. New digital cameras free photojournalists from the limitation of film roll length, as thousands of images can be stored on a single microdrive or memory card. Look up digital camera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... IBM 1 GB Microdrive The Microdrive is a brand name for a miniature, 1-inch hard disk designed to fit in a Compact Flash (CF) Type II slot. ... Four major types of memory cards (from left to right: CompactFlash, Memory Stick, Secure Digital, and xD. A memory card or flash memory card is a solid-state electronic flash memory data storage device used with digital cameras, handheld and Mobile computers, telephones, music players, video game consoles, and other...


Content remains the most important element of photojournalism, but the ability to extend deadlines with rapid gathering and editing of images has brought significant changes. As recently as 15 years ago, nearly 30 minutes were needed to scan and transmit a single color photograph from a remote location to a news office for printing. Now, equipped with a digital camera, a mobile phone and a laptop computer, a photojournalist can send a high-quality image in minutes, even seconds after an event occurs. Video phones and portable satellite links increasingly allow for the mobile transmission of images from almost any point on the earth. For the band, see Laptop (band). ... A videophone is a telephone which is capable of both audio and video duplex transmission. ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ...


There is some concern by news photographers that the profession of photojournalism as it is known today could change to such a degree that it is unrecognizable as image-capturing technology naturally progresses. There is also concern that fewer print publications are commissioning serious photojournalism on timely issues.


See also

Journalism Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... The following are noted photojournalists: Eddie Adams - Pulitzer Prize winner (Vietcong shooting) Timothy Allen - British photojournalist Mohamed Amin - Kenyan photojournalist Felice Beato - pioneering photojournalist, photographed the Crimean War, Second Opium War, and other conflicts in Asia and Africa Margaret Bourke-White - Life covers Mathew Brady - Civil War of the U... Magnum Photos is a world-renowned photographic agency, with offices located in New York, Paris, London and Tokyo. ... // VII Photo Agency VII derives its name from the number of photojournalists who, in September 2001, founded this collectively owned agency. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ...

References

  1. ^ collections.ic.gc.ca/heirloom_series/volume4/14-15.htm
  2. ^ How the Other Half Lives complete text and photos online
  3. ^ Robert Taft, Photography and the American scene: A social history, 1839–1889 (New York: Dover, 1964), 446; and W. Joseph Campbell, "1897: American journalism's exceptional year", Journalism History 29 (2004) (also here et seq.)
  4. ^ "America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-white photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935–1945." Prints and photographs division, Library of Congress.
  5. ^ (Danish) Pressefotografforbundet history.
  6. ^ British Press Photographers Association; Hong Kong Press Photographers Association; Northern Ireland Press Photographers Association; (Swedish) Pressfotografernas Klubb; (Norwegian) Fotojournalisten.
  7. ^ World Press Photo; Best of Photojournalism; Pictures of the Year; The Press Photographer's Year
  8. ^ USNPPA Code of Ethics

Further reading

  • Kenneth Kobre, Photojournalism : The Professional's Approach 5th edition Focal Press, 2004.
  • Don McCullin. Hearts of Darkness (1980 - much reprinted).
  • Zavoina, Susan C., and John H. Davidson, Digital Photojournalism (Allyn & Bacon, 2002). ISBN 0-205-33240-4
  • The Photograph, Graham Clarke, ISBN 0-19-284200-5

I am a pink monkey and I have bladder problems!! I know Im god ...

External links


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