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Encyclopedia > Photographic printing

Photographic printing is the process of producing a final image for viewing, usually on sensitized paper from a previously prepared photographic negative. Until the advent of digital photographic processes, the sole meaning of Photographic Paper was paper coated with light-sensitive chemicals. ... In photography, a negative is a rectangle of material (nowadays usually photographic film) coated with chemicals that, upon photographic exposure, cause the material to record the colors or monochromatic shades of the scene in inverse, negative form. ...


The process consists of three major steps, performed in a photographic darkroom or within an automated photo printing machine: A darkroom is a given space, usually a separate area in a building or a vehicle, that is made dark so as to allow photographers to use light-sensitive materials to develop photographs and film. ...

  1. Exposure of the image onto the sensitized paper using a contact printer or enlarger
  2. Processing of the latent image through a multistep chemical immersion process.
    1. Development of the exposed image.
    2. Optionally Stopping development by neutralizing, diluting or removing developing agent.
    3. Fixing the final print by dissolving remaining unexposed/undeveloped light-sensitive emulsion.
    4. Washing thoroughly to remove chemicals used in processing, protecting the finished print from fading and decay.
  3. Optional Toning of the print through additional chemical processes.
  4. Texturing and drying of the final print.

An example of a contact print. ... Photographic Enlarger An enlarger is a specialized transparency projector used to produce photographic prints from film or glass negatives. ... In photography a latent image is formed when light (or in radiography, X-rays) acts on a photographic emulsion. ...

Standard print sizes

Standard photographic print sizes are often denoted with a code of the format nR, where the number n represents the length of the shorter edge in inches. In the normal series, the long edge is the length of the short edge plus 2 inches (10" or less) or 3 inches (11" and above). The alternative Super series, denoted SnR has an aspect ratio of 2:3 (or as close as possible) and thus provides a better fit for standard 135 film (35mm) at sizes of 8 inches or above. Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial and U.S. customary unit of length. ... The aspect ratio of a two-dimensional shape is the ratio of its longest dimension to its shortest dimension. ... 135 Film Size, Kodak Tri-X 400 speed 135 (ISO 1007) is a film format for still photography. ...

Code Size (in.) Size (mm) Aspect ratio Note
3R 3" × 5" 89 × 127 mm 3:5 (0.60)
4R 4" × 6" 102 × 152 mm 2:3 (0.67) Standard consumer print size
5R 5" × 7" 5:7 (0.71)
6R 6" × 8" 3:4 (0.75)
8R 8" × 10" 203 × 254 mm 4:5 (0.80) Most common print size for medium and large format
S8R 8" × 12" 203 × 304 mm 2:3 (0.67) Closest approximation to A4
10R 10" × 12" 5:6 (0.83)
S10R 10" × 15" 2:3 (0.67)
11R 11" × 14" 11:14 (0.79)
S11R 11" × 17" 11:17 (0.65)
12R 12" × 15" 4:5 (0.80)
S12R 12" × 18" 305 × 465 mm 2:3 (0.67)

A size comparison of medium format film, left, and regular 35 mm film. ... Large format describes photographic films, view cameras (including pinhole cameras) and processes that use a film or digital sensor the size of 4 x 5 inches or larger. ... A comparison of different paper sizes A4 is a standard paper size, defined by the international standard ISO 216 as 210×297 mm (roughly 8. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Photographic process workers and processing machine operators (1499 words)
Photographic process workers and processing machine operators generally spend their work hours in clean, appropriately lighted, well-ventilated, and air-conditioned offices, photofinishing laboratories, or 1-hour minilabs.
Some photographic process workers and processing machine operators are exposed to the chemicals and fumes associated with developing and printing.
A decline in employment is expected for photographic process workers and processing machine operators through the year 2014.
Negative (photography) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (166 words)
Color, positive picture (A) and negative (B), monochrome positive picture (C) and negative (D) In photography, a negative is a rectangle of material (nowadays usually photographic film) coated with chemicals that, upon photographic exposure, cause the material to record the colors or monochromatic shades of the scene in inverse, negative form.
Then, it can be used to produce a print, in which the colors or shades are reverted to their original form.
The opposite of a negative is a positive (also called "transparency," "slide" or "reversal"), which does not invert the colors or monochromatic shades of a scene.
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