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Encyclopedia > Photograph
View From the Window at Le Gras (1826), Nicéphore Niépce. Generally considered the first successful permanent photograph.
View From the Window at Le Gras (1826), Nicéphore Niépce. Generally considered the first successful permanent photograph.

A photograph (often shortened to photo) is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic imager such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see. The process of creating photographs is called photography. Photograph (or Photo) may refer to: Photograph, an image created by collecting an array of photons onto special photo-sensitive paper Photo (magazine), the French magazine Photo, the latin prefix denoting light beams Photograph (Nickelback song), the Nickelback song Photograph (Ringo Starr song) the Ringo Starr song Photograph (Weezer song... Image:View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. ... Image:View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. ... Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1795. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... Static CMOS Inverter Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) (see-moss, IPA: ), is a major class of integrated circuits. ... This article is about the photographing device. ... Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...

Motion pictures, such as film or video, are generally considered to be sequences of photographs. This article is about motion pictures. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ...



The first permanent photograph was made in 1826 by a French inventor, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, building on a discovery by Johann Heinrich Schultz (1724): that a silver and chalk mixture darkens under exposure to light. Niépce and Louis Daguerre refined this process. Daguerre discovered that exposing the silver first to iodine vapor, before exposure to light, and then to mercury fumes after the photograph was taken, could form a latent image; bathing the plate in a salt bath then fixes the image. These ideas led to the famous daguerreotype. Nicéphore Niépces earliest surviving photograph, circa 1826 Modern photography began in the 1820s with the first permanent photographs. ... Nicéphore Niépces earliest surviving photograph, circa 1826 Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (March 7, 1765 – July 5, 1833) was a French inventor, most noted as a pioneer in photography. ... Johann Heinrich Schultz is credited with the discovery that certain silver salts, most notably silver chloride and silver nitrate, darken in the presence of light. ... Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (November 18, 1787 – July 10, 1851) was the French artist and chemist who is recognized for his invention of the Daguerreotype process of photography. ... An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre. ...

The daguerreotype had its problems, notably the extreme fragility of the resulting picture, and that it was a positive-only process and thus could not be re-printed. Inventors set about looking for improved processes that would be more practical. Several processes were introduced and used for a short time between Niépce's first image and the introduction of the collodion process in 1848. Collodion-based wet-glass plate negatives with prints made on albumen paper remained the preferred photographic method for some time, even after the introduction of the even more practical gelatin process in 1871. Adaptations of the gelatin process have remained the primary black-and-white photographic process to this day, differing primarily in the film material itself, originally glass and then a variety of flexible films. The collodion process is an early photographic process which gave way in the late 19th century to todays gelatin emulsion process. ... The albumen print, invented in 1850 by Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, was the first commercially exploitable method of producing a print on a paper base from a negative. ... The Gelatin-silver process is the photographic process used with currently available black and white films and printing papers. ... Black-and-white or black and white) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Color photography is almost as old as black-and-white, with early experiments dating to John Herschel's experiments with Anthotype from 1842, and Lippmann plate from 1891. Color photography became much more popular with the introduction of Autochrome Lumière in 1903, which was replaced by Kodachrome, Ilfochrome and similar processes. For many years these processes were used almost exclusively for transparencies (in slide projectors and similar devices), but color prints became popular with the introduction of the Chromogenic negative, which is the most-used system in the C-41 process. The needs of the movie industry have also introduced a host of special-purpose systems, perhaps the most well known being the now-rare Technicolor. John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English mathematician and astronomer. ... The anthotype process Flowers, Water & Sun: An Early Photographic Process Revisited Anthotypes are a beautiful way to create fine art images right from your garden. ... Early colour photograph by Lippmann Named after Gabriel Lippmann, physicist. ... A box of Autochrome plates, expiry date 1923. ... Kodachrome is the trademarked name of a brand of color reversal film sold by Eastman Kodak. ... Ilfochrome, formerly known as cibachrome, is a positive-to-positive photographic process used for the reproduction of slides on photographic paper. ... [carousel slide projector, the most common form of projector] A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device to view photographic slides. ... Chromogenic refers to color photographic processes in which a traditional silver image is first formed, and then later replaced with a colored dye image. ... C-41 is the name given to the process for developing a specific type of color print film used in photography and often to the type of film itself. ... Logo celebrating Technicolors 90th Anniversary Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation (a subsidiary of Technicolor, Inc. ...

Types of photographs

Non-digital photographs are produced with a two-step chemical process. In the two-step process the film holds a negative image (colors and lights/darks are inverted), which is then transferred onto photographic paper as a positive image. Another widely used film is the positive film used for producing transparencies, usually mounted in cardboard or plastic frames called slides. Slides are widely used by professionals due to their sharpness and accuracy of color rendition. Most photographs published in magazines are taken on color transparency film. Until the advent of digital photographic processes, the sole meaning of photographic paper was paper coated with light-sensitive chemicals. ... A single slide, showing a color transparency in a plastic frame In photography, a transparency is a still, positive image created on a transparent base using photochemical means. ...

Originally all photographs were monochromatic, or hand-painted in color. Although methods for developing color photos were available as early as 1861, they did not become widely available until the 1940s or 50s, and even so, until the 1960s most photographs were taken in black and white. Since then, color photography has dominated popular photography, although the black and white format remains popular for amateur photographers and artists. Black and white film is considerably easier to develop than color. Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...

Panoramic format Images can be taken with special cameras like the Hasselblad Xpan on standard film. Since the 1990s, panoramic photos have been available on the Advanced Photo System film. APS was developed by several of the major film manufacturers to provide a film with different formats and computerized options available, though APS panoramas were created using a mask in panorama-capable cameras, far less desirable than a true panoramic camera which achieves its effect through wider film format. APS has become less popular and will be discontinued. The term panoramic format is used to refer to high aspect ratio or wide screen image format. ... This article is about Victor Hasselblad AB, the Swedish company. ... An Advanced Photo System (IX240) film cartridge Advanced Photo System (APS) is a film format for still photography. ...

The advent of the microcomputer and digital photography has led to the rise of digital prints. These prints are created from stored graphic formats such as JPEG, TIFF, and RAW. The types of printers used include inkjet printers, dye-sublimation printer, laser printers, and thermal printers. The process that use inkjet printers are sometimes given the coined name "Giclée". The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling model of home computer of all time. ... The Nikon Coolpix 950 Casio Exilim Digital photography, as opposed to film photography, uses an electronic sensor to record the image as a piece of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. ... Digital printing is the reproduction of digital images on physical surface, such as common or photographic paper, film, cloth, plastic, etc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Comparison of graphics file formats. ... JPG redirects here. ... This article is about TIFF, the computer image format. ... A camera raw image file contains the unprocessed data from the image sensor of a digital camera. ... An Epson inkjet printer Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. ... Samsung SPP-2040 working. ... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... A thermal printer (or direct thermal printer) produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known, when the paper passes over the thermal print head. ... Peter Paul Rubens The Hippopotamus Hunt printed on paper and canvas stock with the seven Epson pigmented ink printer cartridges used to produce it (printer and prints commonly called Giclée). ...

Myths and superstition

Photographs capture a life-like view of the subject whereas paintings were subject to the interpretations and level of skill of the painter. Thus, since daguerreotypes were rendered on a mirrored surface, many spiritualists also became practitioners of the new art form. Spiritualists would claim that the human image on the mirrored surface was akin to looking into one's soul. The spiritualists also believed that it would open their souls and let demons in.

Myths in rural India

A few people residing in rural India still believe that taking a photograph of a person reduces his lifetime. This myth was spread even among the educated community until the early twentieth century. The idea was abandoned only when they started seeing personalities and leaders as photographs in newspapers.

Another myth is associated with Vallalar, a saint who lived in the British era in South India, that his image could not be captured by a camera. Moreover his image when seen as a reflection in a mirror was reputed to be that of Lord Muruga, the Hindu God who is believed to help human beings to go through difficult times in their life. Vallalar redirects here. ...

See also

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... 10 MP Nikon D200 and a Nikon film scanner The Canon EOS 350D The Canon PowerShot A95 Digital photography, as opposed to film photography, uses electronic devices to record and capture the image as binary data. ... There are a number of ways of measuring the largest photograph in the world. ... A pseudo-photograph is a image produced manually which is indistinguishable from a real photograph produced using a camera. ... Photograph stability discusses the preservation of an image contained in a photograph. ...




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