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Encyclopedia > Photogram
A colour photogram of lemons and tomato stems. The background texture is enlarged paper grain.
A colour photogram of lemons and tomato stems. The background texture is enlarged paper grain.

A photogram is a photographic image made (without a camera) by placing objects directly onto the surface of a photo-sensitive material such as photographic paper and then exposing it to light. The result is a silhouetted image varying in darkness based on the transparency of the objects used, with areas of the paper that have not received any light appearing light and those that have appearing dark, according to the laws of photosensitivity. The image obtained is hence a negative and the effect is often quite similar to an X-Ray. This method of imaging is perhaps most prominently attributed to Man Ray and his exploration of rayographs. Others who have experimented with the technique include László Moholy-Nagy, Christian Schad (who called them "Schadographs"), Imogen Cunningham and even Pablo Picasso. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2231x2953, 2716 KB) A photogram made by placing several slices of lemon directly onto colour photographic paper, thus creating an image of their transparency. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2231x2953, 2716 KB) A photogram made by placing several slices of lemon directly onto colour photographic paper, thus creating an image of their transparency. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A camera is a device used to take pictures (usually photographs), either singly or in sequence, with or without sound recording, such as with video cameras. ... Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons of light. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Man Ray photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Man Ray (August 27, 1890–November 18, 1976) was an American artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France. ... László Moholy-Nagy László Moholy-Nagy (July 20, 1895 – November 24, 1946) was a Hungarian painter and photographer as well as professor in the Bauhaus school. ... Christian Schad (August 21, 1894 in Miesbach, Oberbayern - February 25, 1982) was a German painter associated with the New Objectivity movement. ... Imogen Cunningham (April 12, 1883 - June 24, 1976) was one of the best-known American female photographers. ... Young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ...

Contents

Procedure

Like all photographic processes, photograms require light. The most commonly used source of light for this purpose is the enlarger used in conventional negative printing, but any light source can be used, like, for example, the sun. In the traditional darkroom setting, the paper is held in place using a printing frame. The objects to be used in making the image are placed on top of the paper. When a suitable composition has been found, the enlarger is used to expose the paper (tests will have to be done to check the exposure time and aperture required). Finally, the paper is processed, as normal, in print-developing chemicals, and washed and dried. Photographic Enlarger An enlarger is a specialized transparency projector used to produce photographic prints from film or glass negatives. ... The Sun is the star of our solar system. ... A darkroom is a given space, usually a separate area in a building or a vehicle, that is made dark so as to allow photographers to use light-sensitive materials to develop photographs and film. ...


History

One of Anna Atkins's cyanotype photograms of Festuca grasses
One of Anna Atkins's cyanotype photograms of Festuca grasses

Some of the first photographs ever made were photograms. William Henry Fox Talbot made numerous of these images (which he called "photogenic drawings") by placing leaves and pieces of material, like lace, onto pieces of photo-sensitive paper and then leaving them outdoors on a sunny day to expose, making an overall dark background and a white outline of the object used (which had blocked the light from the paper). Also in the early days of photography, Anna Atkins produced a book of her photograms, the first book of photographs ever made. These were somewhat similar to Talbot's images, in that they were exclusively images of botanical specimens (ie. plants), but they differed significantly in their appearance as they were made by the cyanotype process which made them blue in colour, as opposed to the more conventional brown/black silver halide processes. This book, a one-off, can still be seen in the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television in Bradford, England. Image File history File links Anna_Atkins_grass_cyanotype. ... Image File history File links Anna_Atkins_grass_cyanotype. ... A cyanotype photogram made by Atkins which was part of her 1843 book, British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions Anna Atkins (née Children) (1799-1871), a British botanist, is credited with creating the first ever book of exclusively photographic images, titled British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions, a collection of cyanotype photograms of... Cyanotype is an old monochrome photographic printing process which gives a cyan-blue print. ... William Henry Fox Talbot (February 11, 1800 - September 17, 1877) was one of the first photographers and made major contributions to the photographic process. ... White lace is often used in collars and other fabric borders. ... A cyanotype photogram made by Atkins which was part of her 1843 book, British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions Anna Atkins (née Children) (1799-1871), a British botanist, is credited with creating the first ever book of exclusively photographic images, titled British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions, a collection of cyanotype photograms of... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Cyanotype is an old monochrome photographic printing process which gives a cyan-blue print. ... ... Statistics Population: 293,717 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SE165325 Administration Metropolitan borough: City of Bradford Metropolitan county: West Yorkshire Region: Yorkshire and the Humber Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: West Yorkshire Historic county: Yorkshire (West Riding) Services Police force: West Yorkshire Ambulance service: Yorkshire... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq...


Rayographs

A photogram, similar to those made by Man Ray, of a number of photography-related objects
A photogram, similar to those made by Man Ray, of a number of photography-related objects

Photograms were again used to startling effect in the 20th Century by a number of photographers, particularly Man Ray, who called them "rayographs". His particular style included capitalizing on the stark and unexpected effects of negative imaging, unusual juxtapositions of identifiable objects (such as spoons and pearl necklaces), varying the exposure time given to different objects within a single image, and moving objects as they were exposed. Image File history File links Fotogramm. ... Image File history File links Fotogramm. ... Man Ray photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Man Ray (August 27, 1890–November 18, 1976) was an American artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France. ... Man Ray photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Man Ray (August 27, 1890–November 18, 1976) was an American artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France. ... Juxtaposition (noun) is an act or instance of placing two things close together or side by side. ...


Cameraless photography

An image of leaves created with a scanner
An image of leaves created with a scanner

There exist a large range of techniques to produce photographic images (ie. involving light) without using a camera, including the usage of scanners and photocopying machines - and this is not even including printing processes like modern lithoghraphy or photogravure. Experimentation with such techniques has become popular since the 1960s, when artists like Robert Rauschenberg started to push the boundaries of the photographic image-making process. Even other adaptations of photograms have been experimented with, such as those using birefringence, a process whereby polarized light is used instead of normal light to create an interference pattern of crystals or plastic objects, creating colourful, abstract pictures. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2303x3023, 3853 KB) Summary Image of leaves made with a scanner. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2303x3023, 3853 KB) Summary Image of leaves made with a scanner. ... The term scanner has several meanings: In radio, a scanner is a device for searching for and receiving radio broadcasts. ... The term scanner has several meanings: In radio, a scanner is a device for searching for and receiving radio broadcasts. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... Negative lithography stone and positive print of a map of Munich. ... Photogravure is a type of intaglio printing process used for reproducing monochromatic (black and white) images. ... Robert Rauschenberg (1925-) is a painter, sculptor, and graphic artist known for helping to redefine American art in the 1950s and 60s, providing an alternative to the then-dominant aesthetic of Abstract Expressionism. ... A calcite crystal laid upon a paper with some letters showing the double refraction Birefringence, or double refraction, is the decomposition of a ray of light into two rays (the ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray) when it passes through certain types of material, such as calcite crystals, depending on... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ... Quartz crystal In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Household items made out of plastic. ...


List of main photographers who used the technique

Raoul Hausmann (July 12, 1886–February 1, 1971) was a German painter, sculptor and writer. ... El Lissitzky in a 1924 self-portrait Lazar Markovich Lissitzky â–¶(?) (Лазарь Маркович Лисицкий, November 23, 1890 – December 30, 1941), better known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лисицкий), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, teacher, typographer, and architect. ... László Moholy-Nagy (probably July 28, 1895 – November 24, 1946) was a Hungarian painter and photographer as well as professor in the Bauhaus school. ... Young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... Sigmar Polke Spiderman (Spiderman; Acrylic on paper, mounted on linen. ... Robert Rauschenberg (1925-) is a painter, sculptor, and graphic artist known for helping to redefine American art in the 1950s and 60s, providing an alternative to the then-dominant aesthetic of Abstract Expressionism. ... Man Ray photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Man Ray (August 27, 1890–November 18, 1976) was an American artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France. ... Alexander Rodchenko in his studio wearing industrial suit with the background of spacial constructions, a 1924 photo by Mikhail Kaufman Aleksander Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Russian: ), 5 December 1891 [O.S. 23 November] – December 3, 1956) was a Russian artist, sculptor and photographer. ... Dieter Roth (1930–1998) was a German-born Swiss printmaker and mixed-media artist. ... Christian Schad (August 21, 1894 in Miesbach, Oberbayern - February 25, 1982) was a German painter associated with the New Objectivity movement. ... Kurt Schwitters (June 20, 1887 - January 8, 1948) was a German painter who was born in Hannover, Germany. ... Piet Zwart was a Dutch graphic designer. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Photograms - Art and Design (181 words)
The first period of “photogram” exploration was to gain scientific record of natural objects (e.g.
The second period was a rediscovery of the artistic potential as illustrated by Christian Schad, Man Ray and Lazlo Moholy-Nagy in the Dada, Surrealist and Constructivist periods of art, respectively.
More recently, photogramists have utilized the photogram as a means of artistic expression to produce a wide variety of designs and surreal imagery.
Photogram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (495 words)
A colour photogram of lemons and tomato stems.
A photogram is a photographic image made (without a camera) by placing objects directly onto the surface of a photo-sensitive material such as photographic paper and then exposing it to light.
One of Anna Atkins's cyanotype photograms of Fetucca grasses
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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